Taxonomic sequence

Taxonomic sequence (also known as systematic, phyletic or taxonomic order) is a sequence followed in listing of taxa which aids ease of use and roughly reflects the evolutionary relationships among the taxa. Taxonomic sequences can exist for taxa within any rank, that is, a list of families, genera, species can each have a sequence.

Early biologists used the concept of "age" or "primitiveness" of the groups in question to derive an order of arrangement, with "older" or more "primitive" groups being listed first and more recent or "advanced" ones last. A modern understanding of evolutionary biology has brought about a more robust framework for the taxonomic ordering of lists. A list may be seen as a rough one-dimensional representation of a phylogenetic tree. Taxonomic sequences are essentially heuristic devices that help in arrangements of linear systems such as books and information retrieval systems. Since phylogenetic relationships are complex and non-linear, there is no unique way to define the sequence, although they generally have the more basal listed first with species that cluster in a tight group included next to each other.[1][2]

The organization of field guides and taxonomic monographs may either follow or prescribe the taxonomic sequence; changes in these sequences are often introduced by new publications.[3][4]

References

  1. ^ Bock, W.J. (1994), "Foreword on organization of information in HBW", in del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi & Bock, Walter Joseph (eds.), Handbook of Birds of the World, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, ISBN 978-84-87334-15-3
  2. ^ Mayr, Ernst & Bock, W.J. (2002), "Classifications and other ordering systems" (PDF), J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Research, 40 (4): 169–194, doi:10.1046/j.1439-0469.2002.00211.x, retrieved 2011-01-05
  3. ^ Porter, Diane (2007), The ABCs of Field Guides, retrieved 2011-01-05
  4. ^ Brush, A.H. (1992), "Reviews (A Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World)" (PDF), Auk, 109 (2): 404–405, retrieved 2011-01-05

Bibliography

  • Haston, Elspeth; Richardson, James E.; Stevens, Peter F.; Chase, Mark W. & Harris, D.J. (2009), "The Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (LAPG) III: a linear sequence of the families in APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 128–31, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01000.x
  • Hawthorne, W.D. & Hughes, C.E. (2008), "Optimising linear taxon sequences derived from phylogenetic trees – a reply to Haston et al.", Taxon, 57 (3): 698–704
Cole Museum of Zoology

The Cole Museum of Zoology is a university museum, part of the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Reading. It is located on the university's Whiteknights Campus in the town of Reading, Berkshire, England.

The collection was established in the early 20th century by Francis J. Cole (Professor of Zoology), Dr Nellie B. Eales (who catalogued the collection), and Mr Stoneman, from 1907 to 1939 when Cole retired. On Cole's death in 1959, the University also purchased his library of books, which are kept as a special collection in the main library.

A refurbishment of the museum was completed on 17 March 2004, enlarging the floor area to display a wider sample of the entire collection. It contains about 4,000 specimens of which about 400 are on display at any one time. Specimens are arranged in 27 cases in taxonomic sequence, thus enabling a complete tour of the diversity of the animal kingdom. Specimens include a male Indian circus elephant skeleton, a 5-metre reticulated python skeleton containing 400 vertebrae, a fossil of the largest spider to ever have lived, and a false killer whale skeleton.

Coraciiformes

The Coraciiformes are a group of usually colorful birds including the kingfishers, the bee-eaters, the rollers, the motmots, and the todies. They generally have syndactyly, with three forward-pointing toes (and toes 3 & 4 fused at their base), though in many kingfishers one of these is missing.

This is largely an Old World order, with the representation in the New World limited to the dozen or so species of todies and motmots, and a mere handful of the more than a hundred species of kingfishers.

The name Coraciiformes means "raven-like", which is a misnomer (ravens are passerines). Specifically, it comes from the Latin language "corax", meaning "raven" and Latin "forma", meaning "form", which is the standard ending for bird orders.

List of Cisticolidae species

Cisticolas and allies form the bird family Cisticolidae. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 160 species in the family; 51 are in genus Cisticola and the rest are distributed among 27 other genera.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

List of Sylviidae species

The avian family Sylviidae is commonly called sylviid babblers or sylviid warblers. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 70 species; 28 are the "typical warblers" of genus Sylvia and the remaining 42 are distributed among 19 other genera.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

List of birds of Alberta

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This list of birds of Alberta includes species documented in the Canadian province of Alberta and accepted by the Alberta Bird Records Committee (ABRC). As of December 2017, there are 425 species included in the official list. Of them, 92 are rare or accidental, 28 are casual visitors, and seven have been introduced to Alberta or elsewhere in North

America. One species has been extirpated, one is extinct, and another is probably extinct.Only birds that are considered to have established, self-sustaining, wild populations are included on this list. This means that birds that are considered probable escapees, although they may have been sighted flying free, are not included.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

The following tags are used to describe some categories of occurrence.

(A) Accidental - a species recorded fewer than 10 times in Alberta per the ABRC

(C) Casual - a species recorded 10 to 50 times in Alberta per the ABRC

(I) Introduced - a species that has been introduced to Alberta by the actions of humans, either directly or indirectly

List of birds of Aleutian Islands

This list of birds of the Aleutian Islands is a comprehensive listing of all bird species known from the Aleutian Islands, as documented by Gibson and Byrd (2007) and eBird.The known avifauna of the Aleutian Islands total 300 species as of January 2019. Of that number, 44 (15%) are year-round residents and breeders, 27 (9%) migrate to the Aleutians to breed, 18 (6%) migrate to the Aleutians to winter, 6 (2%) are non-breeding summer residents, 37 (12%) are annual through-migrants, and the remaining 168 (56%) are vagrants of less-than-annual occurrence. Several of the vagrants have only a single record.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

The following terms used to denote the annual and seasonal status of each species are from Gibson and Byrd (2007):

Accidental – one or two records

Casual – recorded in <30% of years in the appropriate season, but in at least three calendar years

Intermittent – recorded in ≥30% of years in the appropriate season, but not annually

Migrant – annual through-migrant in spring or fall

Resident – substantial numbers present throughout the year

Summer – migrates to the Aleutians to breed or to summer offshore

Winter – migrates to the Aleutians to winter

Annual breeders are designated with an asterisk (*), as in Resident* or Summer*.

List of birds of Colorado

In the U.S. state of Colorado 507 species of birds have been documented as of January 2019. Unless otherwise noted below, the list is that of the Colorado Bird Records Committee (CBRC) of Colorado Field Ornithologists.This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Six of the documented birds are introduced species that are not native to North America, but were brought to this continent by humans. They are marked on this list as (I). Birds that are considered probable escapees, although they may have been sighted flying free in Colorado, are not included.

List of birds of Greenland

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greenland. The avifauna of Greenland include a total of 245 species as of September 2018 according to Bird Checklists of the World. Of them, 172 are rare or accidental. One species is extinct, another probably is, and one has been extirpated.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

The following tag has been used to highlight accidentals. Untagged species are common residents, migrants, or seasonal vistors.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Greenland

List of birds of Indiana

This list of birds of Indiana includes species documented in the U.S. state of Indiana and accepted by the Indiana Bird Records Committee (IBRC) of the Indiana Audubon Society. As of December 2016, there are 422 species included in the official list. Of them, 125 are classed as rare, 10 have been introduced to North America, three are extinct, and three have been extirpated.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Indiana as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags are used to designate some species:

(R) - Rare - a species whose report is reviewable by the IBRC

(I) - Introduced - a species introduced to North America by humans, either directly or indirectly

(X) - Extinct - a recent species that no longer exists

(E) - Extirpated - a species formerly found in Indiana which still exists elsewhere

List of birds of Minnesota

This list of birds of Minnesota includes species documented in the U.S. state of Minnesota and accepted by the Minnesota Ornithologists' Union Records Committee (MOURC). As of late 2018, there are 443 species included in the official list. Of them, 86 are classed as accidental, 39 are classed as casual, eight have been introduced to North America, two are extinct, and one has been extirpated.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Minnesota as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to designate some species:

(A) Accidental - "Species for which there are accepted records in no more than two of the past ten years" per the MOURC

(C) Casual - "Species for which there are accepted records in three to eight of the past ten years" per the MOURC

(I) Introduced - Species established in North America as a result of human action

(E) Extinct - a recent species that no longer exists

(Ex) Extirpated - Species which "formerly occurred regularly in the state but disappeared and are not expected to recur" per the MOURC

List of birds of Oklahoma

This list of birds of Oklahoma includes species documented in the U.S. state of Oklahoma and accepted by the Oklahoma Ornithological Society's Bird Records Committee (OBRC). As of October 2017, there were 480 species on the official list. Of them, 120 are classified as accidental, seven have been introduced to North America, two are known to be extinct, and two others might be extinct. An additional 16 species are classed as either hypothetical or of uncertain origin; 13 of them are also classed as accidental.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Oklahoma as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. These tags are used to annotate some species:

(A) Accidental - Species considered rare or accidental by Bird Checklists of the World (the OBRC does not annotate its list with this category)

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to North America by the actions of humans, either directly or indirectly

(E) Extinct - a species that no longer exists

(H) Hypothetical - "species seen in the state and supported only by written documentation" per the OBRC

(UO) Uncertain Origin - species whose provenance is unknown

List of hummingbird species

The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 359 hummingbird species in family Trochilidae, and distributes them among 106 genera. Two extinct species known only from 19th century specimens are included. This list is presented in IOC taxonomic sequence and is also sortable alphabetically by common name, binomial name, and phylogentic grouping.

The division of the large hummingbird family into its two subfamilies is apparent from the taxonomic sequence:

Subfamily Phaethornithinae, the "hermit hummingbirds", which contains the first 37 species of genera Ramphodon, Eutoxeres, Glaucis, Threnetes, Anopetia, and Phaethornis.

Subfamily Trochilinae, the "typical hummingbirds", which contains the rest. A 2014 paper further subdivided this group into eight clades. Because hummingbird taxonomy is under continuous revision, its assignments do not fully coincide with the IOC sequence and more recently identified species are not assigned.

List of icterid species

The avian family Icteridae, commonly called icterids, comprise the New World blackbirds, New World orioles, grackles, cowbirds, oropendolas, and several smaller groups. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 109 species distributed among 30 genera, 14 of which have only one species.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

List of lark species

Larks form the family Alaudidae. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 98 species of larks distributed among 31 genera.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

List of sunbird species

Sunbirds and spiderhunters form the family Nectariniidae. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes 145 species distributed among 16 genera.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

List of weaverbird species

Weavers, widowbirds, and allies form the family Ploceidae. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes 117 species; 64 of them are in genus Ploceus and the rest are distributed among 14 other genera.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

Nine-primaried oscine

The nine-primaried oscines are a group of songbird families from the parvorder Passerida in the infraorder Passerides. It is composed of the Fringillidae (finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers), Emberizidae (Old World buntings), Passerellidae (American sparrows), Parulidae (New World warblers), Thraupidae (tanagers), Cardinalidae (cardinals), Icteridae (icterids) and the monotypic Peucedramidae (olive warbler). The name of this group arises from the fact that all species within it have only nine easily visible primary feathers on each wing (in reality most, if not all, also have a 10th primary, but it is greatly reduced and largely concealed).These families (with the possible exception of the Fringillidae) appear to form a clade; the status of the peculiar olive warbler and the distinct bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) need to be clarified. In most bird classifications, this group is placed at the end of the taxonomic sequence.

In the Sibley–Ahlquist classification, the nine-primaried oscines are treated as a single family (Fringillidae sensu Sibley & Ahlquist). As noted above, this is not correct as they defined it, and in any case has not found widespread support. A more common scheme, often used by American ornithologists, is to treat most of these groups in a vastly expanded Emberizidae, but this is also likely to be overlumping.

This group (omitting the family Fringillidae) is now generally known as the superfamily Emberizoidea.

Platypezoidea

The Platypezoidea are a superfamily of true flies of the section Aschiza. Their closest living relatives are the Syrphoidea, which, for example, contain the hoverflies. Like these, the adults do not burst open their pupal cases with a ptilinum when hatching, thus the Aschiza do not have the inverted-U-shaped suture above the antennae. They are, however, muscomorphs, thus have a particular type of pupal case resembling a rounded barrel and called puparium.

Trachyphonus

The African terrestrial barbets are the bird genus Trachyphonus in the African barbet family (Lybiidae), which was formerly included in the Capitonidae and sometimes in the Ramphastidae. These birds are more terrestrial than the other African barbets and differ in some other respects too; they are thus separated in a monotypic subfamily Trachyphoninae.

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