Team sport

A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Team members act together towards a shared objective. This can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, communicate, manage conflict, and solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. Examples are basketball, volleyball, rugby, water polo, handball, lacrosse, cricket, baseball, and the various forms of football and hockey.

Australia vs India
Cricket is a popular team sport played at international level
LIF-VIK block
Ice hockey is the most popular winter team sport
Bandy in Medeu Kazakhstan
Based on the number of participating athletes, bandy is the second most popular winter sport in the world[1]

Overview

Team sports are practiced between opposing teams, where the players interact directly and simultaneously between them to achieve an objective. The objective generally involves teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar object in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points.

The meaning of a "team sport" has been disputed in recent years. Some types of sports have different objectives or rules than "traditional" team sports. These types of team sports do not involve teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar item in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points. For example, swimming, rowing, sailing, dragon boat racing, and track and field among others can also be considered team sports.[2] In other types of team sports, there may not be an opposing team or point scoring, for example, mountaineering. Instead of points scored against an opposing team, the relative difficulty of the climb or walk is the measure of the achievement. In some sports where participants are entered by a team, they do not only compete against members of other teams but also against each other for points towards championship standings. For example, motorsport, particularly Formula One. In cycling however, team members whilst still in competition with each other, will also work towards assisting one, usually a specialist, member of the team to the highest possible finishing position. This process is known as team orders and although previously accepted was banned in Formula One[3] between 2002 and 2010. After a controversy involving team orders at the 2010 German Grand Prix however, the regulation was removed as of the 2011 season.[4]

Through the years, the popularity of team sport has continued to grow, positively influencing not just athletes, but also fans, local and national economies. All over the world, the impact of team sport can be seen as professional athletes live out their dreams while serving as role models, youth athletes develop life skills and follow in the footsteps of their role models, fans bond over the love of their teams while supporting their economies with their support.

History

Traces of sprinting as a team sport extend back several thousand years - as evidenced in images in the cave in Lascaux in France which depict people running after animals or vice versa; this was an issue of survival of the fittest.[5]

Pankratiasten in fight copy of greek statue 3 century bC
Ancient Greek wrestlers
WadiSuraHumans
Rock paintings of humans in the cave of swimmers

Organized athletics in Greece traditionally date back to 776 BC, with ongoing activity recorded up to 393 BC. These ancient Olympic Games tested warrior skills and consisted of running, jumping or leaping, wrestling (combat sport), and javelin throw.[6] In the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia, Neolithic-era cave paintings dating to 7000 BC depict a wrestling match surrounded by crowds.[7] Prehistoric cave-paintings in Japan show a sport similar to sumo wrestling.[8] In Wadi Sura, near Gilf Kebir in Libya, a Neolithic rock painting in the cave of swimmers shows evidence of swimming and archery being practiced around 6000 BC.[9]

The term "athlete", according to mythology, derives from the name of Aethlius,[10] the mythological first King of Elis (the location of Olympia) in Greece. The practice of young athletes carrying flaming torches is also traced to the King of Elis, under whose supervision the games took place; some historians regard this as the first record of Olympic sprint racing. Before the start of the races gods were invoked by offerings of mostly fruits and vegetables. The winner of the race was crowned with a wreath of olive or laurel and celery sticks were offered as a trophy. In subsequent years monetary attractions were introduced as prize money. However, the practice of offering celery sticks is still in vogue in the 100 m sprint in the Olympics.[11]

The present-day pattern of Olympic Games resembles the practice followed in ancient times. Sprint was the coveted event. The 200 m sprint is known in Greek as "short foot race". The 400 m race is equivalent to two stades and called diaulos in Greek.[6]

Olympic team sports

Seven team sports are currently on the program of the Summer Olympics. Cricket's inclusion in the 2024 Summer Olympics depends on the decision of the International Cricket Council and its members.[12] A cricket tournament formed part of the Summer Olympics in 1900, although only one match was played, between teams representing Great Britain and France. However, the British team was effectively a club touring side and the French players were drawn partly from expatriates living in Paris.[13]

Ice hockey and curling are team sports at the Winter Olympics together with the bobsleigh competition where the men's event has classes for both two-man and four-man sleds, but the women's class is restricted to two persons only.[14]

All Olympic team sports include competitions for both men and women.

Sport Men Women
First edition Editions First edition Editions
Football at the Summer Olympics Paris 1900 25 Atlanta 1996 5
Water polo at the Summer Olympics Paris 1900 26 Sydney 2000 4
Field hockey at the Summer Olympics London 1908 21 Moscow 1980 8
Bobsleigh at the Winter Olympics Chamonix 1924 24 Salt Lake 2002 4
Curling at the Winter Olympics Chamonix 1924 5 Nagano 1998 4
Ice hockey at the Winter Olympics Chamonix 1924 21 Nagano 1998 4
Basketball at the Summer Olympics Berlin 1936 17 Montreal 1976 9
Handball at the Summer Olympics Berlin 1936 11 Montreal 1976 9
Volleyball at the Summer Olympics Tokyo 1964 12 Tokyo 1964 12
Rugby sevens at the Summer Olympics Rio de Janeiro 2016 1 Rio de Janeiro 2016 1

[15]

See also

References

Footnotes
  1. ^ Bandy versus the 50 Olympic Winter Games Disciplines Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Baofu 2014, p. 202.
  3. ^ "2008 FIA Formula One Sporting Regulations" (PDF). Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  4. ^ "2010 FIA Formula One Sporting Regulations" (PDF). Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  5. ^ Barber 2006, p. 25.
  6. ^ a b Barber 2006, p. 26.
  7. ^ Hartsell, Jeff. "Wrestling 'in our blood". Bulldogs' Luvsandor. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  8. ^ Robert Crego (2003). Sports and Games of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-313-31610-4. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  9. ^ Győző Vörös (2007). Egyptian Temple Architecture: 100 Years of Hungarian Excavations in Egypt, 1907– 2007. American Univ in Cairo Press. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-963-662-084-4. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  10. ^ Compare: Harper, Douglas. "athlete". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 30 May 2018. "athlete (n.) early 15c., from Latin athleta 'a wrestler, athlete, combatant in public games,' from Greek athletes 'prizefighter, contestant in the games,' agent noun from athlein 'to contest for a prize,' related to athlos 'a contest' and athlon 'a prize,' which is of unknown origin."
  11. ^ Barber, Gary (2006). Getting Started in Track and Field Athletics: Advice & ideas for Children, Parents, and Teachers. Victoria, British Columbia: Trafford Publishing. p. 26. ISBN 9781412238472. Retrieved 30 May 2018. Can you imagine that in today's Olympics - 'and the winner of the 100m gets a bunch of celery sticks!'
  12. ^ "Cricket edges closer to Olympic roster". AFP. 11 February 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  13. ^ "Cricket at the 1900 Paris Summer Games". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  14. ^ "BOBSLEIGH". International Olympic Committee. 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  15. ^ Sport, ComeOn. "Sports Tours and tournaments in France and Europe - ComeOn Sport". ComeOnSport. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
Bibliography
Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity. The modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association.

Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may also use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms. The team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA; French: Fédération Internationale de Football Association), which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years.

Balle à la main

Balle à la main is a traditional Picard sport. It is a team sport with two teams of seven players on a called field " ballodrome ". It is a game of gain-ground as Longue paume, which takes place in Picardy.

Balle à la main is played on a rectangular field of 65 meters by 12 meters. As all the ballodromes of the games of gain-ground, we find on the field a line of fire and a rope.

Bando (sport)

Bando is a team sport – related to hockey, hurling, shinty, and bandy – which was first recorded in Wales in the eighteenth century. The game is played on a large level field between teams of up to thirty players each of them equipped with a bando: a curve-ended stick resembling that used in field hockey. Although no formal rules are known, the objective of the game was to strike a ball between two marks which served as goals at either end of the pitch. Popular in Glamorgan in the nineteenth century, the sport all but vanished by the end of the century. Now a minority sport, the game is still played in parts of Wales where it has become an Easter tradition.

Camogie

Camogie (; Irish: camógaíocht) is an Irish stick-and-ball team sport played by women; it is almost identical to the game of hurling played by men. Camogie is played by 100,000 women in Ireland and worldwide, largely among Irish communities.

It is organised by the Dublin-based Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta. UNESCO lists Camogie as an element of Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Cycling team

A cycling team is a group of cyclists who join a team or are acquired and train together to compete in bicycle races whether amateur or professional – and the supporting personnel. Cycling teams are most important in road bicycle racing, which is a team sport, but collaboration between team members is also important in track cycling and cyclo-cross.

Home (sports)

In sports, home is the place and venue identified with a team sport. Most professional teams are named for, and marketed to, particular metropolitan areas; amateur teams may be drawn from a particular region, or from institutions such as schools or universities. When they play in that venue, they are said to be the "home team"; when the team plays elsewhere, they are the away, visiting, or road team. Home teams wear home colors.

Japan Soccer League

Japan Soccer League (日本サッカーリーグ, Nihon Sakkā Rīgu), or JSL, was the top flight football league in Japan between 1965 and 1992, and was the precursor to the current professional league, the J. League. JSL was the second national league of a team sport in Japan after the professional Japanese Baseball League that was founded in 1936. JSL was the first-ever national league of an amateur team sport in Japan.

Kabaddi

Kabaddi is a contact team sport. Played between two teams of seven players, the objective of the game is for a single player on offence, referred to as a "raider", to run into the opposing team's half of a court, tag out as many of their defenders as possible, and return to their own half of the court, all without being tackled by the defenders, and in a single breath. Points are scored for each player tagged by the raider, while the opposing team earns a point for stopping the raider. Players are taken out of the game if they are tagged or tackled, but are brought back in for each point scored by their team from a tag or tackle.

It is popular in the Indian subcontinent and other surrounding Asian countries. Although accounts of kabaddi appear in the histories of both ancient India and ancient Sistan, the game was popularized as a competitive sport in the 20th century by India. It is the state game of the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh. It is also the national sport of Bangladesh.There are two major disciplines of Kabaddi: Punjabi kabaddi, also referred to as "circle style," comprises traditional forms of the sport that are played on a circular field outdoors, while the "standard style," played on a rectangular court indoors, is a discipline played in major professional leagues and international competitions such as the Asian Games.

The game is known by its regional names in different parts of the Indian subcontinent, such as kabaddi or chedugudu in Andhra Pradesh, kabaddi in Maharashtra and Karnataka, Kerala and Telangana, hadudu in Bangladesh, bhavatik in Maldives, kauddi or kabaddi in the Punjab region, hu-tu-tu in Western India, hu-do-do in Eastern India, chadakudu in South India, kapardi in Nepal and kabaddi or sadugudu in Tamil Nadu.

Kin-Ball

Kin-Ball, is a team sport created in Quebec, Canada in 1986 by Mario Demers, a physical education professor, in which the main distinctive characteristics are the large size of the ball (1.22 meters in diameter) and that the matches are played among three teams at the same time instead of traditional one-vs-one like the most of the team games. The International Kin-Ball Federation counts 3.8 million participants, primarily from Canada, the U.S., Japan, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Spain, Germany, Denmark, the Czech Republic, and Malaysia, China. The newest country is the UK. Kin-Ball UK formed in 2018

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Knotty

The game of knotty is a Scottish team sport. It is a variation of the game of shinty as played in the fishing communities of Lybster, Caithness. It used to be played widely in the town, as was shinty in the rest of Caithness, but it ceased to be played around the end of the 19th century, until 1993 when it was revived by local enthusiasts.

It involves a stick (knotty), which can be almost any form of wooden implement, and a cork fishing float as ball with varying sizes of players. Local history books suggest knotty was invented by the fishing wives of Lybster – once one of the Europe's busiest herring ports – to help keep their men sober when they were ashore. However, whilst this would have been a fine side effect of the game, the sport draws from the same prevalence of stick-ball games throughout Scotland at that time, many of which became codified into shinty in other areas.

With the rundown of the industry in the late 19th century, knotty fell into abeyance until local hotelier, the late Bert Mowat, found a copy containing the few rules of the sport wedged between the pages of a Gaelic bible in a bedroom.

Lacrosse

Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball. Players use the head of the lacrosse stick to carry, pass, catch, and shoot the ball into the goal.

The sport has four versions that have different sticks, fields, rules and equipment: field lacrosse, women's lacrosse, box lacrosse and intercrosse. The men's games, field lacrosse (outdoor) and box lacrosse (indoor), are contact sports and all players wear protective gear: helmet, gloves, shoulder pads, and elbow pads. The women's game is played outdoors and does not allow body contact but does allow stick to stick contact. The only protective gear required for women players is eyegear, while goalies wear helmets and protective pads. Intercrosse is a mixed-gender non-contact sport played indoors that uses an all-plastic stick and a softer ball.

The sport is governed by the Federation of International Lacrosse.

Ladies' Gaelic football

Ladies' Gaelic football (Irish: Peil Ghaelach na mBan) is a team sport for women, very similar to Gaelic football, and co-ordinated by the Ladies' Gaelic Football Association. The sport originated in Ireland and is most popular there, although it is played in other countries, often by members of the Irish diaspora.

List of world sports championships

The following is a list of world sports championships, including some sporting events which use a different name with a similar meaning. In some sports, there is a world series, but that term usually has a somewhat different meaning.

Tournaments which are formally defunct or where a further event is not currently planned are marked with a gray background.

Ritinis

Ritinis (also ritinys, rypka, rifle, katilka) is a team sport originating in Lithuania. It is included in the World Lithuanian Games. Ritinis was also represented in the TAFISA World Games.

Tuff TV

Tuff TV was an American digital broadcast television network targeted at men owned by the Tuff TV, Inc. division of Seals Entertainment Corporation. Tuff TV launched on June 30, 2009, and ceased operations August 26, 2018.

Tuff TV carried a mixture of sports (combat, motor and some team sport), lifestyle (outdoors, cooking), automotive, dramas, movies and talk show programming geared mainly at a young male audience. The network carried 3 hours of weekly E/I children’s programming to comply with federal broadcasting regulations. Stations affiliating with Tuff received five minutes of local advertising per hour.

Unicycle hockey

Unicycle hockey is a team sport, similar to roller or inline hockey, except that each player must be mounted on a unicycle to play the ball. A team is composed of five players (plus substitutes), but there is no dedicated goalkeeper role (although one player usually stays back in that position).The governing body for unicycle hockey is the International Unicycling Federation which publishes the rules for all unicycle sports. The most recent set of rules for unicycle hockey was published in 2015.The court used is between 35 and 45 metres in length, and 20 to 25 metres wide. It should have either beveled or rounded corners, and barriers on all sides. The goals are also set back from the end walls so that players can go behind them, similarly to ice hockey.

Any stick which is legal for ice hockey, other than that of a goalkeeper, can be used. The unicycles can have a maximum wheel diameter of 24 inches (61 cm) and a tennis ball is used.

Vigoro

Vigoro is a team sport, played mainly by women in Australia, that originally combined elements of cricket and tennis, although in its current form it may be more similar to cricket and baseball.

Water polo

Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the ball into the opposing team's goal. The team with the most goals at the end of the game wins the match. Each team is made up of six field players and one goalkeeper. Except for the goalkeeper, players participate in both offensive and defensive roles. Water polo is typically played in an all-deep pool meaning that players cannot touch the bottom.

A game of water polo consists of the players swimming to move about the pool, treading water (often using the eggbeater kick technique), passing the ball and shooting at goal. Teamwork, tactical thinking and game awareness are also highly important aspects in a game of water polo. Water polo is a highly physical and demanding sport and has frequently been cited as one of the toughest sports to play.Special equipment for water polo includes a water polo ball, a ball which floats on the water; numbered and coloured caps; and two goals, which either float in the water or are attached to the side of the pool.

The game is thought to have originated in Scotland in the late 19th century as a sort of "water rugby". William Wilson is thought to have developed the game during a similar period. The game thus developed with the formation of the London Water Polo League and has since expanded, becoming widely popular in various parts of Europe, the United States, Brazil, China, Canada and Australia.

Women's cricket

Women's cricket is the form of the team sport of cricket that is played by women. The first recorded match was in England on 26 July 1745.

Team sports
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