Tejano

Tejanos (Pronunciation: [teˈxano]; singular: Tejano/a; Spanish for "Texan") are the Hispanic residents of the state of Texas who are culturally descended from the original Spanish-speaking settlers of Tejas, Coahuila, and other northern Mexican states. They may be variously of Criollo Spaniard or Mestizo origin. Alongside Californios and Neomexicanos, Tejanos are part of the larger Chicano/Mexican-American/Hispano community of the United States, which have lived in the American Southwest (also known as Aztlán) since the 16th century.

Historically, the Spanish term Tejano has been used to identify various groups of people. During the Spanish colonial era, the term was primarily applied to Spanish settlers of the region now known as the state of Texas (first it was part of New Spain and after 1821 it was part of Mexico).[2] After settlers entered from the United States and gained the independence of the Republic of Texas, the term was applied to mostly Spanish-speaking Texans, Hispanicized Germans, and other Spanish-speaking residents.[2] In practice, many members of traditionally Tejano communities often have varying degrees of fluency in Spanish with some having virtually no Spanish proficiency though still considered culturally part of the community.[3]

Since the early 20th century, Tejano has been more broadly used to identify a Texan Mexican American. It is also a term used to identify natives, as opposed to newcomers, in the areas settled. Latino people of Texas identify as Tejano if their families were living there before the area was controlled by Anglo Americans.

Tejanos
Flag of Texas
Total population
7,951,193 (2010 Census)[1])
Regions with significant populations
Texas (Especially San Antonio, El Paso, and South Texas)
Languages
Spanish (American Spanish, Mexican Spanish), English (Texas English, Chicano English), Caló, Indigenous languages of Mexico
Religion
Predominantly Roman Catholic
Related ethnic groups
Other Chicanos and Hispanos
of the United States:

Californios, Neomexicanos
Other Hispanic and Latino peoples:
Chicanos, Mexican Americans, Mexicans, Spaniards, Indigenous Mexican American, Spanish Americans, Louisiana Criollos, Louisiana Isleños

History

Spanish government

As early as 1519, Alonso Alvarez de Pineda claimed the area which is now Texas for Spain. The Spanish monarchy paid little attention to the province until 1685. In that year, the Crown learned of a French colony in the region and worried that it might threaten Spanish colonial mines and shipping routes. King Carlos II sent ten expeditions to find the French colony, but they were unsuccessful. Between 1690 and 1693 expeditions were made to the Texas region, and they acquired better knowledge of it for the provincial government and settlers who came later.

Tejano settlements developed in three distinct regions: the northern Nacogdoches region, the BexarGoliad region along the San Antonio River, and the frontier between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande, an area used largely for ranching. These populations shared certain characteristics, yet they were independent of one another. The main unifying factor was their shared responsibility for defending the northern frontier of New Spain. Some of the first settlers were Isleños from the Canary Islands. Their families were among the first to reside at the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar in 1731 (modern-day San Antonio, Texas). Soon after, they established the first civil government at La Villa de San Fernando.

Ranching was a major activity in the Bexar-Goliad area, which consisted of a belt of ranches that extended along the San Antonio River between Bexar (San Antonio area) and Goliad. The Nacogdoches settlement was located farther north and east. Tejanos from Nacogdoches traded with the French and Anglo residents of Louisiana, and they were culturally influenced by them. The third settlement was located north of the Rio Grande, toward the Nueces River. The ranchers there were citizens of Spanish origin from Tamaulipas and (what is now) northern Mexico, and they identified with Spanish Criollo culture.[4]

In 1840 the northern Mexican states of Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas seceded from Mexico to establish la República del Río Grande (the Rio Grande Republic) with its capital in what is now Laredo, Texas. They did not maintain this status and became part of Mexico again.

Mexican government

By 1821 at the end of the Mexican War of Independence, about 4,000 Tejano lived in Mexican Texas alongside a lesser number of foreign settlers. In addition, several thousand Mexicans lived in the areas of Paso del Norte (now El Paso, Texas) and Nuevo Santander, incorporating hihenery during the 1820s, many settlers from the United States and other nations moved to Mexican Texas, settling mostly in the eastern area. The passage of a national colonization law encouraged immigration, granting them citizenship if they declared loyalty to Mexico. By 1830, the 30,000 recent settlers in Texas (who were primarily English speakers from the United States) outnumbered the Hispanos Tejano six to one.[5]

The Texians and Tejano alike rebelled against attempts by the government to centralize authority in Mexico City and other measures implemented by Santa Anna. Tensions between the central Mexican government and the settlers eventually resulted in the Texas Revolution. The revolution raised tensions in the area between the Tejano and Texians.

20th century

In 1915, insurgents in Mexico wrote a manifesto that was circulated in the town of San Diego, in South Texas. The manifesto "Plan de San Diego" called on Hispanics to reconquer the Southwest and kill the English speakers. Numerous cross-border raids, murders, and sabotage took place. The Texas Rangers suppressed the insurrection. Tejanos strongly repudiated the Plan. According to Benjamin H. Johnson, their desire to affirm their United States loyalty resulted in their founding the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). It was headed by professionals, business leaders, and progressives, and it became the central Tejano organization promoting civic pride and civil rights.[6]

Other sources attribute the founding of the organization in 1929 largely to Tejano veterans of World War I who wanted to improve civil rights for Mexican-American citizens of the United States, who were socially discriminated against in Texas. Only American citizens were admitted as members and there was an emphasis on education and assimilation for advancement.[7][8]

In 1963, Tejanos in Crystal City organized politically and won elections; their candidates dominated the city government and the school board. This move signaled the emergence of modern Tejano politics.[9] In 1969–70, a different Tejano coalition, the La Raza Unida Party, came to office in Crystal City. The new leader was José Angel Gutiérrez, a radical nationalist who worked to form a Chicano nationalist movement across the Southwest, 1969-79. He promoted cultural terminology (Chicano, Aztlan) designed to unite the militants; his movement split into competing factions in the late 1970s.[10]

Etymology and usage

In the Spanish language, the term tejano is used to identify an individual from Texas, regardless of race or ethnic background. During the Spanish colonial period of Texas, most colonial settlers of northern New Spain – including Texas, northern Mexico, and the American Southwest – were descendants of Spaniards.[11]

Tejanos may identify as being of Mexican, Chicano/Mexican-American, Spanish, Hispano, or/and Indigenous ancestry.[12] In urban areas, as well as some rural communities, Tejanos tend to be well integrated into both the Hispanic and mainstream American cultures. A number, especially among younger generations, identify more with the mainstream and may understand little or no Spanish.

Most of the people whose ancestors colonized Texas and the northern Mexican states during the Spanish colonial period identified with the Spaniards, Criollos, or Mestizos those who were born in the colony. Many of the latter find their history and identity in both the history of Spain, Mesoamerica and the history of the United States, as a consequence of the participation by Spain's colonial provinces (Spanish Texas and Spanish Louisiana) in the American Revolutionary War.

Ethnic and national origins

In the 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) data, [13] Tejanos are those Texans descended from pioneer colonists of the Spanish colonial period (before 1821) or descended from Spanish Mexicans and Mexican immigrants.[14]

Colonial Tejanos, who can be correctly identified as Tejano Texians, are descended from the colonists who pioneered Texas as citizens of the Kingdom of Spain through the Spanish Colonial Period starting in the 17th century through the 19th century up to the Texas Revolution, and who were generally of only Spanish heritage, or Hispanicized European heritage, including Frenchmen like Juan Seguin, Italian like Jose Cassiano, or Corsican like Antonio Navarro. Spanish post-colonial settlers stayed in Texas as refugees fleeing Spanish Civil War, and their descendants were even added to the Tejano population. Also represented are Germans, who were heavily concentrated in the Edwards Plateau. The region's Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Danes, Dutch, Swedes, Irish (see also Irish Mexican), Scots, Welsh, and Anglo Americans – who arrived in the 19th century – were also considered Tejanos, as they were Hispanicized. The former two ethnicities (with Germans) would contribute greatly to Tex-Mex music. Some Arabs are also considered Tejanos after Arab Mexicans settled Texas during the Mexican Revolution. Natives of Texas with Spanish surnames and with Native American-Hispanic, and non-Spanish white American blood may be considered Tejanos as well.

Crypto-Jews, (see Crypto-Judaism) are descendants of Spanish Jews who were compelled to become Christian. They choose to remain hidden since the Spanish and Mexican Inquisitions, but practice secret Jewish rites in privacy. (Library of Congress, Microfiche 7906177). Safarditas are found particularly in the northern state of Nuevo León, Mexico, the American Southwest i.e., New Mexico, Arizona, and South Texas (formerly part of Nuevo León, Spain/Mexico and Tejas).

Culture

Music

Genuine Tejano music is related to, and sounds more like, the folk music of Louisiana, known as "Cajun music", blended with the sounds of rock and roll, R&B, pop, and country and with Mexican influences such as mariachi. Sunny and the Sunglows, including Rudy Guerra, were originators of the genre. The American cowboy culture and music was born from the meeting of the European-American Texians, colonists mostly from the American South, and the original Tejano pioneers and their "vaquero" or "cowboy" culture.[15][16][17][18]

Food

The cuisine that would come to be known as "Tex-Mex" originated with the Tejanos. It developed from Spanish and North American indigenous commodities with influences from Mexican cuisine.[19]

Tex-Mex cuisine is characterized by its widespread use of melted cheese, meat (particularly beef), beans, and spices, in addition to corn or flour tortillas. Chili con carne, crispy chalupas, chili con queso, enchiladas, and fajitas are all Tex-Mex specialties. A common feature of Tex-Mex is the combination plate, with several of the above on one large platter. Serving tortilla chips and a hot sauce or salsa as an appetizer is also a Tex-Mex development.[20] Cabrito, barbacoa, carne seca, and other products of cattle culture have been common in the ranching cultures of South Texas and northern Mexico. In the 20th century, Tex-Mex took on Americanized elements such as yellow cheese, as goods from the United States became cheap and readily available.[21] Tex-Mex has imported flavors from other spicy cuisines, such as the use of cumin. Cumin is often referred to by its Spanish name, "comino."

A common Tex-Mex breakfast dish served is a "breakfast taco." A breakfast taco consists usually of a thicker-style flour tortilla or traditional corn tortilla and is served using a single fold as opposed to the burrito-style method of completely encasing the ingredients. Some of the typical ingredients used are: eggs, potatoes, cheese, beans, bacon, sausage, barbacoa, and can be eaten using variations of these elements. Breakfast tacos are traditionally served with an optional red or green salsa.

Daniel D. Arreola states that a line of demarcation in the "South Texas Mexican" food region is based on those who use "taco-burrito" or "taco-barbecue". To the west of this line, Mexican food served in a flour tortilla is often called a burrito, due to the influence of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. To the south and east of this line, the same food may be simply called a taco, showing a Tex-Mex influence. To the north, barbecue sandwiches are more popular, reflecting the influx of European, European Americans, and African Americans.[22]

Geography

Most of the Tejanos are concentrated in southern Texas, in historic areas of settlement and closer to the border. The city of San Antonio is the historic center of Tejano culture; Bexar County and Duval County have some of the historically highest concentrations of Tejanos.

Notable people

Tejanos of Colonial origin or descent

Settlers and descendants:

Other Tejanos

See also

References

  1. ^ US Census Bureau: Table QT-P10 Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 retrieved January 22, 2015 - select state from drop-down menu
  2. ^ a b "The Texian Web - Texas History on the Internet". Tamu.edu. Retrieved 2016-07-02.
  3. ^ "Do You Speak American . Sea to Shining Sea . American Varieties . Texan . Drawl - PBS". pbs.org.
  4. ^ Tejano Origins in Mexican Texas Archived 2008-05-09 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Tejano Patriots". bexargenealogy.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-02. Retrieved 2008-10-04.
  6. ^ Johnson, Benjamin H. (2003). Revolution in Texas: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression turned Mexicans into Americans.
  7. ^ Gutierrez, David G. (March 1995). Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20219-1, p. 9
  8. ^ Orozco, Cynthia E. (2009). No Mexicans, Women, or Dogs Allowed: The Rise of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-72132-6.
  9. ^ Miller, Michael V. (1975). "Chicano Community Control in South Texas: Problems And Prospects". Journal of Ethnic Studies. 3 (3): 70–89.
  10. ^ Jensen, Richard J.; Hammerback, John C. (1980). "Radical Nationalism Among Chicanos: The Rhetoric of José Angel Gutiérrez". Western Journal of Speech Communication: WJSC. 44 (3): 191–202.
  11. ^ Census and Inspection Report of 1787 of the Colony of Nuevo Santander, performed by Dragoon Captain Jose Tienda de Cuervo, Knight of the Order of Santago, with Historical Report by Fray Vicente Santa Maria.
  12. ^ Tejano History Archived 2008-01-07 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Hispanics in Texas-Tejanos
  14. ^ Richard G. Santos (2000). Silent Heritage: The Sephardim and the Colonization of the Spanish North American Frontier 1492-1600. New Sepharad Press. p. 385.
  15. ^ Hill, Gene. Americans All, Americanos Todos. Añoranza Press.
  16. ^ Chavez’, Gilbert Y. Cowboys-Vaqueros, Origins of the First American Cowboys.
  17. ^ Clayton, Lawrence (2001). Vaqueros, Cowboys and Buckaroos.
  18. ^ Loya, Alex. The Legacy and Heritage of the Spaniard Texians. chapter 15.
  19. ^ Juan de Oñate from the Handbook of Texas Online
  20. ^ Mexicans in the U.S.A: Mexican-American / Tex-Mex Cousine; by Etienne MARTINEZ
  21. ^ Robb Walsh. The Tex-Mex Cookbook (New York, Broadway Books, 2004), XVI
  22. ^ Arreola, Daniel David (2002). Tejano South Texas: A Mexican American Cultural Province. University of Texas Press. pp. 174–175. ISBN 0-292-70511-5.
  23. ^ Interview with Sarah Shahi
  24. ^ thelwordonline.com

Further reading

  • Alonzo, Armando C. Tejano Legacy: Rancheros and Settlers in South Texas, 1734-1900 (1998)
  • Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft,
  • Buitron Jr., Richard A. The Quest for Tejano Identity in San Antonio, Texas, 1913-2000 (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Chávez, John R. The Lost Land: The Chicano Image of the Southwest (Albuquerque, 1984)
  • De León, Arnoldo. They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821–1900 (Austin, 1983)
  • De León, Arnoldo. Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History, 2nd ed. (1999)
  • García, Richard A. Rise of the Mexican American Middle Class: San Antonio, 1929-1941 1991
  • Montejano, David. Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986 (1987)
  • Navarro, Armando. Mexican American Youth Organization: Avant-Garde of the Movement in Texas (University of Texas Press, 1995)
  • Ramos, Ratil A. Beyond the Alamo: Forging Mexican Ethnicity in San Antonio, 1821-1861 (University of North Carolina Press, 2008)
  • San Miguel, Guadalupe. Tejano Proud: Tex-Mex Music in the Twentieth Century (2002)
  • Taylor, Paul S. Mexican Labor in the United States. 2 vols. 1930-1932, on Texas
  • Stewart, Kenneth L., and Arnoldo De León. Not Room Enough: Mexicans, Anglos, and Socioeconomic Change in Texas, 1850-1900 (1993)
  • de la Teja, Jesús F. San Antonio de Béxar: A Community on New Spain's Northern Frontier (1995).
  • Tijerina, Andrés. Tejanos and Texas under the Mexican Flag, 1821-1836 (1994),
  • Tijerina, Andrés. Tejano Empire: Life on the South Texas Ranchos (1998).
  • Timmons, W. H. El Paso: A Borderlands History (1990).
  • Weber, David J. The Mexican Frontier, 1821-1846: The American Southwest under Mexico (1982)

Politics

  • Guglielmo, Thomas A. "Fighting for Caucasian Rights: Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and the Transnational Struggle for Civil Rights in World War II Texas," Journal of American History, 92 (March 2006) in History Cooperative
  • MacDonald, L. Lloyd Tejanos in the 1835 Texas Revolution (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Márquez, Benjamin. LULAC: The Evolution of a Mexican American Political Organization (1993)
  • Marquez, Benjamin; Espino, Rodolfo. "Mexican American support for third parties: the case of La Raza Unida," Ethnic & Racial Studies (Feb 2010) 33#2 pp 290–312. (online)
  • Navarro, Armando. La Raza Unida Party: A Chicano Challenge to the U.S. Two Party Dictatorship (Temple University Press, 2000)
  • Quintanilla, Linda J., “Chicana Activists of Austin and Houston, Texas: A Historical Analysis” (PhD University of Houston, 2005). Order No. DA3195964.
  • de la Teja, Jesus F. ed. Tejano Leadership in Mexican and Revolutionary Texas (Texas A&M University Press, 2010) 274pp excerpt and text search

Religion

  • Martinez, Juan Francisco. Sea La Luz: The Making of Mexican Protestantism in the American Southwest, 1829-1900 (2006)
  • Matovina, Timothy. Guadalupe and Her Faithful: Latino Catholics in San Antonio, from Colonial Origins to the Present (2005). 232 pp.
  • Matovina, Timothy M. Tejano Religion and Ethnicity, San Antonio, 1821-1860 (1995)
  • Trevino, Roberto R. The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston. (2006). 308pp.

Women

  • Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. Women of the Depression: Caste and Culture in San Antonio 1984. excerpt and text search
  • Deutsch, Sarah No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on the Anglo-Hispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880-1940 1987
  • Dysart, Jane. "Mexican Women in San Antonio, 1830-1860: The Assimilation Process" Western Historical Quarterly 7 (October 1976): 365-375. in JSTOR
  • Fregoso; Rosa Linda. Mexicana Encounters: The Making of Social Identities on the Borderlands (2003)

Historiography

  • Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography," Reviews in American History 34.4 (2006) 521-528 in Project Muse
Amor Prohibido

Amor Prohibido (English: Forbidden Love) is the fourth studio album by American singer Selena, released on March 13, 1994, by EMI Latin. Having reached a core fan base, the label aimed to broaden her appeal with the next

studio release. Finding it challenging to write a follow-up hit after "Como la Flor" (1992), Selena's brother A. B. Quintanilla enlisted the assistance from band members Ricky Vela and Pete Astudillo with writing the album's songs. The resulting album has a more mature sound featuring experimental production that blends diverse musical styles from ranchera to hip-hop music. Amor Prohibido is a Tejano cumbia album modernized with a synthesizer-rich delivery using a minimalist style that was quintessential in early 1990s Tejano music.

The album's songs deal with dysfunctional and volatile relationships; its lyrics explore unrequited love, cheating partners, and social division. With relatively few love songs, Amor Prohibido narrates a woman's struggles and triumphs following unsuccessful relationships with men who struggle with commitment. The album continued the singer's streak of number one singles on the United States Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart with the title track "Amor Prohibido"— which became the most successful US Latin single of 1994, a feat she repeated the following year with "No Me Queda Más". Along with the latter, "Bidi Bidi Bom Bom" and "Fotos y Recuerdos" also topped the US Latin chart, and together with "Si Una Vez" are regarded as Selena's signature recordings.

When the album tour broke attendance records at the Houston Astrodome and attracted a record-breaking crowd at Miami's Calle Ocho Festival, Selena became recognized as one of the biggest US Latin touring acts at that time. Amor Prohibido became the first Tejano record to peak at number one on the Billboard Top Latin Albums chart, remaining in the top five for 98 consecutive weeks. The album holds the record for most weeks at number one on Billboard's Regional Mexican Albums chart at 97 nonconsecutive weeks, as well as crowning the chart in four different calendar years. Amor Prohibido received critical acclaim, it is considered to be Selena's best work and her band's "crowning achievement". The album's sound received the highest acclaim, it was noted by critics to have retained its innovative spirit well into the 21st century. Amor Prohibido is credited with catapulting Tejano music into mainstream success resulting in sales to listeners previously unfamiliar with the genre. Amor Prohibido was nominated for Best Mexican-American Album at the 36th Grammy Awards. The record took Album of the Year honors at the 1995 TMA's and the Lo Nuestro Award for Best Regional Mexican Album.

In March 1995, Selena was murdered by her friend and former manager of her Selena Etc. boutiques. The record re-entered the Billboard 200 chart, peaking at number 29 and was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). Within three weeks, it was certified platinum, and was re-certified by the RIAA as 36× platinum (Latin), denoting 2.14 million album-equivalent units sold. Amor Prohibido is the second-highest certified Latin album in the United States trailing only her posthumous album Dreaming of You (1995), the fourth best-selling Latin album in the US, the best-selling Tejano recording of the 1990s, and remains the best-selling Tejano recording of all time. Amor Prohibido has been ranked among the most essential Latin recordings of the past 50 years by Billboard magazine. NPR ranked the album number 19 on their list of the 150 greatest albums made by women; it was the highest-ranking album by a female Latin artist, and ninth highest-ranking recording by a woman of color.

Chris Pérez

Christopher Gilbert Pérez (born August 14, 1969) is an American guitarist, songwriter and author best known as lead guitarist for the Tejano band Selena y Los Dinos. He married the frontwoman of the group, Selena, on April 2, 1992. Pérez grew up in San Antonio, Texas as one of two children of Gilbert Pérez and Carmen Medina. In 1986, he joined Shelly Lares' band. By the late 1980s, Pérez was reputed among Tejano musicians for his guitar skills. This caught A.B. Quintanilla's attention; at the time, Quintanilla was seeking another guitarist for the band he produced, Selena y Los Dinos. Between one and two years after Pérez joined the band, he and Selena began a personal relationship.

Selena's father, Abraham Quintanilla Jr., forced them to end their relationship because he felt Pérez' image might damage Selena's career. They ignored his threats to disband the group, and continued their relationship. Quintanilla Jr. fired Pérez from the band, forbidding Selena to go with him. They later eloped, and Selena's father accepted the relationship and he grew to love and accept Chris as his son-in-law. Pérez was asked to collaborate on several of Selena's songs with A.B. and other members of the band, using his guitar to piece out melodies and incorporating a number of musical genres into their songs.

During the early 1990s, Pérez was arrested for driving under the influence in San Antonio, but was released without charge. Within months of his first arrest, Pérez was involved in a trashed-hotel-room incident; he and two members of Selena y Los Dinos were intoxicated and began wrestling in a room, breaking the door and punching holes in the walls. On March 31, 1995 Selena was killed by her former friend and former manager of her boutiques, Yolanda Saldívar. Selena's murder greatly devastated Pérez, who began abusing drugs and alcohol. Chris has since remained in touch with the Quintanillas following Selena's death.

In 1998 he met Vanessa Villanueva through his friend John Garza, and began dating her. That year, Pérez formed the Chris Pérez Band and began writing songs for their debut album. They signed with Hollywood Records and released their first album, Resurrection, which won a Grammy Award for Best Latin Rock or Alternative Album. The band disbanded after their second album, Una Noche Mas (2002), was released. Pérez and Villanueva had two children, Cassie and Noah, before divorcing in 2008. Pérez continued in the music business and often played with his brother-in-law A.B.'s groups, the Kumbia Kings and the Kumbia All Starz. He left both groups and formed another band (the Chris Pérez Project, which included Puerto Rican singer Angel Ferrer) in 2010. In 2012, Pérez wrote a book about his relationship with Selena, entitled "To Selena, with Love." It received a positive reception from critics and fans.

Conjunto

The term conjunto (Spanish pronunciation: [koŋˈxunto], literally group, ensemble) refers to several types of small musical ensembles present in different Latin American musical traditions, mainly in Mexico and Cuba. While Mexican conjuntos play styles such as norteño and tejano, Cuban conjuntos specialize in the son, as well as its derivations such as salsa.

Emilio Navaira

Emilio H. Navaira III (August 23, 1962 – May 16, 2016) was an American singer-songwriter of Tejano and country music. He is the winner of one Grammy Award and one Latin Grammy Award.

Known to most by the mononym Emilio, he charted more than ten singles on the Billboard Hot Latin Tracks charts, in addition to six singles on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks charts. Emilio was also one of the few Tejano artists to have significant success in both the United States and Mexico, and was called the "Garth Brooks of Tejano". His biggest country hit was the No. 27 "It's Not the End of the World" in late 1995, and his highest-charting single on any chart is "Por Siempre Unidos," which peaked at No. 7 on Latin Pop Airplay in 1996. Along with Selena, Emilio was one of the most prominent artists that helped popularize Tejano music.

Entre a Mi Mundo

Entre a Mi Mundo (English: Enter My World) is the third studio album by American singer Selena, released on May 6, 1992, by EMI Latin. In his recording debut with Selena y Los Dinos, guitarist Chris Pérez had fallen in love with Selena—which Selena's father and manager of the group, Abraham Quintanilla, Jr., disapproved of—and Pérez and Selena eloped on April 2, 1992, after Abraham fired Pérez from the band. Abraham later apologized, accepted Pérez and Selena's relationship, and accepted Pérez as a member of the band. Selena's brother and music producer, A.B. Quintanilla, oversaw production of Entre a Mi Mundo. A.B. also composed most of the tracks on the album along with band members Ricky Vela and Pete Astudillo. The group members' diverse backgrounds aided in the diversity of the genres explored on Entre a Mi Mundo, making it the band's most innovative recording. It includes music genres ranging from synthesized Tejano cumbia to R&B and rock music.

The album's lyrics emphasize female empowerment and self-assertion, while it explores themes such as unrequited love, cheating partners, and teen romance. Entre a Mi Mundo was promoted through live performances in the United States, as well as a high-profile border press tour in Mexico. Selena's performance in Mexico garnered the singer critical acclaim from the Mexican media, who touted the singer as "an artist of the people". She was called the biggest Tejano act in the country after her performance in Nuevo Leon attracted 70,000 attendees. Entre a Mi Mundo received generally positive reviews by music critics, who called it her "breakthrough album". It peaked atop the US Billboard Regional Mexican Albums chart for eight consecutive months. It was named the second best-selling regional Mexican album of all time by Billboard magazine, and it became the first album by a female Tejano singer to sell 300,000 units, becoming the best-selling female Tejano record of all-time; her 1994 album Amor Prohibido broke this record. Entre a Mi Mundo has been certified Diamond (Latin) by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).

Four singles were released from Entre a Mi Mundo; the career-launching single "Como la Flor", "La Carcacha", "¿Qué Creías?", and "Ámame". The former peaked at number six on the US Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart, becoming what was then the highest-peaking single of her career. "Como la Flor" is regarded by music critics to have propelled Selena's career in Mexico. The song has also been called her signature song and her most popular recording. "La Carcacha" gained posthumous popularity, while "¿Qué Creías?" and "Ámame" peaked within the Hot Latin Songs chart top 30. The album won the Tejano Music Award for Album of the Year — Orchestra at the 1993 Tejano Music Awards and tied with La Mafia's Estas Tocando Fuego for Best Regional Mexican Album at the 1993 Lo Nuestro Awards.

Flaco Jiménez

Leonardo "Flaco" Jiménez (born March 11, 1939) is a Norteño, Tex Mex and Tejano music accordionist and singer from San Antonio, Texas.

Grammy Award for Best Regional Mexican Music Album (including Tejano)

The Grammy Award for Best Regional Mexican Music Album (including Tejano) is an award presented at the Grammy Awards, a ceremony that was established in 1958 and originally called the Gramophone Awards, to recording artists for releasing albums in the regional Mexican or tejano genres. Honors in several categories are presented at the ceremony annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States to "honor artistic achievement, technical proficiency and overall excellence in the recording industry, without regard to album sales or chart position".In 2012, the award - then known as "Best Regional Mexican or Tejano Album" - was one of the new categories that resulted from the Recording Academy's wish to decrease the list of categories and awards for that year. According to the Academy, "it was determined that musical distinctions among some of the regional Mexican subgenres were often very difficult to draw, so the restructuring in categories was warranted". This award combined the previous categories for Best Regional Mexican Album and Best Tejano Album. Other Latin categories were also either merged or discontinued.

Further restructuring took place in 2012 and was implemented in the 2013 Grammy Award season. As of 2013, this category was merged with the Best Banda or Norteño Album category which had been created in 2012. According to the Academy, "Best Banda or Norteño Album and Best Regional Mexican or Tejano Album are now merged into one category: "Best Regional Mexican Music Album (including Tejano)", for albums containing at least 51 percent playing time of new vocal or instrumental regional Mexican (banda, norteño, corridos, gruperos, mariachi, ranchera, and Tejano) recordings." As a result, this category is now named Best Regional Mexican Music Album (including Tejano).

Mexican singer Vicente Fernandez holds the record for the most wins in this category, with two. Mariachi Divas de Cindy Shea holds the record for the most nominations, with five. As of 2019, Mexican band Banda el Recodo is the most nominated act without a win, with three unsuccessful nominations.

Intocable

Intocable (Untouchable) is an American Tejano music and Norteño musical group from Zapata, Texas that was started by friends Ricardo Javier Muñoz and René Orlando Martínez in the early 1990s. In a few years, Intocable rose to the top of the Tejano and Norteño fields with a musical signature that fused Tejano's robust conjunto and Norteño folk rhythms with a pop balladry. Intocable is perhaps the most influential group in Tejano and their tough Tejano/Norteño fusion has become the blueprint for dozens of Tex-Mex groups. The group's style, which combines romantic, hooky melodies, tight instrumentation and vocal harmony, is consistently imitated by other Tejano and Norteño groups, including Imán, Costumbre, Solido, Estruendo, Intenso, Duelo and Zinzero.

Career accomplishments include four consecutive sold-out nights at Mexico City's prestigious Auditorio Nacional and the group's 2003 headlining appearance at Reliant Stadium in Houston, which drew a record 70,104 fans. They also play every year as tradition with two sold-out dates (lately three) at the 10,000-capacity Monterrey Arena in Monterrey, Mexico —an unusual accomplishment given that Norteño groups typically play large dance halls and rarely arenas unless it's an all day festival event. Intocable has also won at least eight of Univision's Premio Lo Nuestro awards. They received their first Grammy win in February 2005 at the 47th Annual Grammys (Grammy Award for Best Mexican/Mexican-American Album; Intimamente) and second at the 53rd annual Grammys for their album Classic.

They were the first of their genre to play at Dallas Cowboys Stadium, at the halftime show of the 2011 Dallas Cowboys vs. Washington Redskins game, also at The Greek Theatre, Los Angeles. They garnered two of the 5 nominations to the Billboard Regional Mexican Awards and got a nod for Best Norteño Album to the 2011 Latin Grammy for their album INTOCABLE 2011. They were also nominated for a Grammy for the album. INTOCABLE 2011 was released under the group's own music label Good-i Music and the first two singles, Robarte Un Beso and Prometí, went to Number 1 on US regional radio charts. The 3rd single Arrepientete also did very well on radio and their 4th single Llueve was premiered live onstage at the 2012 Premio lo Nuestro where the group swept with all three categories they were nominated for.

On October 12, 2015, Intocable made history, by streaming a showcase for the whole world, in which more than 22,000 people enjoyed a unique evening from the comfort of their homes. 100% of the proceeds were donated to St. Jude Hospital to help children affected with cancer; there the inception of #AyudaAAyudar was formed and will continue to do events to raise funds for this noble cause.

On January 23, 2016, Intocable announced their partnership with St.Jude, a pledge first of its kind in the music industry. After witnessing firsthand the groundbreaking research done at St. Jude, Intocable knew they had to help the organization in any capacity possible. Today, their support will not only create awareness for the cause, but their pledge of support will contribute to assure that families pay for nothing and can focus on letting their child live.

Intocable headlined SXSW 2016 SXAmericas All Latino Showcase, making Intocable the first Latino artist to headline this three-day series of charity beneficiary concert events. The group took over the largest SXSW stage, which attracted more than 50,000 attendees over the three-day period.

In the early 1990s, the band's first indie albums barely sold. In February 1994 their album Fuego Eterno, with new label EMI Latin, had notable sales. The music of Ramón Ayala influenced the direction of the band. The band's lead vocalist and accordion player, Ricky Muñoz has stated that Ayala is his biggest inspiration. In 1997, the band suffered a setback when two members of the band left to form their own group—Johnny Lee Rosas, (bajo sexto and 2nd voice), and Albert Ramirez, (bass), formed Grupo Masizzo. Rosas rejoined the group in 2003 after four successful solo albums.

KXTN-FM

KXTN-FM (107.5 MHz) is a commercial FM radio station in San Antonio, Texas. The station is owned by Univision and it airs a Tejano radio format. DJs speak in both Spanish and English. Studios and offices are located on Network Boulevard in Northwest San Antonio. The transmitter site is in Elmendorf, Texas, on Elmendorf-Lavonia Road.KXTN broadcasts in the HD Radio format. Its HD2 subchannel carries the Spanish-language all-sports programming from co-owned AM 1350 KCOR. KXTN is the Spanish-language FM flagship station for the San Antonio Spurs basketball team. During game broadcasts, KXTN continues to air Tejano music through the Uforia app, while the FM signal carries the Spurs' play-by-play.

Lydia Mendoza

Lydia Mendoza (May 31, 1916 – December 20, 2007) was an American guitarist and singer of Tejano, conjunto, and traditional Mexican-American music. She is known as "La Alondra de la Frontera" (or "The Lark of the Border" in English).

Mazz

Mazz is a Tejano band originally from Brownsville, Texas. The band was known for their idiosyncratic and innovative form of Tejano cumbia which made them distinguishable among their counterparts. Mazz became one of the most popular Tejano music bands during the genre's 1990s golden age. Mazz won the Latin Grammy Award for Best Tejano Album in 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, and in 2009, the most wins for a Tejano musician. They landed their first major recording contract with EMI Latin in the early 1990s, before switching to Freddie Records in 1999. Joe Lopez and Jimmy Gonzalez formed Mazz in 1978 before disbanding and creating smaller bands throughout their careers. Gonzalez was known for blending a variety of genres into his basic Tejano sound, a formula he continued to use up until his final release, Porque Todavía te Quiero (2018). Gonzalez was pronounced dead in San Antonio, Texas on June 6, 2018, after suffering from low blood sugar as a result of his diabetes.

Murder of Selena

Selena Quintanilla-Pérez was an American singer who achieved international fame as a member of Selena y Los Dinos and for her subsequent solo career in both Spanish and English. Her father and manager, Abraham Quintanilla, appointed Yolanda Saldívar president of Selena's fan club in 1991 after Saldívar had repeatedly asked permission to start one. In January 1994, Saldívar was promoted to manager of the singer's boutiques. Selena's employees, fashion designer, and cousin began complaining about Saldívar's management style. In January 1995, Quintanilla Jr. began receiving telephone calls and letters from angry fans who had sent membership payments and had received nothing in return. He began investigating their complaints and found evidence that Saldívar had embezzled $60,000 from the fan club and the boutiques using forged checks. After the Quintanilla family confronted her, Saldívar bought a gun, lured Selena to a motel room, and shot her in the back. Although doctors tried to revive Selena, she was pronounced dead from loss of blood and cardiac arrest.

The Latino community was deeply affected by the news of Selena's death; some people traveled thousands of miles to visit her home, boutiques, and the crime scene, while churches with large congregations of Latinos held prayers in her name. All major television networks in the United States interrupted their regular programming to break the news. The public's reaction to Selena's death was compared to those that followed the deaths of John Lennon, Kurt Cobain, and John F. Kennedy. Some Americans who were unaware of the singer and her popularity criticized the attention she and her murder received from both the media and the Latino community. Radio personality Howard Stern mocked Selena's murder, burial, and her mourners and criticized her music, playing her songs with gunshots in the background, causing an uproar among the Latino population. On April 12, 1995—two weeks after her death—then-Texas governor George W. Bush declared her birthday Selena Day in Texas. Some Americans were offended because Selena Day that year coincided with Easter.

At the time of Selena's death, Tejano music was one of the most popular Latin music subgenres in the United States. She was called the "Queen of Tejano music" and became the first Latino artist to have a predominantly Spanish-language album—Dreaming of You (1995)—debut and peak at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart. After her death, the popularity of Tejano music waned. During Saldívar's trial for the murder—called the "trial of the century" and the most important trial for the Latino population—Saldívar said she accidentally shot Selena while attempting suicide. Saldívar was found guilty of murder and was sentenced to life imprisonment. Jennifer Lopez was cast as Selena in a 1997 biopic film about her life and achieved fame after the film's release.

Regional Mexican

Regional Mexican is a Latin music radio format, typically including Banda, Conjunto, Corridos, Duranguense, Grupero, Huapango, Mariachi, New Mexico music, Norteña, Ranchera, and Tejano music. It is the most popular radio format targeting Hispanic Americans in the United States.The large number of immigrants from Northern Mexico can lead to an emphasis upon Norteña on Regional Mexican radio stations, though markets with larger Hispanic audiences can have multiple stations. Regional Mexican music includes a number of subgenres, each one with its unique history.

Selena

Selena Quintanilla-Pérez (Spanish: [seˈlena kintaˈniʝa ˈpeɾes]; April 16, 1971 – March 31, 1995) was an American singer, songwriter, spokesperson, model, actress, and fashion designer. Called the Queen of Tejano music, her contributions to music and fashion made her one of the most celebrated Mexican-American entertainers of the late 20th century. Billboard magazine named her the top-selling Latin artist of the 1990s decade, while her posthumous collaboration with MAC cosmetics became the best-selling celebrity collection in cosmetics history. Media outlets called her the "Tejano Madonna" for her clothing choices. She also ranks among the most influential Latin artists of all time and is credited for catapulting a music genre into the mainstream market.The youngest child of the Quintanilla family, she debuted on the music scene in 1980 as a member of the band Selena y Los Dinos, which also included her elder siblings A.B. Quintanilla and Suzette Quintanilla. Selena began recording professionally in 1982. In the 1980s, she was often criticized and was refused bookings at venues across Texas for performing Tejano music—a male-dominated music genre. However, her popularity grew after she won the Tejano Music Award for Female Vocalist of the Year in 1987, which she won nine consecutive times. Selena signed with EMI Latin in 1989 and released her self-titled debut album the same year, while her brother became her principal music producer and songwriter.

Selena released Entre a Mi Mundo (1992), which peaked at number one on the US Billboard Regional Mexican Albums chart for eight consecutive months. The album's commercial success led music critics to call it the "breakthrough" recording of her musical career. One of its singles, "Como la Flor", became one of her most popular signature songs. Live! (1993) won Best Mexican/American Album at the 1994 Grammy Awards, becoming the first recording by a female Tejano artist to do so. In 1994, Selena released Amor Prohibido, which became one of the best-selling Latin albums in the United States. It was critically acclaimed as being responsible for Tejano music's first marketable era as it became one of the most popular Latin music subgenres at the time. Amor Prohibido has been ranked among the most essential Latin recordings of the past 50 years by Billboard magazine while the publication nominated it for its list of the top 100 albums of all-time. It ranked number 19 on NPR's list of the 150 greatest albums made by women.

Aside from music, Selena was active in her community and donated her time to civic causes. Coca-Cola appointed her its spokesperson in Texas. Selena became a sex icon; she was often criticized for wearing suggestive outfits in light of her comments about being a role model for young women. Selena and her guitarist, Chris Pérez, eloped in April 1992 after her father raised concerns over their relationship. On March 31, 1995, Selena was shot and killed by Yolanda Saldívar, her friend and former manager of her Selena Etc. boutiques. Saldívar was cornered by police when she attempted to flee, and threatened to kill herself, but was convinced to give herself up and was sentenced to life in prison with a possible parole after 30 years. Two weeks later, George W. Bush—governor of Texas at the time—declared Selena's birthday Selena Day in Texas. Her posthumous crossover album, Dreaming of You (1995), debuted atop the Billboard 200, making Selena the first Latin artist to accomplish this feat. In 1997, Warner Bros. released Selena, a film about her life and career, which starred Jennifer Lopez as Selena and Lupe Ontiveros as Saldívar. As of 2015, Selena has sold over 65 million albums worldwide, making her the best-selling female artist in Latin music history.

Selena Live!

Live! or Selena Live! is a live album by American Tejano pop singer Selena, which was released on May 4, 1993 by EMI Latin. The album was re-released on September 22, 2002 as being part of the Selena: 20 Years of Music collection; which included spoken liner notes by her family, friends and her former band members Selena y Los Dinos. Live! includes three cumbia-influenced studio tracks, while the rest of the album consists of live versions of previously released songs. The album was recorded during a free concert at the Memorial Coliseum in Corpus Christi, Texas, on February 7, 1993. It was certified gold (Latin type) by the Recording Industry Association of America in its first year, double platinum (Latin type) in 1995, and gold (standard) in 2002.

Live! led Selena to win a Grammy Award for Best Mexican/American Album at the 36th Grammy Awards, the first Tejano musician to do so. It had won two awards from the 1994 Billboard Latin Music Awards, and three awards at the 1994 Tejano Music Awards. Live! peaked at number one on the US Regional Mexican Albums, number two on the Top Latin Albums and number 79 on the Billboard 200. Soon after the release of Live!, the album received mostly positive reviews from music critics who claimed the album was "foreshadowing" Amor Prohibido (1994), and that Selena was the Mexican equivalent of Madonna. The album spawned three singles, which were simultaneously in the top five positions on the Hot Latin Tracks chart.

Tejano Music Awards

The Tejano Music Awards (TMA) is an accolade created by former arts teacher and musician Rudy Trevino in 1980. The accolade recognizes outstanding performers of Tejano music, a German polka-based Latin music genre recorded in Spanish or English-language. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by Tejano artists and bands and the presentation of all awards. The Tejano Music Awards are annually presented in San Antonio, Texas, though the ceremony was presented in other host cities such as Eagle Pass, Texas.

The first Tejano Music Awards was held in 1980 and recognized Tejano musicians and recordings of 1980. The ceremony awarded Tejano musicians in 11 categories: Male Vocalist of the Year, Female Vocalist of the Year, Vocal Duo of the Year, Album of the Year – Orchestra, Album of the Year – Conjunto, Single of the Year, Male Entertainer of the Year, Female Entertainer of the Year, Song of the Year, Songwriter of the Year, and Most Promising Band of the Year. Tejano music enjoyed a wider success in the 1990s as it entered in its first renaissance and marketable era. This was due to the popularity of American singer Selena, who was called the "Queen of Tejano music". Selena dominated the female-only awards, while American singer Emilio Navaira was called the "King of Tejano music". The Tejano Music Awards celebrated their "quinceañera" year in 1995 and awarded Tejano musicians in 14 categories.By the 20th annual Tejano Music Awards, the genre suffered and its popularity wane after Selena was shot and killed in 1995. The Lifetime Achievement Award was erected in 1999 and was awarded to Tejano artists to had a major impact on the genre. At the 2005 Tejano Music Awards, the ceremony celebrated their "silver anniversary" and awarded Tejano artists in 14 categories, the most categories since 1995. The 30th annual Tejano Music Awards was celebrated in 2010 with a decade-ballot category, awarding artists in specific categories that they reign in the 1980s, 1990s, and the 2000s. The 2016 Tejano Music Awards is the 36th annual upcoming event, awarding artists in 12 categories. Aside from the awards ceremony, the annual Fan Fair is celebrated weeks in advance from the Tejano Music Awards.

Tejano music

Tejano music or Tex-Mex music (Texan-Mexican music) is various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Mexican-American populations of Central and Southern Texas. With roots in the late 19th century, it became a music genre with a wider audience in the late 20th century thanks to artists such as Selena (often referred to as "The Queen of Tejano"), Mazz, La Mafia, La Sombra, Elida Reyna, Elsa García, Laura Canales, Oscar Estrada, Jay Perez, Emilio Navaira, Esteban "Steve" Jordan, Gary Hobbs, Shelly Lares, Stefani Montiel, David Lee Garza, Jennifer Peña, and La Fiebre.

Texas Syndicate

The Texas Syndicate (Spanish: Sindicato Tejano) is a mostly Texas-based prison gang that includes Hispanic and, at one time, White (non-Hispanic) members. The Texas Syndicate, unlike La Eme or Nuestra Familia, has been more associated or allied with Mexican immigrant prisoners.

It was established in the 1970s at Folsom Prison in California in direct response to the other California prison gangs (notably the Aryan Brotherhood and Mexican Mafia), which were attempting to prey on native Texas inmates. Los Zetas cartel has been known to hire US gangs such as the Texas Syndicate and MS-13 to carry out contract killings.

Ven Conmigo (album)

Ven Conmigo (English: Come with Me) is the second studio album by American singer Selena, released on October 6, 1990, by EMI Latin. The singer's brother, A.B. Quintanilla remained her principal record producer and songwriter after her debut album's moderate success. Selena's Los Dinos band composed and arranged seven of the album's ten tracks; local songwriter Johnny Herrera also provided songs for Selena to record. Ven Conmigo contains half cumbias and half rancheras, though the album includes other genres. Its musical compositions are varied and demonstrate an evolving maturity in Selena's basic Tejano sound. The album's structure and track organization were unconventional compared with other Tejano music albums. The songs on Ven Conmigo are mostly love songs or songs following people's struggles after many failed relationships.

After Ven Conmigo's release, the band hired guitarist Chris Pérez who introduced his hard rock sound to the band's music and performances, and further diversified Selena's repertoire. Her promotional tour for the album attracted upwards of 60,000 attendees to her shows, and critics praised the singer's stage presence. The album's single, "Baila Esta Cumbia" was the most played song on local Tejano music radio stations for over a month and helped Selena to tour in Mexico. Ven Conmigo peaked at number three on the US Billboard Regional Mexican Albums chart, her then-highest peaking album. It received critical acclaim, bringing Selena recognition as a Tejano singer and establishing her as a commercial threat.

In October 1991, Ven Conmigo went gold for sales exceeding 50,000 units, making Selena the first female Tejano singer to receive the honor. The event dissolved the male hierarchy in the Tejano music industry, which saw women as commercially inferior. Ven Conmigo received a nomination for the Tejano Music Award for Album of the Year – Orchestra at the 1992 annual event. The album peaked at number 22 on the US Billboard Top Pop Catalog Albums chart after it was ineligible to chart on the Billboard 200. In October 2017, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) certified the album triple platinum, denoting 180,000 album-equivalent units sold in the United States.

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