Tate & Lyle

Tate & Lyle PLC is a British-headquartered, global supplier of food and beverage ingredients to industrial markets. It was originally a sugar refining business, but from the 1970s began to diversify, eventually divesting its sugar business in 2012. It specialises in turning raw materials such as corn, tapioca, and oats into ingredients that add taste, texture, and nutrients to food and beverages.[2] It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.

Nick Hampton became CEO on 1 April 2018, replacing Javed Ahmed, who stepped down from this role and from the board, and retired from the company.[3]

Tate & Lyle PLC
Public limited company
Traded asLSETATE
IndustryFood processing
FoundedMerger of Henry Tate & Sons and Abram Lyle & Sons in 1921
HeadquartersLondon, England, UK
Key people
Gerry Murphy, Chairman
Nick Hampton, CEO
Citric acid
High fructose corn syrup
Revenue£2,753 million (2017)[1]
£233 million (2017)[1]
£256 million (2017)[1]
Number of employees
4,151 (2017)[1]


Sugar refining

2018 LCY, aerial view of Tate & Lyle, Silvertown (cropped)
Tate & Lyle refinery along the Thames in Silvertown, London

The company was formed in 1921 from a merger of two rival sugar refiners: Henry Tate & Sons and Abram Lyle & Sons.[4]

Henry Tate established his business in 1869 in Liverpool, later expanding to Silvertown in East London.[4] He used his industrial fortune to found the Tate Institute in Silvertown in 1887 and the Tate Gallery in Pimlico, Central London in 1897. He endowed the gallery with his own collection of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.[5]

Abram Lyle, a cooper and shipowner, acquired an interest in a sugar refinery in 1865 in Greenock and then at Plaistow Wharf, West Silvertown, London.[4] The two companies had large factories nearby each other – Henry Tate in Silvertown and Abram Lyle at Plaistow Wharf – so prompting the merger. Prior to the merger, which occurred after they had died, the two men were bitter business rivals, although they had never met in person.[6] In 1949, the Company introduced its "Mr Cube" brand, as part of a marketing campaign to help it fight a proposed nationalisation by the Labour government.[4]


From 1973, British membership of the European Economic Community threatened Tate & Lyle's core business, with quotas imposed from Brussels favouring domestic sugar beet producers over imported cane refiners such as Tate & Lyle.[7] As a result, under the leadership of Saxon Tate (a direct descendent of Henry Tate), the company began to diversify into related fields of commodity trading, transport and engineering, and in 1976, it acquired competing cane sugar refiner Manbré & Garton.[7]

In 1976, the Company acquired a 33% stake (increased to 63% in 1988) in Amylum, a European starch-based manufacturing business.[4] The Liverpool sugar plant closed in 1981 and the Greenock plant closed in 1997.[8] In 1988, Tate & Lyle acquired a 90% stake in A. E. Staley, a US corn processing business. In 1998 it brought Haarmann & Reimer, a citric acid producer. In 2000 it acquired the remaining minorities of Amylum and A. E. Staley.[4]

In 2004, it established a joint venture with DuPont to manufacture a renewable 1,3-Propanediol that can be used to make Sorona (a substitute for nylon). This was its first major foray into bio-materials.[4] In 2005, DuPont Tate & Lyle BioProducts was created as a joint venture between DuPont and Tate & Lyle.[9] In 2006, it acquired Hycail, a small Dutch business, giving the company intellectual property and a pilot plant to manufacture Polylactic acid (PLA), another bio-plastic.[10] In October 2007, five European starch and alcohol plants, previously part of the European starch division knowns as Amylum group, were sold to Syral, a subsidiary of French sugar company Tereos.[11] Syral closed its Greenwich Peninsula plant in London in September 2009, and it was subsequently demolished.[12]

Television House 532080694
Tate & Lyle head office in Kingsway, London

In February 2008, it was announced that Tate & Lyle granulated white cane sugar would be accredited as a Fairtrade product, with all the company's other retail products to follow in 2009.[13]

In April 2009, the United States International Trade Commission affirmed a ruling that Chinese manufacturers can make copycat versions of its Splenda product.[14]

Disposal of sugar refining business

In July 2010 the company announced the sale of its sugar refining business, including rights to use the Tate & Lyle brand name and Lyle's Golden Syrup, to American Sugar Refining for £211 million.[15] The sale included the Plaistow Wharf and Silvertown plants.[15]

In popular culture

In 2012, HarperCollins published The Sugar Girls, a work of narrative non-fiction based on the true stories of women who worked at Tate & Lyle's two factories in the East End of London from the 1940s to the 1960s.[16]


The company is organised as follows:[17]

See also

  • A. E. Staley – US owned subsidiary
  • Splenda – sucralose, a key product for the group
  • Redpath Sugar, once owned by T&L; sold in 2010 as part of package deal to ASR


  1. ^ a b c d "Annual Report 2017" (PDF). Tate & Lyle. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  2. ^ "About us".
  3. ^ "Nick Hampton Appointed CEO". Tate & Lyle Press Release. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Tate & Lyle Home".
  5. ^ The River Thames from Hampton Court to the Millennium Dome (1999) ISBN 1-86011-701-5
  6. ^ Duncan Barrett and Nuala Calvi. The Sugar Girls. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-744847-0.
  7. ^ a b "Sir Saxon Tate, Bt". The Daily Telegraph. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  8. ^ "Tate & Lyle plans end of 250-year Scots link with switch to London plant. Bitter blow from sugar firm". The Herald. Glasgow. 21 July 1995. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  9. ^ "DuPont and Tate & Lyle to Open $100 Million Bioproducts Plant". GreenBiz. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  10. ^ "Tate & Lyle: Industrial ingredients". presscentre.com.
  11. ^ "Tereos starch subsidiary Syral finalises the acquisition of 5 Tate & Lyle Plants" (PDF). Syral. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
  12. ^ "Farewell, Tunnel Refineries". 853: News, views and issues around Greenwich, Charlton, Blackheath and Woolwich, south-east London. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  13. ^ "Tate & Lyle sugar to be Fairtrade". BBC News. 23 February 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2008.
  14. ^ Alison Frankel. "Sweet Surrender: Bingham Wins ITC Sugar Substitute Case". Litigation Daily. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  15. ^ a b Tate & Lyle sells sugar arm to American Sugar Refining BBC News, 1 July 2010
  16. ^ Matt Nicholls (23 February 2011). "Sweet! Tate & Lyle lives celebrated". Newham Recorder.
  17. ^ "Our structure".

Further reading

External links


Bewitched is an American television sitcom fantasy series, originally broadcast for eight seasons on ABC from September 17, 1964 to March 25, 1972. It is about a witch who marries an ordinary mortal man, and vows to lead the life of a typical suburban housewife. The show enjoyed great popularity, finishing as the number two-rated show in America during its debut season, staying in the top ten for its first three seasons, and just missing this mark with an eleventh place ranking for both seasons four and five. The show continues to be seen throughout the world in syndication and on recorded media.

Bewitched was created by Sol Saks under executive director Harry Ackerman, and starred Elizabeth Montgomery as Samantha Stephens; Dick York (1964–1969) as Darrin Stephens, her husband; Agnes Moorehead as Endora, Samantha's mother; David White as Larry Tate, Darrin's boss; Irene Vernon (1964-1966) and later Kasey Rogers (1966-1972) as Louise Tate, Larry's wife; Alice Pearce (1964-1966) as Gladys Kravitz; George Tobias (1964-1971) as her husband Abner Kravitz; and Erin Murphy (1966-1972) as Tabitha Stephens. Dick Sargent replaced an ailing York for the final three seasons (1969–1972). In 1966, Sandra Gould took over the part of Gladys Kravitz (1966-1971) when Alice Pearce died. Annual semi-regulars included Maurice Evans as Maurice, Samantha's father; Marion Lorne as Samantha's Aunt Clara (1964-1968); Alice Ghostley as Esmeralda, Samantha's baby sitter (1969-1972); Paul Lynde as Samantha's Uncle Arthur (1965-1971); Mabel Albertson as Darrin's mother Phyllis Stephens (1964-1971); and Robert F. Simon and Roy Roberts alternating the role of Frank Stephens, Darrin's father (1964-1971).

In 2002, Bewitched was ranked #50 on "TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time". In 1997, the same magazine ranked the season 2 episode "Divided He Falls" #48 on their list of the "100 Greatest Episodes of All Time".

Buddy Tate

George Holmes "Buddy" Tate (February 22, 1913 – February 10, 2001) was a jazz saxophonist and clarinetist.

Catherine Tate

Catherine Tate (born Catherine Ford; 5 December 1969) is an English comedian, actress, and writer. She has won numerous awards for her work on the sketch comedy series The Catherine Tate Show as well as being nominated for an International Emmy Award and seven BAFTA Awards. Following the success of The Catherine Tate Show, Tate played Donna Noble in the 2006 Christmas special of Doctor Who and later reprised her role, becoming the Tenth Doctor's regular companion for the fourth series in 2008. In 2011, she began a recurring role as Nellie Bertram in the U.S. version of The Office and was a regular until the series ended. She now provides the voice of Magica De Spell in the 2017 reboot of Disney's DuckTales animated series.

Charles Manson

Charles Milles Manson (né Maddox, November 12, 1934 – November 19, 2017) was an American criminal, cult leader and musician. In mid-1967, he began forming what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune based in California. Manson's followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations in July and August 1969. In 1971, he was convicted of first-degree murder and conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of seven people, all of which members of the group carried out at his instruction. Manson was also convicted of first-degree murder for two other deaths.

At the time the Manson Family began to form, Manson was an unemployed ex-convict who had spent half of his life in correctional institutions for a variety of offenses. Before the murders, he was a singer-songwriter on the fringe of the Los Angeles music industry, chiefly through a chance association with Dennis Wilson, drummer and founding member of the Beach Boys. In 1968, the group recorded one of Manson's songs, retitled "Never Learn Not to Love", as a B-sided single without Manson's credit. Manson was also obsessed with the Beatles, particularly their 1968 self-titled album (also known as the "White Album"). Guided by his interpretation of the band's lyrics, he adopted the term "Helter Skelter" to describe an impending apocalyptic race war. He and his followers, who were mostly young women, believed that the murders would help precipitate that war.

From the beginning of Manson's notoriety, a pop culture arose around him in which he ultimately became an emblem of insanity, violence, and the macabre. After he was charged with the crimes of which he was later convicted, recordings of songs written and performed by Manson were released commercially, starting with Lie: The Love and Terror Cult (1970). Various musicians have covered some of his songs. Manson was originally sentenced to death, but his sentence was commuted to life with the possibility of parole after California invalidated the state's death penalty statute in 1972. He served out his life sentence at California State Prison in Corcoran and died at age 83 in late 2017.

Golden Tate

Golden Herman Tate III (born August 2, 1988) is an American football wide receiver for the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Notre Dame, where he was recognized as an All-American, and was drafted by the Seattle Seahawks in the second round of the 2010 NFL Draft. He has also played for the Detroit Lions, with whom he made a Pro Bowl.

J. M. W. Turner

Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775 – 19 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist. He is known for his expressive colourisations, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.

Turner was born in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, London, to a modest lower middle-class family. He lived in London all his life, retaining his Cockney accent and assiduously avoiding the trappings of success and fame.

A child prodigy, Turner studied at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1789, enrolling when he was 14, and exhibited his first work there at 15. During this period, he also served as an architectural draftsman. He earned a steady income from commissions and sales, which due to his troubled, contrary nature, were often begrudgingly accepted. He opened his own gallery in 1804 and became professor of perspective at the academy in 1807, where he lectured until 1828, although he was viewed as profoundly inarticulate. He traveled to Europe from 1802, typically returning with voluminous sketchbooks.

Intensely private, eccentric and reclusive, Turner was a controversial figure throughout his career. He did not marry, but fathered two daughters, Eveline (1801–1874) and Georgiana (1811–1843), by his housekeeper Sarah Danby. He became more pessimistic and morose as he got older, especially after the death of his father, after which his outlook deteriorated, and his gallery fell into disrepair and neglect, and his art intensified. He lived in squalor and poor health from 1845, and died in London in 1851 aged seventy-six. Turner is buried in Saint Paul's Cathedral, London.

He left behind more than 550 oil paintings, 2,000 watercolours, and 30,000 works on paper. He had been championed by the leading English art critic John Ruskin from 1840, and is today regarded as having elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting.

Larenz Tate

Larenz Tate (born September 8, 1975) is an American film and television actor. Tate is best known for his roles as Peter Waters in Crash and as O-Dog in the 1993 teen hood drama film, Menace II Society. Tate's other films include Dead Presidents, Love Jones, Why Do Fools Fall in Love, A Man Apart, Waist Deep, Biker Boyz, and Ray.

Manson Family

The Manson Family was a desert commune and cult formed in California in the late 1960s. Led by Charles Manson, the group consisted of approximately 100 of his followers who lived an unconventional lifestyle with habitual use of hallucinogenic drugs. Most of the group members were young women from middle-class backgrounds, many of whom were radicalized by Manson's teachings and drawn by hippie culture and communal living.After Manson was released from prison for petty crimes in 1967, the Manson Family moved to San Francisco and later to a deserted ranch in the San Fernando Valley. Manson’s followers also included a small, devoted unit of mostly impressionable young women and girls. According to Susan Atkins, whose initial statements in late 1969 cast the die for the template henceforth applied to the telling of the story in popular media, the Manson family began to believe, without question, Manson's claims that he was a manifestation of Jesus and his prophecies of a race war.They gained national and international notoriety after the murder of actress Sharon Tate and four others on August 9, 1969 by Tex Watson and three other members of the Family, acting under the instructions of Charles Manson. Group members were also responsible for a number of other murders, assaults, petty crimes and thefts.

Miesha Tate

Miesha Theresa Tate ( MEE-shə; born August 18, 1986) is an American mixed martial arts pundit and former mixed martial artist who competed in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) and is a former UFC Women's Bantamweight Champion. Primarily known for her grappling ability, Tate became a wrestler while attending Franklin Pierce High School in Tacoma, Washington and won a state championship during her senior year in 2005. She began her professional mixed martial arts (MMA) career in 2007, and won the bantamweight championship of the Freestyle Cage Fighting promotion in 2009. Tate gained increased recognition in 2011, when she won the Strikeforce Women's Bantamweight Championship. She has also won a silver medal in the FILA Grappling Championships.

Outside of MMA, Tate has modeled for numerous websites and publications, including ESPN The Magazine and Fitness Gurls. In 2015, Tate was announced as a cast member in the feature film Fight Valley. Her fighting style, which focused on wrestling and Brazilian jiu-jitsu, has earned praise from multiple peers and media outlets. Ultimate Fighting Championship president Dana White has credited Tate's fight with Ronda Rousey on March 3, 2012 as the key factor in the creation of women's divisions in the UFC.Tate's final victory in MMA came on March 5, 2016, when she won the UFC Women's Bantamweight Championship after beating Holly Holm via technical submission. On July 9, 2016, she lost the UFC title to Amanda Nunes at UFC 200. In November 2016, she announced her retirement from MMA after a loss by decision to Raquel Pennington at UFC 205.Post retirement, Tate has shown interest in competing in no-gi grappling matches, the first of which was against former MMA opponent Jessica Eye at Submission Underground 2, which Tate won in overtime.

Once Upon a Time in Hollywood

Once Upon a Time in Hollywood is an upcoming mystery crime film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino and starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Brad Pitt and Margot Robbie. Set in Los Angeles during the Manson Family murders, the film tells the story of television actor Rick Dalton and stunt double Cliff Booth as they try to get involved in the film industry.

First announced in July 2017, the film will be the first of Tarantino's to not be associated with Harvey Weinstein, after Tarantino cut ties with The Weinstein Company following sexual abuse allegations against Weinstein later that October. Sony Pictures won the distribution rights, having met several of Tarantino's demands including final cut privilege. Pitt, DiCaprio and Robbie, as well as several Tarantino regulars such as Tim Roth, Kurt Russell and Michael Madsen, joined the cast between January and June 2018. Principal photography lasted from that June through November around Los Angeles.

The film is an American and British venture, produced by Columbia Pictures, Heyday Films and Bona Film Group, and scheduled to be released in the United States on July 26, 2019.


Queensrÿche is an American heavy metal band. It formed in 1980 in Bellevue, Washington out of the local band the Mob. The band has released 15 studio albums, one EP, several DVDs, and continues to tour and record. The original lineup consisted of guitarists Michael Wilton and Chris DeGarmo, drummer Scott Rockenfield, bassist Eddie Jackson, and lead vocalist Geoff Tate.

Queensrÿche has sold over 20 million albums worldwide, including over 6 million albums in the United States. The band received worldwide acclaim after the release of their 1988 album Operation: Mindcrime, which is often considered one of the greatest heavy metal concept albums of all time. Their follow-up release, Empire, released in 1990, was also very successful and included the hit single "Silent Lucidity". The band has received three Grammy Award nominations for songs from both albums. In 1998, drummer Rockenfield received an individual Grammy nomination.

In 1998, lead/rhythm guitarist and primary songwriter DeGarmo left the band for personal reasons. Over the years, his replacements have been Kelly Gray, Mike Stone, and Parker Lundgren. Following a highly publicized backstage altercation before a show in São Paulo, Brazil, in April 2012, Tate was fired from the band and replaced with then-Crimson Glory singer Todd La Torre. In response to his dismissal, Tate and his wife Susan (who served as the band's manager from 2005–2012) filed a lawsuit in a Washington court, claiming that he was wrongfully terminated. The ruling in the preliminary injunction was that both parties were allowed to use the name Queensrÿche until a court ruling or a settlement decided who would get to use the name. A settlement was reached on April 17, 2014, in which founding members Wilton, Rockenfield and Jackson were awarded the rights to the band trademark, continuing to play with the lineup that additionally includes singer La Torre and guitarist Lundgren.During the time, both parties could use the name Queensrÿche, Tate created his own lineup featuring former guitarist Gray and musicians from bands including Blue Öyster Cult, Ozzy Osbourne, Whitesnake, Dio, AC/DC and Quiet Riot. This version of Queensrÿche with Geoff Tate released the album Frequency Unknown on April 23, 2013, while Queensrÿche (with La Torre replacing Tate) released their eponymous album on June 24 and 25, 2013 (European and American release date, respectively). Both bands toured in 2013 and 2014.

Sharon Tate

Sharon Marie Tate Polanski (January 24, 1943 – August 9, 1969) was an American actress and model. During the 1960s, she played small television roles before appearing in films and was regularly featured in fashion magazines as a model and cover girl. After receiving positive reviews for her comedic and dramatic acting performances, Tate was hailed as one of Hollywood's most promising newcomers.

She made her film debut in 1961 in Barabbas with Anthony Quinn. She was seen next in 1966 with the occult-themed Eye of the Devil. Her most remembered performance was as Jennifer North in the 1967 cult classic film, Valley of the Dolls, earning her a Golden Globe Award nomination. Tate's last completed film, 12+1, was released posthumously in 1969, with the actress receiving top billing.On January 20, 1968, Tate married Roman Polanski, her director and co-star in 1967's The Fearless Vampire Killers. On August 9, 1969, Tate and four others were murdered by members of the Manson Family in the home she shared with Polanski. At the time of her death, she was eight-and-a-half months pregnant with the couple's son.A decade after Tate's murder, the actress' mother, Doris Tate, in response to the growing cult status of the killers and the possibility of them being granted parole, organized a public campaign that resulted in amendments to the California criminal law. Tate's mother went on to say that the law would "help transform Sharon's legacy from murder victim to a symbol of victims' rights". A book by Tate's sister, Debra Tate, titled Sharon Tate: Recollection, was released in 2014.


Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art museums, the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art. It is not a government institution, but its main sponsor is the UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.The name "Tate" is used also as the operating name for the corporate body, which was established by the Museums and Galleries Act 1992 as "The Board of Trustees of the Tate Gallery".

The gallery was founded in 1897, as the National Gallery of British Art. When its role was changed to include the national collection of modern art as well as the national collection of British art, in 1932, it was renamed the Tate Gallery after sugar magnate Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle, who had laid the foundations for the collection. The Tate Gallery was housed in the current building occupied by Tate Britain, which is situated in Millbank, London. In 2000, the Tate Gallery transformed itself into the current-day Tate, which consists of a network of four museums: Tate Britain, which displays the collection of British art from 1500 to the present day; Tate Modern, also in London, which houses the Tate's collection of British and international modern and contemporary art from 1900 to the present day; Tate Liverpool (founded in 1988), which has the same purpose as Tate Modern but on a smaller scale; and Tate St Ives in Cornwall (founded in 1993), which displays modern and contemporary art by artists who have connections with the area. All four museums share the Tate Collection. One of the Tate's most publicised art events is the awarding of the annual Turner Prize, which takes place at Tate Britain.

Tate Britain

Tate Britain (known from 1897 to 1932 as the National Gallery of British Art and from 1932 to 2000 as the Tate Gallery) is an art museum on Millbank in the City of Westminster in London. It is part of the Tate network of galleries in England, with Tate Modern, Tate Liverpool and Tate St Ives. It is the oldest gallery in the network, having opened in 1897. It houses a substantial collection of the art of the United Kingdom since Tudor times, and in particular has large holdings of the works of J. M. W. Turner, who bequeathed all his own collection to the nation. It is one of the largest museums in the country.

Tate County, Mississippi

Tate County is a county located in the northwestern portion of the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,886. Its county seat is Senatobia. Organized in 1873 during the Reconstruction era, from portions of DeSoto, Marshall, and Tunica counties, the county is named for Thomas Simpson Tate, one of the first prominent American settlers of the area.

Tate County is part of the Memphis, TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is located about 40 miles south of Memphis and one county east of the Mississippi River. This fertile river valley was developed for cotton cultivation in the 19th century.

Tate Donovan

Tate Buckley Donovan (born September 25, 1963) is an American actor and director, known for portraying Tom Shayes in Damages, Jimmy Cooper in The O.C., and the voice of the title character in the 1997 Disney animated film Hercules, the animated television series of the same name and in a few Kingdom Hearts video games.

He also had supporting roles in films, such as Good Night, and Good Luck and Argo. Donovan also played Brian Sanders in Hostages and White House Chief of Staff Mark Boudreau in 24: Live Another Day. He has been a guest star in a number of television series.

He has also worked as a producer of 30 for 30 Shorts, for which he won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Short Form Nonfiction or Reality Series.

Tate Modern

Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group (together with Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool, Tate St Ives and Tate Online). It is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art. Tate Modern is one of the largest museums of modern and contemporary art in the world. As with the UK's other national galleries and museums, there is no admission charge for access to the collection displays, which take up the majority of the gallery space, while tickets must be purchased for the major temporary exhibitions. The gallery is London’s second most-visited attraction, behind the British Museum, pulling in approximately 5.5 million visitors annually.

Tate murders

The Tate murders were a mass murder conducted by members of the Manson Family on August 8–9, 1969, which claimed the lives of five people. Four members of the Family invaded the home of married celebrity couple, actress Sharon Tate and director Roman Polanski at 10050 Cielo Drive in Los Angeles. They murdered Tate, who was eight and a half months pregnant, along with three friends who were visiting at the time, and an 18-year-old visitor, who was slain as he was departing the home. Polanski was not present on the night of the murders, as he was working on a film in Europe.

The murders were carried out by Tex Watson, Susan Atkins, and Patricia Krenwinkel, under the direction of Charles Manson. Watson drove Atkins, Krenwinkel, and Linda Kasabian from Spahn Ranch to the residence on Cielo Drive. Manson, a would-be musician, had previously attempted to enter into a recording contract with record producer Terry Melcher, who was a previous renter of the house along with musician Mark Lindsay and Melcher's then-girlfriend, actress Candice Bergen. Melcher had snubbed Manson, leaving him disgruntled.

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