Tashkent

Tashkent (/ˌtæʃˈkɛnt/; Uzbek: Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت, [tɒʃˈkent]; Russian: Ташкент, [tɐʂˈkʲent]) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in ex-Soviet Central Asia (though the larger urban centers of Urumqi in China and Kabul in Afghanistan lie well within the geographic region of Central Asia) with a population in 2018 of 2,485,900.[2] It is located in the north-east of the country close to the Kazakhstan border.

Tashkent was influenced by the Sogdian and Turkic cultures in its early history, before Islam in the 8th century AD. After its destruction by Genghis Khan in 1219, the city was rebuilt and profited from the Silk Road. From 18th to 19th century, the city became an independent city-state, before being re-conquered by the Khanate of Kokand. In 1865, it fell to the Russian Empire, and became the capital of Russian Turkestan. In Soviet times, Tashkent witnessed major growth and demographic changes due to forced deportations from throughout the Soviet Union.

Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent retains a multi-ethnic population, with ethnic Uzbeks as the majority. In 2009, the city celebrated its 2,200 years of written history.[3]

Tashkent

Uzbek: Toshkent
Russian: Ташкент
Capital
International Business Center. Tashkent city
Vue de l'Aqua-Park - Tachkent
Bunyodkor Stadium
HumoArena
Hazrati Imam Complex (220247571).jpeg
Успенский кафедральный собор в Ташкенте
Tachkent-Centre
Tashkent, Paque Navoi 3
Timur Lane Museum, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Official seal of Tashkent

Seal
Nickname(s): 
Tash (A rock)
Motto(s): 
"Kuch Adolatdadir!"
("Strength is in Justice!")
Tashkent is located in Uzbekistan
Tashkent
Tashkent
Location in Uzbekistan
Tashkent is located in Asia
Tashkent
Tashkent
Tashkent (Asia)
Coordinates: 41°18′N 69°16′E / 41.300°N 69.267°ECoordinates: 41°18′N 69°16′E / 41.300°N 69.267°E
Country Uzbekistan
Settled5th to 3rd centuries BC
Government
 • TypeCity Administration
 • Hakim (Mayor)Jahongir Ortiqhojaev
Area
 • Total334.8 km2 (129.3 sq mi)
Elevation
455 m (1,493 ft)
Population
(2018)
 • Total2,485,900
 • Density7,400/km2 (19,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5 ( )
Area code(s)71
HDI (2017)0.793[1]
high
Websitehttps://tashkentnews.uz/

History

See also: Timeline of Tashkent and History of Tashkent

During its long history, Tashkent has had various changes in names and political and religious affiliations.

Early history

Tashkent was settled by ancient people as an oasis on the Chirchik River, near the foothills of the West Tian Shan Mountains. In ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of the Kangju confederacy.[4] Some scholars believe that a "Stone Tower" mentioned by Ptolemy and by other early accounts of travel on the Silk Road referred to this settlement ("Tashkent" means "stone city"). This tower is said to have marked the midway point between Europe and China. Other scholars, however, disagree with this identification, though it remains one of four most probable sites for the Stone Tower.[5]

History as Chach

In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach. The Shahnameh of Ferdowsi also refers to the city as Chach.

The principality of Chach had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Syr Darya River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians and Turkic nomads. The Buddhist monk Xuanzang (602/603? – 664 AD), who travelled from China to India through Central Asia, mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí (赭時. The Chinese chronicles Book of Sui from the History of Northern Dynasties and Old Book of Tang, mention a possession called Shí or Zhěshí 赭時 with a capital of the same name since the fifth century AD.[6]

In the early 8th century, the region was conquered by Muslim Arabs.

Islamic history

In the mid-seventh century, the Sasanian Persian Empire collapsed as a result of the Arab Muslim conquest of Persia. Under the Samanid dynasty (819–999), whose founder Saman Khuda was a Persian Zoroastrian convert to Islam, the city came to be known as Binkath. However, the Arabs retained the old name of Chach for the surrounding region, pronouncing it ash-Shash instead. Kand, qand, kent, kad, kath, kud—all meaning a city—are derived from the Persian/Sogdian کنده kanda, meaning a town or a city. They are found in city names such as Samarkand, Yarkand, Panjakent, Khujand etc.). After the 16th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand. The modern spelling of "Tashkent" reflects Russian orthography and 20th-century Soviet influence.

Mongol conquest and aftermath

The city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219 and lost much of its population as a result of the Mongols' destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220. Under the Timurid and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties, the city's population and culture gradually revived as a prominent strategic center of scholarship, commerce and trade along the Silk Road.

Kokand khanate

In 1809, Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand.[7] At the time, Tashkent had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the richest city in Central Asia. It prospered greatly through trade with Russia but chafed under Kokand’s high taxes. The Tashkent clergy also favored the clergy of Bukhara over that of Kokand. However, before the Emir of Bukhara could capitalize on this discontent, the Russian army arrived.

Tsarist period

Храм Александра Невского (Ташкент)
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was built by the Russian Orthodox Church in Tashkent.

In May 1865, Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev (Cherniaev), acting against the direct orders of the tsar and outnumbered at least 15-1, staged a daring night attack against a city with a wall 25 kilometres (16 mi) long with 11 gates and 30,000 defenders. While a small contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the walls, led by a Russian Orthodox priest armed only with a crucifix. Although the defense was stiff, the Russians captured the city after two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders (including Alimqul, the ruler of the Kokand Khanate). Chernyayev dubbed the "Lion of Tashkent" by city elders, staged a "hearts-and-minds" campaign to win the population over. He abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets and bazaars meeting common people, and appointed himself "Military Governor of Tashkent", recommending to Tsar Alexander II that the city is made an independent khanate under Russian protection.

The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", and soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman. Far from being granted independence, Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General. A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, and Russian settlers and merchants poured in. Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and the United Kingdom over Central Asia. The Turkestan Military District was established as part of the military reforms of 1874. The Trans-Caspian Railway arrived in 1889, and the railway workers who built it settled in Tashkent as well, bringing with them the seeds of Bolshevik Revolution.

Effect of the Russian revolution

Ташкент пассаж Ариф-Ходжи
Tashkent ca.1910

With the fall of the Russian Empire, the Russian Provisional Government removed all civil restrictions based on religion and nationality, contributing to local enthusiasm for the February Revolution. The Tashkent Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies was soon set up, but primarily represented Russian residents, who made up about a fifth of the Tashkent population. Muslim leaders quickly set up the Tashkent Muslim Council (Tashkand Shura-yi-Islamiya) based in the old city. On 10 March 1917, there was a parade with Russian workers marching with red flags, Russian soldiers singing La Marseillaise and thousands of local Central Asians. Following various speeches, Governor-General Aleksey Kuropatkin closed the events with words "Long Live a great free Russia".[8]

The First Turkestan Muslim Conference was held in Tashkent 16–20 April 1917. Like the Muslim Council, it was dominated by the Jadid, Muslim reformers. A more conservative faction emerged in Tashkent centered around the Ulema. This faction proved more successful during the local elections of July 1917. They formed an alliance with Russian conservatives, while the Soviet became more radical. The Soviet attempt to seize power in September 1917 proved unsuccessful.[9]

In April 1918, Tashkent became the capital of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR). The new regime was threatened by White forces, basmachi; revolts from within, and purges ordered from Moscow. In 1930, Tashkent fell within the borders of the Uzbek SSR, and became the capital of the Uzbek SSR, displacing Samarkand.

Soviet period

Tashkent the building of town council 02
Tashkent, 1917
Tashkent. Courage monument. USSR stamp. 1979
The Courage Monument in Tashkent on a 1979 Soviet stamp

The city began to industrialize in the 1920s and 1930s.

Violating the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. The government worked to relocate factories from western Russia and Ukraine to Tashkent to preserve the Soviet industrial capacity. This led to great increase in industry during World War II.

It also evacuated most of the German communist emigres to Tashkent.[10] The Russian population increased dramatically; evacuees from the war zones increased the total population of Tashkent to well over a million. Russians and Ukrainians eventually comprised more than half of the total residents of Tashkent.[11] Many of the former refugees stayed in Tashkent to live after the war, rather than return to former homes.

During the postwar period, the Soviet Union established numerous scientific and engineering facilities in Tashkent.

On 10 January 1966, then Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan President Ayub Khan signed a pact in Tashkent with Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin as the mediator to resolve the terms of peace after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. On the next day, Shastri died suddenly, reportedly due to a heart attack. It is widely speculated that Shastri was killed by poisoning the water he drank.

On 26 April 1966, much of the old city was destroyed by an earthquake. More than 300,000 residents were left homeless. Some 78,000 poorly engineered homes were destroyed,[12] mainly in the densely packed areas of the old city, where traditional adobe housing predominated.[13] The Soviet republics, and some other countries such as Finland, sent "battalions of fraternal peoples" and urban planners to help rebuild devastated Tashkent. They created a model Soviet city of wide streets planted with shade trees, parks, immense plazas for parades, fountains, monuments, and acres of apartment blocks. About 100,000 new homes were built by 1970,[12] but the builders occupied many, rather than the homeless residents of Tashkent. Further development in the following years increased the size of the city with major new developments in the Chilonzor area, north-east and south-east of the city.[12]

At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Tashkent was the fourth-largest city in the USSR and a center of learning in the fields of science and engineering.

Due to the 1966 earthquake and the Soviet redevelopment, little architectural heritage has survived of Tashkent's ancient history. Few structures mark its significance as a trading point on the historic Silk Road.

Capital of Uzbekistan

Tashkent is the capital of and the most cosmopolitan city in Uzbekistan. It was noted for its tree-lined streets, numerous fountains, and pleasant parks, at least until the tree-cutting campaigns initiated in 2009 by the local government.[14]

Alisher Navoi Park
Alisher Navoiy Park

Since 1991, the city has changed economically, culturally, and architecturally. New development has superseded or replaced icons of the Soviet era. The largest statue ever erected for Lenin was replaced with a globe, featuring a geographic map of Uzbekistan. Buildings from the Soviet era have been replaced with new modern buildings. The "Downtown Tashkent" district includes the 22-story NBU Bank building, an Intercontinental Hotel, the International Business Center, and the Plaza Building.

Tashkent Japanese Gardens, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Japanese Gardens in Tashkent

The Tashkent Business district is a special district, established for the development of small, medium and large businesses in Uzbekistan.

In 2007, Tashkent was named a "cultural capital of the Islamic world" by Moscow News, as the city has numerous historic mosques and significant Islamic sites, including the Islamic University.[15] Tashkent holds the Samarkand Kufic Quran, one of the earliest written copies of the Quran, which has been located in the city since 1924.[16]

Tashkent History 1860

c. 1865

Tashkent History 1913

1913

Tashkent History 1940

1940

Tashkent History 1965

1965

Tashkent History 1967

1966: earthquake and subsequent redevelopment

Tashkent History 1981

1981

Tashkent History 2000

2000

Origin of television

The first demonstration of a fully electronic TV set to the public and committee was made in Tashkent in summer 1928 by Boris Grabovsky and his team. In his method that had been patented in Saratov in 1925, Boris Grabovsky proposed a new principle of TV imaging based on the vertical and horizontal electron beam sweeping under high voltage. Nowadays this principle of the TV imaging is used practically in all modern cathode-ray tubes. Historian and ethnographer Boris Golender (Борис Голендер in Russian), in a video lecture, described this event.[17] This date of demonstration of the fully electronic TV set is the earliest known so far. Despite this fact, most modern historians disputably consider Vladimir Zworykin[18] and Philo Farnsworth[19] as inventors of the first fully electronic TV set. In 1964, the contribution made to the development of early television by Grabovsky was officially acknowledged by the Uzbek government and he was awarded the prestigious degree "Honorable Inventor of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic".

Geography and climate

Tashkent, Uzbekistan, city and vicinities, satellite image LandSat-5,2010-06-30
Tashkent and vicinity, satellite image Landsat 5, 2010-06-30
Tashkent
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
55
 
 
6
−3
 
 
47
 
 
8
−2
 
 
72
 
 
14
4
 
 
64
 
 
22
10
 
 
32
 
 
27
14
 
 
7.1
 
 
33
18
 
 
3.5
 
 
36
19
 
 
2
 
 
34
17
 
 
4.5
 
 
29
12
 
 
34
 
 
21
7
 
 
45
 
 
14
3
 
 
53
 
 
9
0
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO[20]

Geography

Tashkent is situated in a well-watered plain on the road between Shymkent and Samarkand. Tashkent sits at the confluence of the Chirchiq River and several of its tributaries and is built on deep alluvial deposits up to 15 metres (49 ft). The city is located in an active tectonic area suffering large numbers of tremors and some earthquakes. The local time in Tashkent is UTC/GMT +5 hours.

Climate

Tashkent features a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa)[21] with strong continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa).[21] As a result, Tashkent experiences cold and often snowy winters not typically associated with most Mediterranean climates and long, hot and dry summers. Winters are cold and often snowy, covering the months of December, January and February. Most precipitation occurs during these months which frequently falls as snow. The city experiences two peaks of precipitation in the early winter and spring. The slightly unusual precipitation pattern is partially due to its 500 m (roughly 1600 feet) altitude. Summers are long in Tashkent, usually lasting from May to September. Tashkent can be extremely hot during the months of July and August. The city also sees very little precipitation during the summer, particularly from June through September.[22][23]

Demographics

Residential Towers (3926792798)
Residential Towers

In 1983, the population of Tashkent amounted to 1,902,000 people living in a municipal area of 256 km2 (99 sq mi). By 1991, (break-up of Soviet Union) the number of permanent residents of the capital had grown to approximately 2,136,600. Tashkent was the fourth most populated city in the former USSR, after Moscow, Leningrad (St. Petersburg), and Kiev. Nowadays, Tashkent remains the fourth most populous city in the CIS and Baltic countries. The population of the city was 2,295,300 people in 2004.[27]

As of 2008, the demographic structure of Tashkent was as follows:

Districts

Tashkent city districts (2018) coloured
International Business Center. Tashkent city
Panorama of Tashkent
Tashkent street view
Streets of Tashkent

Tashkent is currently divided into the following districts (Uzbek: Tuman):

Nr District Population
(2009)[28]
Area
(km²)[28]
Density
(area/km²)[28]
Map
1 Bektemir 27,500 20.5 1,341 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Bektemir district (2018)
2 Chilanzar 217,000 30.0 7,233 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Chilanzar district (2018)
3 Yashnobod 204,800 33.7 6,077 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Yashnobod district (2018)
4 Mirobod 122,700 17.1 7,175 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Mirobod district (2018)
5 Mirzo Ulugbek 245,200 31.9 7,687 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Mirzo Ulugbek district (2018)
6 Sergeli 149,000 56.0 2,661 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Sergeli district (2018)
7 Shaykhontohur 285,800 27.2 10,507 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Shaykhontohur district (2018)
8 Olmazar 305,400 34.5 8,852 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Olmazar district (2018)
9 Uchtepa 237,000 28.2 8,404 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Uchtepa district (2018)
10 Yakkasaray 115,200 14.6 7,890 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Yakkasaray district (2018)
11 Yunusabad 296,700 41.1 7,219 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Yunusabad district (2018)

At the time of the Tsarist take over it had four districts (Uzbek daha):

  1. Beshyoghoch
  2. Kukcha
  3. Shaykhontokhur
  4. Sebzor

In 1940 it had the following districts (Russian район):

  1. Oktyabr
  2. Kirov
  3. Stalin
  4. Frunze
  5. Lenin
  6. Kuybishev

By 1981 they were reorganized into:[12]

  1. Bektemir
  2. Akmal-Ikramov (Uchtepa)
  3. Khamza (Yashnobod)
  4. Lenin (Mirobod)
  5. Kuybishev (Mirzo Ulugbek)
  6. Sergeli
  7. Oktober (Shaykhontokhur)
  8. Sobir Rakhimov (Olmazar)
  9. Chilanzar
  10. Frunze (Yakkasaray)
  11. Kirov (Yunusabad)

Main sights

Palace of Grand Prince Nikolai Konstantinovich 12-00
Prince Romanov Palace
Theatre Alisher Navoi
Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre
Tashkent museum of applied arts
Museum of Applied Arts

Due to the destruction of most of the ancient city during the 1917 revolution and, later, the 1966 earthquake, little remains of Tashkent's traditional architectural heritage. Tashkent is, however, rich in museums and Soviet-era monuments. They include:

  • Kukeldash Madrasah. Dating back to the reign of Abdullah Khan II (1557–1598) it is currently being restored by the provincial Religious Board of Mawarannahr Moslems. There is talk of making it into a museum, but it is currently being used as a madrassah.
  • Chorsu Bazaar, located near the Kukeldash Madrassa. This huge open air bazaar is the center of the old town of Tashkent. Everything imaginable is for sale.
  • Telyashayakh Mosque (Khast Imam Mosque). It Contains the Uthman Qur'an, considered to be the oldest extant Qur'an in the world. Dating from 655 and stained with the blood of murdered caliph, Uthman, it was brought by Timur to Samarkand, seized by the Russians as a war trophy and taken to Saint Petersburg. It was returned to Uzbekistan in 1924.[29]
  • Yunus Khan Mausoleum. It is a group of three 15th-century mausoleums, restored in the 19th century. The biggest is the grave of Yunus Khan, grandfather of Mughal Empire founder Babur.
  • Palace of Prince Romanov. During the 19th century Grand Duke Nikolai Konstantinovich, a first cousin of Alexander III of Russia was banished to Tashkent for some shady deals involving the Russian Crown Jewels. His palace still survives in the centre of the city. Once a museum, it has been appropriated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  • Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre, built by the same architect who designed Lenin's Tomb in Moscow, Aleksey Shchusev, with Japanese prisoner of war labor in World War II. It hosts Russian ballet and opera.
  • Fine Arts Museum of Uzbekistan. It contains a major collection of art from the pre-Russian period, including Sogdian murals, Buddhist statues and Zoroastrian art, along with a more modern collection of 19th and 20th century applied art, such as suzani embroidered hangings. Of more interest is the large collection of paintings "borrowed" from the Hermitage by Grand Duke Romanov to decorate his palace in exile in Tashkent, and never returned. Behind the museum is a small park, containing the neglected graves of the Bolsheviks who died in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and to Osipov's treachery in 1919,[30] along with first Uzbekistani President Yuldosh Akhunbabayev.
  • Museum of Applied Arts. Housed in a traditional house originally commissioned for a wealthy tsarist diplomat, the house itself is the main attraction, rather than its collection of 19th and 20th century applied arts.
  • State Museum of History of Uzbekistan the largest museum in the city. It is housed in the ex-Lenin Museum.
  • Amir Timur Museum, housed in a building with brilliant blue dome and ornate interior. It houses exhibits of Timur and of President Islam Karimov. The gardens outside contain a statue of Timur on horseback, surrounded by some of the nicest gardens and fountains in the city.
  • Navoi Literary Museum, commemorating Uzbekistan's adopted literary hero, Alisher Navoi, with replica manuscripts, Islamic calligraphy and 15th century miniature paintings.

The Russian Orthodox church in Amir Temur Square, built in 1898, was demolished in 2009. The building had not been allowed to be used for religious purposes since the 1920s due to the anti-religious campaign conducted across the former Soviet Union by the Bolshevik (communist) government in Moscow. During the Soviet period the building was used for different non-religious purposes; after independence it was a bank.

Tashkent also has a World War II memorial park and a Defender of Motherland monument.[31][32][33]

Education

Most important scientific institutions of Uzbekistan, such as the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, are located in Tashkent. There are several universities and institutions of higher education:

Media

Moreover, there are digital broadcasting systems available in Tashkent which is unique in Central Asia.

Transportation

Tashkent Station 16-56
Tashkent Railway Station

Entertainment and shopping

There are several shopping malls in Tashkent which are good both for entertainment and shopping. These include Next, Samarqand Darvoza and Kontinent shopping malls.

Next mall is very popular among families and prominent for its Science Lab for kids, Dinosaur’s museum, Ice Rink and Cinema.

Samarqand Darvoza offers a wide range of entertaining including Playground for kids, Game area, bowling and convenient multilayer parking place. It is a good place for kids’ birthday parties and family entertainment.

Kontinent Mall is conveniently located next to the Grand Mir Hotel. It is a smaller place but combines a variety of dining options such as diet cafe, fast food court and a bar.

Sport

Шацких1
Maksim Shatskikh, a striker for the Uzbekistan national football team, is from Tashkent.

Football is the most popular sport in Tashkent, with the most prominent football clubs being FC Pakhtakor Tashkent and FC Bunyodkor, both of which compete in the Uzbek League. Footballers Maksim Shatskikh, Peter Odemwingie and Vassilis Hatzipanagis were born in the city.

Cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov was born in the city, while tennis player Denis Istomin was raised there. Akgul Amanmuradova and Iroda Tulyaganova are notable female tennis players from Tashkent.

Gymnasts Alina Kabayeva and Israeli Olympian Alexander Shatilov were also born in the city.

Former world champion and Israeli Olympic bronze medalist sprint canoer in the K-1 500 m event Michael Kolganov was also born in Tashkent.[34]

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

Tashkent is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  2. ^ "Residents of Tashkent city exceeds 2.48m people". Uzdaily.com.
  3. ^ "Юбилей Ташкента. Такое бывает только раз в 2200 лет". Фергана - международное агентство новостей. Retrieved 2017-12-10.
  4. ^ Pulleyblank, Edwin G. "The Consonantal System of Old Chinese," Asia Major 9 (1963), p. 94.
  5. ^ Dean, Riaz (2015). "The Location of Ptolemy's Stone Tower: the Case for Sulaiman-Too in Osh". The Silk Road. 13: 76.
  6. ^ Bichurin, 1950. v. II
  7. ^ Planet, Lonely. "History in Tashkent, Uzbekistan".
  8. ^ Jeff Sahadeo, Russian Colonial Society in Tashkent, Indiana University Press, 2007, p188
  9. ^ Rex A. Wade, The Russian Revolution, 1917, Cambridge University Press, 2005
  10. ^ Robert K. Shirer, "Johannes R. Becher 1891–1958", Encyclopedia of German Literature, Chicago and London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2000, by permission at Digital Commons, University of Nebraska, accessed 3 February 2013
  11. ^ Edward Allworth (1994), Central Asia, 130 Years of Russian Dominance: A Historical Overview, Duke University Press, p. 102. ISBN 0-8223-1521-1
  12. ^ a b c d Sadikov, A C; Akramob Z. M.; Bazarbaev, A.; Mirzlaev T.M.; Adilov S. R.; Baimukhamedov X. N.; et al. (1984). Geographical Atlas of Tashkent (Ташкент Географический Атлас) (in Russian) (2 ed.). Moscow. pp. 60, 64.
  13. ^ Nurtaev Bakhtiar (1998). "Damage for buildings of different type". Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
  14. ^ "Good bye the Tashkent Public Garden!". Ferghana.Ru. 23 November 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  15. ^ "Moscow News – World – Tashkent Touts Islamic University". Mnweekly.ru. 21 June 2007. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
  16. ^ "Tashkent's hidden Islamic relic". BBC. 5 January 2006. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  17. ^ "Видеолекторий «Ферганы»: Изобретение телевидения и Борис Грабовский". Фергана.Ру.
  18. ^ "Invention of the Iconoscope, the First Electronic Television Camera : HistoryofInformation.com". www.historyofinformation.com.
  19. ^ K. Krull, The boy who invented TV: The story of Philo Farnsworth, 2014
  20. ^ a b "World Weather Information Service – Tashkent". World Meteorological Organisation. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  21. ^ a b Updated Asian map of the Köppen climate classification system
  22. ^ Tashkent Travel. "Tashkent weather forecast". Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Archived from the original on 29 May 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  23. ^ Happy-Tellus.com. "Tashkent, Uzbekistan travel information". Helsinki, Finland: Infocenter International Ltd. Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  24. ^ "Climate Data for Tashkent". Centre of Hydrometeorological Service. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  25. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Tashkent" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  26. ^ "Tashkent Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  27. ^ "ТАШКЕНТ (город)". Dic.academic.ru. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
  28. ^ a b c (in Russian) Statistics of the subdivisions of Tashkent Archived 7 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ MacWilliams, Ian (5 January 2006). "Tashkent's hidden Islamic relic". BBC News. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  30. ^ Smele, Jonathan D. (20 November 2015). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916–1926. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 58. ISBN 978-1442252806. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  31. ^ uznews.net, Tashkent's central park is history Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 25 November 2009
  32. ^ Army memorial dismantled in Tashkent Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 24 November 2009
  33. ^ Ferghana.ru, МИД России указал послу Узбекистана на обеспокоенность «Наших», 16 January 2010 (in Russian)
  34. ^ "Sports-reference.com". Sports-reference.com. 1974-10-24. Retrieved 2013-11-24.
  35. ^ "Berlin – City Partnerships". Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin. Archived from the original on 2013-05-21. Retrieved 2013-09-17.
  36. ^ "Seoul – Sister Cities [via WayBackMachine]". Seoul Metropolitan Government (archived 2012-04-25). Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
  37. ^ "International Cooperation: Sister Cities". Seoul Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2008.

Museum of Fine Arts

Further reading

  • Stronski, Paul, Tashkent: Forging a Soviet City, 1930–1966 (Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010).
  • Jeff Sahadeo, Russian Colonial Society in Tashkent, 1865–1923 (Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press, 2010).

External links

2013 Tashkent Open

The 2013 Tashkent Open was a WTA International tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It was the 15th edition of the Tashkent Open, on the 2013 WTA Tour. It took place at the Tashkent Tennis Center in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, on September 7–14, 2013.

2014 Tashkent Open

The 2014 Tashkent Open was a WTA International tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It was the 16th edition of the Tashkent Open, on the 2014 WTA Tour. It took place at the Tashkent Tennis Center in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, between September 8–13, 2014.

2015 Tashkent Open

The 2015 Tashkent Open was a WTA International tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It was the 17th edition of the Tashkent Open, on the 2015 WTA Tour. It took place at the Tashkent Tennis Center in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, between September 28 and October 3, 2015.

Districts of Uzbekistan

The regions of Uzbekistan are divided into districts (tuman). The districts are listed by region, in the general direction from west to east. Names often transliterated from Russian.

FC Bunyodkor

Football Club Bunyodkor (Uzbek: Bunyodkor futbol klubi) is a professional football club based in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Bunyodkor, a relatively obscure club at the time, made international headlines when it claimed to be close to signing world-famous Barcelona striker Samuel Eto'o, although he did not sign with them. On 25 August 2008, AEK Athens Brazilian superstar Rivaldo announced to the Greek press that he was joining Bunyodkor on a reported $14 million two-year contract.The club finished second in the 2007 Uzbek League season and made the semi-finals of the 2008 AFC Champions League. In the beginning of August 2008, the club changed its name to Bunyodkor from PFC Kuruvchi to reflect the club's success on the pitch and its increasing professionalism off the pitch.

PFC Lokomotiv Tashkent

PFC Lokomotiv Tashkent (Uzbek: Lokomotiv Toshkent professional futbol klubi, Russian: Футбольный клуб Локомотив Ташкент) is an Uzbekistani football club based in Tashkent.

The owner and main sponsor of the club is a state-owned company Uzbekistan Railways.

Pakhtakor Tashkent FK

FC Pakhtakor Tashkent (Uzbek: Paxtakor Toshkent futbol klubi) is an Uzbek professional football club, based in the capital Tashkent. Pakhtakor literally means "cotton-grower" in English.

Pakhtakor was the only Uzbek club to play in the top-level Soviet football league and was the only Central Asian club to appear in a Soviet Cup final. Playing in the Uzbek League since 1992, the club has been the undisputed powerhouse in Uzbekistan since the fall of the Soviet Union, winning ten Uzbek League titles, including six in a row from 2002 to 2007. Pakhtakor also won seven consecutive domestic cups between 2001 and 2007, winning eleven cups in total. Players for the club have won Uzbek footballer of the Year honours eight times, and Pakhtakor teammates swept the top three spots in 2002. Club managers have been named Uzbek coach of the year twice.The team is also a perennial competitor in the AFC Champions League, having reached the semi-finals of the competition twice in 2003 and 2004. Pakhtakor currently holds the record in number of consecutive participations in the AFC Champions League, participating in 2002 to 2013 tournaments.

Samarkand Kufic Quran

The Samarkand Kufic Quran (also known as the Uthman Quran, Samarkand codex, Samarkand manuscript and Tashkent Quran) is an 8th or 9th century manuscript Quran written in the territory of modern Iraq in the Kufic script. Today it is kept in the Hast Imam library, in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

It is said to have belonged to the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan.

Tashkent Challenger

The Tashkent Challenger is a tennis tournament held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan since 2008. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour and is played on outdoor hard courts.

Between 1997 and 2002, there was a tournament of a level equivalent to what today is the ATP 250 series, played in Tashkent, the Tashkent Open.

Tashkent Declaration

The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on 10 January 1966 that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Peace had been achieved on 23 September by the intervention of the external powers who pushed the two nations to cease fire, afraid the conflict could escalate and draw in other powers.The war between India and Pakistan in 1965 was an escalation of the small scale and irregular fighting from April 1965 to September 1965 between both countries. It was over control of the resources and population of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, a sore point between both countries ever since Partition in 1947.

Tashkent International Airport

Islam Karimov Tashkent International Airport (Uzbek: Islom Karimov Toshkent Xalqaro Aeroporti – (IATA: TAS, ICAO: UTTT)) is the main international airport of Uzbekistan and the 3rd busiest airport in Central Asia (after Almaty International Airport and Nursultan Nazarbayev International Airport in Kazakhstan). It is located 12 km (7.5 mi) from the center of Tashkent.

Tashkent Metro

The Tashkent Metro (Uzbek: Toshkent metropoliteni) is the rapid transit system serving the city of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan. It is one of only two subway systems currently operating in Central Asia (the other one being the Almaty Metro). It was the seventh metro to be built in the former USSR, opening in 1977. Its stations are among the most ornate in the world. Unlike most of the ex-Soviet metros, the system is shallow (similar to the Minsk Metro).

The Tashkent Metro consists of three lines, operating on 36.2 kilometres (22.5 mi) of route and serving 29 stations. In 2013, the metro carried 59.2 million passengers, which corresponds to a daily average of approximately 162,200 riders.

Tashkent Open

The Tashkent Open by Zeromax is a women's tennis tournament held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Held since 1999, this WTA Tour event is an International tournament and is played on outdoor hard courts.Since 2014, the event has been scheduled in early autumn, during the same week as Wuhan Open.

Tashkent Region

Tashkent Region (Uzbek: Toshkent viloyati, Тошкент вилояти) is a viloyat (region) of Uzbekistan, located in the northeastern part of the country, between the Syr Darya River and the Tien Shan Mountains. It borders with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Sirdaryo Region and Namangan Region. It covers an area of 15,300 km². The population is estimated to be around 4,450,000.

Tashkent Tower

The Tashkent Television Tower (Uzbek: Toshkent Teleminorasi) is a 375-metre-high (1,230 ft) tower, located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan and is the 11th tallest tower in the world. Construction started in 1978 and it began operation 6 years later, on 15 January 1985. It was the 3rd tallest tower in the world from 1985 to 1991.

Moreover, the decision of construction Tashkent Tower or TV-Tower of Uzbekistan was decided in 1971 in 1 September in order to spread the TV and radio signals to all over the Uzbekistan.

It is of a vertical cantilever structure, and is constructed out of steel. Its architectural design is a product of the Terxiev, Tsarucov & Semashko firm.

The tower has an observation deck located 97 metres (318 ft) above the ground. It is second tallest structure in Central Asia after Ekibastuz GRES-2 Power Station in Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan. It also belongs to the World Federation of Great Towers.

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan (US: (listen), UK: ; Uzbek: Ўзбекистон/Oʻzbekiston pronounced [ozbekiˈstɒn]; Russian: Узбекистан [ʊzbʲɪkʲɪˈstan]), officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Ўзбекистон Республикаси/Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi; Russian: Республика Узбекистан), is a landlocked country in Central Asia. The sovereign state is a secular, unitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, and a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Along with Liechtenstein, it is one of the world's only two doubly landlocked countries (i.e. sharing borders only with other landlocked countries).

What is now Uzbekistan was in ancient times part of the Iranian-speaking region of Transoxiana and Turan. The first recorded settlers were Eastern Iranian nomads, known as Scythians, who founded kingdoms in Khwarezm (8th–6th centuries BC), Bactria (8th–6th centuries BC), Sogdia (8th–6th centuries BC), Fergana (3rd century BC – 6th century AD), and Margiana (3rd century BC – 6th century AD). The area was incorporated into the Persian Empire and, after a period of Macedonian Greek rule, was ruled by the Persian Parthian Empire and later by the Sasanian Empire, until the Muslim conquest of Persia in the 7th century. The Muslim conquest in the 7th century converted the majority of the population, including the local ruling classes, into adherents of Islam. During this period, cities such as Samarkand, Khiva and Bukhara began to grow rich from the Silk Road. The local Khwarezmian dynasty, and Central Asia as a whole, were decimated by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century. After the Mongol Conquests, the area became increasingly dominated by Turkic peoples. The city of Shahrisabz was the birthplace of the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur, also known as one of Genghis Khan's grandchildren, who in the 14th century established the Timurid Empire and was proclaimed the Supreme Emir of Turan with his capital in Samarkand. The area was conquered by Uzbek Shaybanids in the 16th century, moving the centre of power from Samarkand to Bukhara. The region was split into three states: Khanate of Khiva, Khanate of Kokand, and Emirate of Bukhara. It was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century, with Tashkent becoming the political center of Russian Turkestan. In 1924, after national delimitation, the constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991.

Uzbekistan has a diverse cultural heritage due to its storied history and strategic location. Its first major official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population. Russian has widespread use as a governmental language; it is the most widely taught second language. Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians (5.4%), Tajiks (4.0%), Kazakhs (3.0%), and others (6.5%). Muslims constitute 79% of the population while 5% of the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity, and 16% of the population follow other religions or are non-religious. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is a member of the CIS, OSCE, UN, and the SCO. While officially a democratic republic, by 2008 non-governmental human rights organizations defined Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights".Following the death of Islam Karimov in 2016, the second president, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, started a new course, which was described as a A Quiet Revolution and Revolution from Above. He stated he intended to abolish cotton slavery, systematic use of child labour, exit visas, to introduce a tax reform, create four new free economic zones, as well as amnestied some political prisoners. The relations with neighboring countries of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan drastically improved. However, the Amnesty International report on human rights in the country for 2017/2018 described continued repressive measures, including forced labour in cotton harvesting, and restrictions on movements of 'freed' prisoners.The Uzbek economy is in a gradual transition to the market economy, with foreign trade policy being based on import substitution. In September 2017, the country's currency became fully convertible in the market rates. Uzbekistan is a major producer and exporter of cotton. The country also operates the largest open-pit gold mine in the world. With the gigantic power-generation facilities of the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gas, Uzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia. Renewable energy constitutes more than 23% of the country's energy sector, with hydroelectricity and solar energy having 21.4% and 2% respectively.

Uzbekistan Cup

The Uzbek Cup (Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Kubogi or Ўзбекистон Кубоги) is the top knockout tournament in Uzbek football (soccer).

Uzbekistan Super League

Uzbekistan Super League (Uzbek: O'zbekiston Superligasi / Ўзбекистон Суперлигаси), also called Coca-Cola Uzbekistan Super League (Uzbek: Coca-Cola O'zbekiston Superligasi / Coca-Cola Ўзбекистон Суперлигаси) due to sponsorship by Coca-Cola, is the top division of football in Uzbekistan, and is operated under the auspices of the Uzbekistan Professional Football League and Uzbekistan Football Association. It was founded in 1992 and is participate by 12 teams (since 2018). The top three teams get a chance to compete in the AFC Champions League, while the two last ranked teams are relegated to the Uzbekistan Pro League.

Uzbekistan national football team

The Uzbekistan national football team (Uzbek: Oʻzbekiston milliy futbol terma jamoasi) represents Uzbekistan in association football and is controlled by the Uzbekistan Football Association, the governing body for football in Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan's home ground is Milliy Stadium in Tashkent and their current head coach is Héctor Cúper. Uzbekistan has never qualified to the final stages of the World Cup, but the team have qualified to every AFC Asian Cup since its declaration of independence. In the Asian Cup in 2011, the Uzbekistan national team reached the semi-finals of the tournament. Uzbekistan won the Gold Medal in the football tournament at the Asian Games 1994 in Japan, and was runner-up in the Afro-Asian Cup of Nations in 1995.

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.1
 
 
42
26
 
 
1.8
 
 
46
29
 
 
2.8
 
 
58
40
 
 
2.5
 
 
71
50
 
 
1.3
 
 
81
57
 
 
0.3
 
 
92
64
 
 
0.1
 
 
96
67
 
 
0.1
 
 
93
63
 
 
0.2
 
 
84
54
 
 
1.3
 
 
70
45
 
 
1.8
 
 
58
38
 
 
2.1
 
 
47
31
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Climate data for Tashkent (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
25.7
(78.3)
32.5
(90.5)
36.4
(97.5)
39.9
(103.8)
43.0
(109.4)
44.6
(112.3)
43.1
(109.6)
39.8
(103.6)
37.5
(99.5)
31.1
(88.0)
27.3
(81.1)
44.6
(112.3)
Average high °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
9.4
(48.9)
15.2
(59.4)
22.0
(71.6)
27.5
(81.5)
33.4
(92.1)
35.6
(96.1)
34.7
(94.5)
29.3
(84.7)
21.8
(71.2)
14.9
(58.8)
8.8
(47.8)
21.6
(70.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
3.9
(39.0)
9.4
(48.9)
15.5
(59.9)
20.5
(68.9)
25.8
(78.4)
27.8
(82.0)
26.2
(79.2)
20.6
(69.1)
13.9
(57.0)
8.5
(47.3)
3.5
(38.3)
14.8
(58.6)
Average low °C (°F) −1.5
(29.3)
0.0
(32.0)
4.8
(40.6)
9.8
(49.6)
13.7
(56.7)
18.1
(64.6)
19.7
(67.5)
18.1
(64.6)
13.0
(55.4)
7.8
(46.0)
4.1
(39.4)
0.0
(32.0)
9.0
(48.1)
Record low °C (°F) −28
(−18)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−16.9
(1.6)
−6.3
(20.7)
−1.7
(28.9)
3.8
(38.8)
8.2
(46.8)
3.4
(38.1)
0.1
(32.2)
−11.2
(11.8)
−22.1
(−7.8)
−29.5
(−21.1)
−29.5
(−21.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 57.8
(2.28)
57.2
(2.25)
64.8
(2.55)
59.8
(2.35)
40.9
(1.61)
10.8
(0.43)
3.5
(0.14)
1.9
(0.07)
5.9
(0.23)
29.3
(1.15)
41.3
(1.63)
53.6
(2.11)
426.8
(16.8)
Average precipitation days 11.1 9.6 11.4 9.5 7.0 3.2 1.3 0.7 1.5 4.8 7.3 9.5 76.9
Average snowy days 13 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2 8 32.2
Average relative humidity (%) 73 68 62 60 53 40 39 42 45 57 66 73 57
Mean monthly sunshine hours 117.3 125.3 165.1 216.8 303.4 361.8 383.7 365.8 300.9 224.8 149.5 105.9 2,820.3
Source #1: Centre of Hydrometeorological Service of Uzbekistan,[24] World Meteorological Organisation[20]
Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net (record low and record high temperatures),[25] NOAA (mean monthly sunshine hours, 1961–1990)[26]
Districts of Tashkent
Capitals of Asia
Capital
Cities
Districts and seats
Other towns

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.