Tefik Mborja

Tefik Selim Mborja (6 November 1891-1 July 1954) was an Albanian politician and lawyer. He served as the general secretary of the Albanian Fascist Party during the Second World War.[1]

Tefik Mborja
Tefik Mborja (portrait)
Born
Tefik Selim Mborja

6 November 1891
Died1 July 1954
NationalityAlbanian
OccupationPolitician, diplomat
Known forAlbanian Fascist Party

Biography

Tefik Mborja was born in 1888, in Mborje, Vilayet of Monastir, Ottoman Empire (today Albania).[2] Mborja was a member of parliament during the interbellum years. A staunch opponent of Ahmet Zogu, he supported Fan Noli. Mborja was served as Noli's representative in Rome from 1924. He was assigned to establish the diplomatic relations with Soviet Union, and for this reason he communicate with Soviet representative in Rome Kostantin Juranev.[3] In Italy, he befriended the family of Count Galeazzo Ciano.[1] He studied jurisprudence in Rome.[2]

With the invasion of Albania by Italian forces in 1939, Mborja was appointed new Prefect of the province of Korçë by the Albanian Provisional Committee.[4] When the Albanian Fascist Party was founded within a month of the invasion, Mborja was appointed general secretary of the party by Victor Emmanuel III. The main criteria behind his nomination were the links with the Ciano family that he had cultivated in the 1920s.[1][5]

As the general secretary of the Albanian Fascist Party Mborja was included in the Albanian government as an ex-officio minister.[1] Mborja was able to exercise a certain degree over political influence over government policies through his position in the government. However the Italian fascists retained veto rights over the actions of the Albanian party, and Mborja's work was supervised by Giovanni Giro (inspector-general of the party and a close associate of Benito Mussolini). In theory, according to his official biography, Mborja was supposed to be included in the leadership of the Italian Fascist Party, although was unclear in what function.[1] On May 29, 1939 he was appointed as member of the Italian Chamber of Fasces and Corporations as well as the Central Council of Corporative Economy.[6]

He was arrested in December 1944 by Albanian Communists and sentenced with 20 years by the Special Court of Spring 1945. He was poisoned while in prison and died in 1954.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Fischer, Bernd Jürgen. Albania at War: 1939-1945. London: Hurst, 1999. pp. 45-46
  2. ^ a b c Aliko, Tomor (2007), GENOCIDE ON THE INTELLECTUAL ELITE OF THE ALBANIAN NATION UNDER THE COMMUNIST TERROR (PDF), Tirana: Shtypshkronja "MALUKA", p. 43, archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-30, retrieved 2013-12-28
  3. ^ Robert Clegg Austin (2012), Founding a Balkan State: Albania's Experiment with Democracy, 1920–1925, University of Toronto Press, p. 138, ISBN 9781442644359
  4. ^ Pearson, Owen. Albania and King Zog: Independence, Republic and Monarchy 1908-1939. Albania in the twentieth century, v. 1. London: Centre for Albanian Studies in association with IB Tauris Publishers, 2004. p. 458
  5. ^ Jacques, Edwin E. The Albanians: An Ethnic History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co, 1995. p. 412
  6. ^ Pearson, Owen. Albania and King Zog: Independence, Republic and Monarchy 1908-1939. Albania in the twentieth century, v. 1. London: Centre for Albanian Studies in association with IB Tauris Publishers, 2004. p. 481
1939

1939 (MCMXXXIX)

was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1939th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 939th year of the 2nd millennium, the 39th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1930s decade. This year also marks the start of the Second World War, the largest and deadliest conflict in human history.

Albanian Fascist Party

The Albanian Fascist Party (Albanian: Partia Fashiste e Shqipërisë, or PFSh) was a Fascist organization active during World War II which held nominal power in Albania from 1939, when the country was conquered by Italy, until 1943, when Italy capitulated to the Allies. Afterwards, Albania fell under German occupation, and the PFSh was replaced by the Guard of Greater Albania.

Axis leaders of World War II

The Axis leaders of World War II were important political and military figures during World War II. The Axis was established with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in 1940 and pursued a strongly militarist and nationalist ideology; with a policy of anti-communism. During the early phase of the war, puppet governments were established in their occupied nations. When the war ended, many of them faced trial for war crimes. The chief leaders were Adolf Hitler of Germany, Benito Mussolini of Italy, and Emperor Hirohito of Japan. Unlike what happened with the Allies, there was never a joint meeting of the main Axis heads of government, although Mussolini and Adolf Hitler did meet on a regular basis.

List of political parties in Albania

Albania has a multi-party system with two major political parties and a third party that is electorally successful. According to official data from the Central Election Commission, there were a total of 124 political parties listed in the party registry for the year 2014. Only 54 of these parties participated in the 2015 local elections.

Mborje

Mborje is a settlement in the Korçë County, southeastern Albania. At the 2015 local government reform it became part of the municipality Korçë. It is a southeastern suburb of Korçë.

It is said that thousands of years ago, when the field of Korce was covered by water, (Kenete), Mborje was the center of the civilization. This is also testified by many Palofites (houses built in the water) found there.The area contains some very ancient churches.

The Holy Resurrection Church (Albanian: Kisha e Ristozit), a 14th-century church, is one of the most important cultural monuments of the settlement.

Special Court of Albania, 1945

The Special Court for War Criminals and Enemies of the People (Albanian: Gjyqi Special për Kriminelët e Luftës dhe Armiqtë e Popullit), usually referred only as The Special Court (Albanian: Gjyqi Special), was a Communist court set up during the spring of 1945 (1 March - 13 April) in the newly established Communist Albania, which carried on the trial against those labeled as "people's enemies" and "war criminals". It was based on a decision taken by the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation on 25 December 1944. Like the rest of the Eastern Europe, the purge against "Fascists" and "war criminals" became a central part of the construction of society based on the Soviet model.

Tawfik

Tawfik (Arabic: توفيق‎), or Tewfik, is an Arabic name given to males. The name is derived from the Arabic root: waaw-faa-qaaf (و-ف-ق), which means to agree or to reconcile. Tawfik translates to, "the ability or opportunity to achieve success". A spelling of "Tewfik" or "Toufic" is used more among French speakers. Tawfik can be used as a given name or surname. Since it is considered a "neutral" name in the Arabic language, many Arabic-speaking Christians as well as Muslims are named Tawfik. The Turkish equivalent is Tevfik, the Azerbaijani equivalent is Tofig or Tofiq, the Albanian equivalent is Teufik.

World War II in Albania

In Albania, World War II began with its invasion by Italy in April 1939. Fascist Italy set up Albania as its protectorate or puppet state. The resistance was largely carried out by Communist groups against the Italian (until 1943) and then German occupation in Albania. At first independent, the Communist groups united in the beginning of 1942, which ultimately led to the successful liberation of the country in 1944.

The Center for Relief to Civilian Populations (Geneva) reported that Albania was one of the most devastated countries in Europe. 60,000 houses were destroyed and about 10% of the population was left homeless.

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