Tavium, or Tavia (Ancient Greek: Τάουιον, romanized: Taouion; Latin: Taouion or Tavium), was the chief city of the Galatian tribe of Trocmi, one of the three Celtic tribes which migrated from the Danube Valley to Galatia in present-day central Turkey in the 3rd century BCE. Owing to its position on the high roads of commerce was an important trading post. The site was successively occupied by Hittites, Cimmerians, Persians, Celts, Greeks, Romans, Seljuk Turks and Ottoman Turks. At the time of the Roman Empire, Tavium was an important crossroads and a stopping place on the caravan routes.
One of the few things known about Tavium is that there was metalworking, because coins have been found that were minted there in the early 1st century bearing the likenesses of Marcus Aurelius and Elagabalus. Copper, tin, iron and silver were mined in the nearby mountains. Similar to other Celtic towns of the time, the smelting and stamping was done by a small group of artisans working in one or two stone huts.
In the temple at Tavium there was a colossal statue of Jupiter in bronze, greatly venerated by the Galatians. There was some doubt about the exact site of the city, but it is today generally believed to be the ruins situated close to the village of Nefezköy (today known as Büyüknefes), lying in a very fertile plain east of the Halys in the province of Yozgat.
These ruins were partly used in building the neighbouring town of Yozgat, where there exist the remains of a theatre and possibly of a temple of Jupiter; these have a number of inscriptions, mostly Byzantine. In the Notitiæ Episcopatuum the bishopric of Tavium is mentioned up to the 13th century as the first suffragan of Ancyra.
The names of five bishops of the area are known: Dicasius, present at the Councils of Neocæsarea and Nice; Julian, at the second Council of Ephesus (449), and at the Council of Chalcedon (451), and a signer of the letter from the Galatian bishops to the Emperor Leo (458); Anastasius, present at the second Council of Constantinople (553); Gregory at the Council in Trullo (692); Philaretus at Constantinople (869).
As of the early 20th century, Büyüknefes was inhabited during the winter by nomadic Turkish tribes. It was then in the kaza (district) of Sungurlu and the vilayet of Ankara. Now it is a part of Yozgat Province.
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Büyüknefes
Büyüknefes is a town established on the ruins of Tavium, capital city of the Galatians. There is a fountain located in the middle of the village. According to the inscription on the fountain, it dates back to 1843-1844. It is a rectangular fountain, made of grooved stone. It is also constructed out of ancient stone and re-used materials.Caloe
Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.Cestrus
Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Cyaneae
Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.Doara
Doara (Ancient Greek: Δοάρα) was a town of ancient Cappadocia, inhabited in Byzantine times. It was in the Chamanene prefecture created by Archelaus of Cappadocia during Hellenistic times. The town appears on the Peutinger Table between Caesarea and Tavium. It was also mentioned by Hierocles as Rhegedoara (Ῥεγεδοάρα), and the Notitiae Episcopatuum.
Doara became the seat of a Bishopric in the 373, as part of the conflict between Anthimus, bishop of Tyana and Basil of Caesarea, as the town was between these two bishoprics. In 383 the bishop Bosporius was accused of heresy and although originally a suffragan of the bishop in Tyana, in 436 Justinian placed the bishop under the bishop of Mokissos. No longer the seat of a residential bishop, Doara remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.Although W. M. Ramsay identified Doara with Mudjur or Hacıbektaş (Hadji Bektash), modern scholars located its site near Duvarlı, Asiatic Turkey.Galatia
Galatia (; Ancient Greek: Γαλατία, Galatía, "Gaul") was an ancient area in the highlands of central Anatolia, roughly corresponding to the provinces of Ankara, Çorum, and Yozgat, in modern Turkey. Galatia was named after the Gauls from Thrace (cf. Tylis), who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. It has been called the "Gallia" of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli (Gauls or Celts).Galatians (people)
The Galatians (Ancient Greek: Γαλάται, romanized: Galátai; Latin: Galatae, Galati, Gallograeci; Greek: Γαλάτες, romanized: Galátes, lit. 'Gauls') were a Gallic(Celtic) people of the Hellenistic period that dwelt mainly in the north central regions of Asia Minor or Anatolia, in what was known as Galatia, in today's Turkey. In their origin they were a part of the great migration which invaded Macedon, led by Brennus. The originals who settled in Galatia came through Thrace under the leadership of Leotarios and Leonnorios c. 278 BC. They consisted mainly of three tribes, the Tectosages, the Trocmii, and the Tolistobogii, but there were also other minor tribes. They spoke a Celtic language, the Galatian language, which is sparsely attested.
In the 1st century AD, many Galatians of the Roman Empire were Christianized by Paul the Apostle's missionary activities. The Epistle to the Galatians by Paul the Apostle is addressed to Galatian Christian communities and is preserved in the Bible (i.e. the New Testament).History of Ankara
The history of Ankara can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hatti civilization, which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians, and later by the Lydians, Persians, Macedonians, Galatians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, and Ottomans.List of ancient settlements in Turkey
Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.Lyrbe
Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.Stratonicea (Lydia)
Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.Sulusaray
Sulusaray or Çiftlik, in Antiquity and the early Middle Ages known as Sebastopolis (Greek: Σεβαστούπολις) or Heracleopolis (Ἡρακλειούπολις), is a town and a district of Tokat Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Sulusaray is about 68 km from the center of Tokat, and about 30 km from Artova town. The site is situated on a plain surrounded by mountains and the Çekerek river runs near it. The mayor is Şahin Hasgül (MHP).Themiscyra (Pontus)
Themiscyra (; Greek: Θεμίσκυρα Themiskyra) was an ancient Greek town in northeastern Anatolia; it was situated on the southern coast of the Black Sea, near the mouth of the Thermodon.
According to Greek mythology, it was the capital city of the Amazons.Thermae Basilicae
Thermae Basilicae was a town in the Roman province of Cappadocia Prima. Accordingly, its bishopric, which is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees, was a suffragan of Caesarea in Cappadocia, the capital of the province.Yozgat
Yozgat is a city and the capital district of Yozgat province in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. According to 2009 census, population of the district is 645,266 of which 75,853 live in the city of Yozgat.Zama (Turkey)
Zama was a Roman and Byzantine era town in the Roman district of Chamanene, in what is today central Turkey. It has been tentatively identified with ruins on the Halys River between Caesarea in Cappadocia and Tavium.
Halys River.Üçayaklı ruins
The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.