Tapioca

Tapioca (/ˌtæpiˈoʊkə/; Portuguese: [tapiˈɔkɐ]) is a starch extracted from the storage roots of the cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). This species is native to the north region and central-west region of Brazil,[1] but its use spread throughout South America. The plant was carried by Portuguese and Spanish explorers to most of the West Indies and Africa and Asia. It is a perennial shrub adapted to the hot conditions of tropical lowlands. Cassava copes better with poor soils than many other food plants.

Although tapioca is a staple food for millions of people in tropical countries, it provides only carbohydrate food value, and is low in protein, vitamins and minerals. In other countries, it is used as a thickening agent in various manufactured foods.

Tepung casava
Tapioca starch

Etymology and origin

Manihot esculenta dsc07325
Cassava root

Tapioca is derived from the word tipi'óka, its name in the Tupí language spoken by natives when the Portuguese first arrived in the Northeast Region of Brazil around 1707.[2] This Tupí word is translated as 'sediment' or 'coagulant' and refers to the curd-like starch sediment that is obtained in the extraction process.

Production

The cassava plant has either red or green branches with blue spindles on them. The root of the green-branched variant requires treatment to remove linamarin, a cyanogenic glycoside occurring naturally in the plant, which otherwise may be converted into cyanide.[3] Konzo (also called mantakassa) is a paralytic disease associated with several weeks of almost exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava.

In the north and northeast of Brazil, traditional community-based production of tapioca is a by-product of manioc flour production from cassava roots. In this process, the manioc (after treatment to remove toxicity) is ground to a pulp with a small hand- or diesel-powered mill. This masa is then squeezed to dry it out. The wet masa is placed in a long woven tube called a tipiti. The top of the tube is secured while a large branch or lever is inserted into a loop at the bottom and used to stretch the entire implement vertically, squeezing a starch-rich liquid out through the weave and ends. This liquid is collected and the (microscopic) starch grains in it are allowed to settle to the bottom of the container. The supernatant liquid is then poured off, leaving behind a wet starch sediment that needs to be dried and results in the fine-grained tapioca starch powder similar in appearance to corn starch.

Biji delima pacar china
Colored, translucent tapioca sticks

Commercially, the starch is processed into several forms: hot soluble powder, meal, pre-cooked fine/coarse flakes, rectangular sticks, and spherical "pearls".[4] Pearls are the most widely available shape; sizes range from about 1 mm to 8 mm in diameter, with 2–3 mm being the most common.

Flakes, sticks, and pearls must be soaked well before cooking, in order to rehydrate, absorbing water up to twice their volume. After rehydration, tapioca products become leathery and swollen. Processed tapioca is usually white, but sticks and pearls may be colored. Traditionally, the most common color applied to tapioca has been brown, but recently pastel colors have been available. Tapioca pearls are generally opaque when raw, but become translucent when cooked in boiling water.

Brazil in South America, Thailand in Asia, and Nigeria in Africa are the world's largest producers of cassava. Currently, Thailand accounts for about 60 percent of worldwide exports.[5]

Uses

Nutritional value

Spicy and Non Spicy Tapioca Chips.jpeg
Spicy and non-spicy tapioca chips

Tapioca consists of pure starch, and negligible trace amounts of minerals and other components contained in the cassava roots from which it was extracted. Because of its nature as nearly pure starch, and being devoid of substantial amounts of proteins, lipids, minerals and vitamins, tapioca's nutritional value is limited to its energetic value.

Flatbreads

A casabe is a thin flatbread made from bitter cassava root without leavening. It was originally produced by the indigenous Arawak and Carib peoples because these roots were a common plant of the rain forests where they lived. In eastern Venezuela, many indigenous groups still make casabe. It is their chief bread-like staple. Indigenous communities, such as the Ye-Kuana, Kari-Ña, Yanomami, Guarao or Warao descended from the Caribe or Arawac nations, still make casabe.[6]

Elaboraciondelcasabe
Casabe baking in a small commercial bakery

To make casabe, the starchy root of bitter cassava is ground to a pulp, then squeezed to expel a milky, bitter liquid called yare. This carries the poisonous substances with it out of the pulp. Traditionally, this squeezing is done in a sebucan, an 8 to 12-foot (3.7 m) long, tube-shaped, pressure strainer, woven in a characteristic helical pattern from palm leaves. The sebucan usually is hung from a tree branch or ceiling pole, and it has a closed bottom with a loop that is attached to a fixed stick or lever, which is used to stretch the sebucan. When the lever is pushed down, stretching the sebucan, the helical weaving pattern causes the strainer to squeeze the pulp inside. This is similar to the action of a Chinese finger trap. The pulp is spread in thin, round cakes about 2 feet (0.61 m) in diameter on a budare to roast or toast.

Thin and crisp cakes of casabe are often broken apart and eaten like crackers. Like bread, casabe can be eaten alone or with other dishes. Thicker casabe usually are eaten slightly moistened. A sprinkle of a few drops of liquid is enough to transform a dry casabe into soft smooth bread.

Tapioca balls

Bubble tea by Chill Bubble Tea
Taro flavored bubble tea with tapioca pearls

Tapioca balls, also known as boba in some cultures, are produced by passing the moist starch through a sieve under pressure. Pearl tapioca is a common ingredient in South, East and Southeast Asian desserts such as falooda, kolak, sago soup, and in sweet drinks such as bubble tea, fruit slush and taho, where they provide a chewy contrast to the sweetness and smooth texture of the drink. Small pearls are preferred for use in puddings. In Brazil, the pearls are cooked with wine or other liquid to add flavor and are called sagu.

Large pearls are preferred for use in drinks. These pearls most often are brown, not white, due to the sugar added and are traditionally used in black or green tea drinks. They are used as various colors in shave ice and hot drinks. In addition to their use in puddings and beverages, tapioca pearls may be used in cakes.

Processing and properties

Tapioca-1
Small, opaque pearl tapioca before soaking

Processing of the cassava flour into tapioca pearls requires the intermediate step of a product called tapioca grit. Tapioca grit is dried cassava flour that is partially gelatinized so that it looks like flakes or irregularly-shaped granules.[7]

In contrast, making starch pearls uses a different process of roasting. To form the pearls, the tapioca grit can be cut or extruded into the shape of pearls, either small (3mm) or large (6-8mm).[8][9] The pearls are subjected to a form of heat-moisture treatment, which can extend shelf life up to 2 years.[9]

Tapioca pearls have many unique properties that contribute to texture and mouth feel. Many of these physical properties are a result of its starch composition and are significantly affected by processing. Tapioca pearls are characteristically soft and chewy, with a prominent elastic texture and translucent appearance.[9]

World War II

During World War II, due to the shortage of food in Southeast Asia, many refugees survived on tapioca. The cassava plant is easily propagated by stem-cutting, grows well in low-nutrient soils, and can be harvested every two months, although it takes ten months to grow to full maturity. The plant provided much needed carbohydrates and other nutrients.[10]

Biodegradable products

Tapioca root can be used to manufacture biodegradable bags developed from a tapioca resin of the plant as a viable plastic substitute.[11] Not only is it biodegradable, but it can be composted, is renewable, reusable, recyclable and sustainable. Other tapioca resin products include reusable gloves, capes and aprons.

Laundry

Tapioca starch, used commonly for starching shirts and garments before ironing, may be sold in bottles of natural gum starch to be dissolved in water or in spray cans.

Regional applications

South America

Brazil

Tapioca do Alto da Sé - Olinda-PE
Beiju, Brazilian tapioca flatbread of Alto da Sé, in Olinda, Pernambuco.

In Brazilian cuisine, tapioca is used for different types of meals. In beiju (or biju), the tapioca is moistened, strained through a sieve to become a coarse flour, then sprinkled onto a hot griddle or pan, where the heat makes the starchy grains fuse into a flatbread which resembles a grainy pancake. Then it may be buttered and eaten as a toast (its most common use as a breakfast dish), or it may be filled or topped with either salgados (salty pastry recipes) or doces (sweet pastry recipes), which define the kind of meal the tapioca is used for: breakfast/dinner, or dessert. Choices for fillings range from butter, cheese, ham, bacon, various kinds of meat, chocolate, fruits such as ground coconut, condensed milk, chocolate with sliced pieces of banana or strawberry, Nutella and cinnamon among others. This kind of tapioca dish is usually served warm.

A regional dessert called sagu is also made in Southern Brazil from tapioca pearls cooked with cinnamon and cloves in red wine. The cassava root is known by different names throughout the country: mandioca in the North, Central-West and in São Paulo; tapioca or macaxeira in the Northeast; aipim in the Southeast (especially in Rio de Janeiro).

The fine-grained tapioca starch is called polvilho, and it is classified as either "sweet" or "sour". Sour polvilho is commonly used in dishes such as pão de queijo or "cheese bread", in which the starch is mixed with a hard cheese, usually matured Minas cheese (could be substituted by Parmesan cheese), eggs and butter and baked in the oven. The final result is an aromatic, chewy and elastic kind of bread that is ubiquitous across the country. Toasted cassava flour is mixed into mashed beans to make the dish tutu de feijão.

Other locations

In Colombia and Venezuela, arepas may be made with tapioca flour rather than cornmeal. Tapioca arepas probably predate cornmeal arepas; among traditional cultures of the Caribbean the name for them is casabe. Throughout both Spanish and Portuguese South America, the tapioca, or yuca, starch is used to make regional variations of the baked cheese bun, known locally as pandebono, pan de yuca, pão de queijo, chipá, or cuñapé, among other names.

The whole unprocessed cassava root also has a number of culinary uses throughout South America.

North America

Tapioca22
Tapioca pudding

While frequently associated with tapioca pudding, a dessert in the United States, tapioca is also used in other courses.[12] People on gluten-free diets can eat bread made with tapioca flour (although these individuals have to be careful, as some tapioca flour has wheat added to it). Tapioca syrup is sometimes added as a sweetener to a wide variety of foods and beverages as an alternative to sucrose or corn syrup.[13]

West Indies

Tapioca is a staple food from which dishes such as pepper pot as well as alcohol are made. It may be used to clean the teeth, as a foodstuff cooked with meats or fish, and in desserts such as cassava pone.

Specifically in rural Cuba early in Spanish rule, tapioca's popularity grew because it was easy to cultivate the crop and to transport to nearby Spanish settlements, eventually influencing the way land and people were divided in that early imperial era.[14]

Asia

In various Asian countries, tapioca pearls are widely used and are known as sagudana, sabudana or shabudana (pearl sago) or sabba akki (in Kannada). The pearls are used to make snacks. Tapioca pearls are essential ingredients for Taiwanese bubble tea.

Southeast Asia

Thai Tapioca Pudding
Thai tapioca pudding

In Southeast Asia, the cassava root is commonly cut into slices, wedges or strips, fried, and served as tapioca chips, similar to potato chips, wedges or french fries. Another method is to boil large blocks until soft, and serve them with grated coconut as a dessert, either slightly salted or sweetened, usually with palm sugar syrup. In Thailand, this dish is called mansampalang.

Commercially prepared tapioca has many uses. Tapioca powder is commonly used as a thickener for soups and other liquid foods. It is also used as a binder in pharmaceutical tablets and natural paints. The flour is used to make tender breads, cakes, biscuits, cookies, and other delicacies (see also Maida flour). Tapioca flakes are used to thicken the filling of pies made with fruits having a high water content.

A typical recipe for tapioca jelly can be made by washing 2 tablespoonfuls of tapioca, pouring a pint of water over it, and soaking for three hours. The mixture is placed over low heat and simmered until quite clear. If too thick, a little boiling water can be added. It can be sweetened with white sugar, flavored with coconut milk or a little wine, and eaten alone or with cream.

Tapioca cracker
Tapioca crackers from Indonesia sold in a Los Angeles, California market

Krupuk, or Indonesian traditional crackers, is a major use of tapioca starch in Indonesia. The most common krupuk is kerupuk kampung or kerupuk aci made of tapioca starch. The tapioca starch might be flavoured with minced shrimp as krupuk udang (prawn cracker) or krupuk ikan (fish cracker). The thinly sliced or sometimes quite thick cassava were also sun dried and deep fried to be made as kripik singkong crackers (cassava chips or tapioca chips).[15] A variant of hot and spicy kripik singkong coated with sugar and chili pepper is known as kripik balado[16] or keripik sanjay, a specialty of Bukittinggi city in West Sumatra.

Tapai is made by fermenting large blocks with a yeast-like bacteria culture to produce a sweet and slightly alcoholic dessert. Further fermentation releases more liquids and alcohol producing Tuak, a sour alcoholic beverage.

A variation of the chips popular amongst the Malays is kerepek pedas, where the crisps are coated with a hot, sweet and tangy chili and onion paste, or sambal, usually with fried anchovies and peanuts added.

South Asia

During religious fasts, sabudana is a popular alternative to rice-based foods. Consumed with curd or milk or prepared as a Khichdi, sago is particularly popular choice during the fasts of Navratri, Ekadashi, 'Ombubachi', Nilshosthi, and Ramadan. Traditionally, tapioca pearls are used as the food for children, elderly and ill people, mixed with milk or water. Faluda, a popular food, is also prepared with curd, ice and other ingredient during summer.

Tapioca pearls are a common ingredient of traditional Indian dishes such as kheer.

Tapioca pearls are used to make Sabudana khichdi, pakode, which is commonly eaten during vrat.

Tapioca
Cooked cassava dish from Kerala, India

Tapioca is widely consumed across the Indian state of Kerala. In some parts of Kerala, it is taken as breakfast or as a staple food. It is boiled (after skinning and cutting it into large cakes of about 6–8 cm (2.4–3.1 in) long or into small 2 cm (0.79 in) cubes) in water till properly cooked, and the water is drained off. Once cooked, it can be mixed with grated coconut, chili, salt, turmeric etc., then steamed and mashed into a dry pudding. This can be garnished in oil with mustard, onion, curry leaves etc. if desired. Tapioca cakes (chendan kappa) are often eaten with simple chili sauce (a paste of Green/Red Chili + Shallot + small red Onion + Garlic + Salt + Oil).

Mashed tapioca is paired with meat or fish curry, especially sardines, as a delicacy in Kerala. Mashed tapioca with dried salted sardines directly cooked on charcoal and green chili is another popular combination.

Tapioca can be stored for longer periods by parboiling and drying it, after skinning and slicing it into 0.5 cm thick pieces. This is called unakka kappa (dried tapioca). Tapioca chips, thinly sliced tapioca wafers, similar to potato chips, are also popular.

In Tamil, the roots of tapioca are called maravalli kizhangu, and are used to prepare chips. Tapioca pearls are referred to as "javvarisi" in Tamil. Most of the delicacies are cooked from this form of tapioca because it is relatively easier to handle than the raw root itself. Tapioca is cultivated more in several districts, providing steady income to farmers. Tapioca can be consumed raw (after removing the skins/outer cover) or boiled for various dishes or snacks.

In Nagaland and Mizoram in Northeast India, tapioca is eaten as a snack. It is usually boiled with a bit of salt in water after skinning it, or snacks are made by drying the tapioca after cutting it. It is then powdered into flour and turned into dough to either make a fired or baked biscuit. In their local dialect, they call it kuri aloo, meaning "wood potato". These chips are eaten by all groups of society as a delicacy. The skin of the tapioca, which is not edible for humans, is kept aside to prepare a food for domesticated pigs.

In Assam, sabudana is also used as substitute diet against boiled rice (bhaat) for the sick elderly or infirm for easy digestion and strength.

It is known as "mangnokka" in Sri Lanka, as well as by its Sinhalese and Tamil names. It is generally eaten boiled with a chili onion mixture called "lunu miris sambol" (type of a salsa) or coconut sambol. Another popular cassava dish is as a curry cooked in coconut milk with a splash of turmeric. At the same time, it is popular to have tapioca pearls prepared as a delicacy. At one time, tapioca pearls were used to starch clothes by boiling tapioca pearls with the clothes. Spiced cassava chips are also a popular snack usually sold by street vendors and street-side shops.

Africa

Drying cassava chips DRC
Drying cassava chips in Congo

Tapioca is eaten in the regions of Nigeria and Ghana as a common meal usually at breakfast. Cassava is a staple food in West Africa where it is widely eaten. In Nigeria, cassava is grated and dry roasted into garri, this is eaten by adding water, sugar and or peanuts accompanied by meat or smoked fish. Garri is also made into eba by adding hot water, this is eaten with stew or soup. The Ijebu people of Nigeria make a cold water variant of eba by pounding the mixture with their fist until it becomes homogenous; this is called feshelu. The Egbas of Abeokuta, Ogun State peel, dry and grind cassava into a powder called elubo, which is then made into amala paki and eaten with a jute leaf stew called ewedu.

In Lagos, cassava is processed into tapioca which is cooked in coconut milk and sugar, this can be eaten as a breakfast meal or as a dessert at parties or dinner.[17] This is called mengau.

The Igbos of Eastern Nigeria add palm oil and other seasonings to grated cassava during roasting, a dish called abacha.

Peoples of the Niger Delta extract starch from cassava cooked into a starch eaten with pepper soup.

In Ghana, cassava is peeled, boiled until tender, then pounded in a large wooden mortar and pestle until it becomes homogenous. This is called fufu. It is eaten with soup.

Europe

Tapioca is not as widely used in Europe, but several countries use tapioca. In Belgium, small white tapioca pearls are added to clear soups. Tapioca balls are used in French desserts, such as parfaits. A savory snack in the United Kingdom, Skips, is made from flavored tapioca.

Tapioca is also widely available in its dried forms, and is used to make tapioca pudding in some countries.

See also

References

  1. ^ Olsen, KM; Schaal, BA (1999). "Evidence on the origin of cassava: phylogeography of Manihot esculenta". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 96 (10): 5586–91. Bibcode:1999PNAS...96.5586O. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.10.5586. PMC 21904. PMID 10318928.
  2. ^ "Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary – tapioca". Retrieved 2007-02-19.
  3. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition", Rome, 1990, Ch. 7 "Toxic substances and antinutritional factors". Document available online at http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0207e/T0207E00.htm#Contents. Ch. 7 appears at http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0207e/T0207E08.htm#Cassava%20toxicity. (Accessed 25 June 2011.)
  4. ^ Carolina Moura. "How to make tapioca pearls". Snapguide.com. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
  5. ^ Mydans, Seth (2010-07-18). "Wasps to Fight Thai Cassava Plague". The New York Times.
  6. ^ "Casabe: Garífuna Yucca Bread". Stanford University. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  7. ^ Adebowale, A.A.; Sanni, L.O.; Onitilo, M.O. (2008). "Chemical composition and pasting properties of tapioca grits from different cassava varieties and roasting methods". African Journal of Food Science. 2: 77–82.
  8. ^ Collado, Lilia S.; Corke, Harold (1998). "Pasting properties of commercial and experimental starch pearls". Cereal Chemistry. 35 (1–2): 89–96.
  9. ^ a b c Fu, Yi-Chung; Dai, Li; Yang, Binghuei B. (2005-02-01). "Microwave finish drying of (tapioca) starch pearls". International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 40 (2): 119–132. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.00898.x. ISSN 1365-2621.
  10. ^ "WWII Survivor Plants". Changi Museum. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  11. ^ Kasper-Claridge, Manuela (5 November 2018). "Manioc to the rescue in the fight against plastic pollution". DW.COM. Retrieved 2019-06-15.
  12. ^ Clark, Melissa (3 March 1999). "Tapioca Moves Beyond Its Pudding Phase". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  13. ^ Gardner, Robby. "Tapioca Syrup is a Corn Syrup Replacer". www.cancernetwork.com. Retrieved 2017-06-25.
  14. ^ LeRiverend, Julio (January 1984). "Problemas de la Formación Agraria Cubana". Revista de la Biblioteca Nacional José Martí. 26 Issue 1: 153–185 – via EBSCO Host.
  15. ^ "Resep Homemade Keripik Singkong (Cassava Chips) oleh Intan Nastiti". Cookpad (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2018-01-27.
  16. ^ "Warga Australia Pun Belajar Membuat Keripik Balado". www.radioaustralia.net.au (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2018-01-27.
  17. ^ "Seven Incredible Health Benefits Of Tapioca".

Further reading

  • Sosa, C. (1979), Casabe, Editorial Arte: Caracas.
Bilo-bilo

Bilo-bilo is a Filipino dessert made of small glutinous balls (sticky rice flour rounded up by adding water) in coconut milk and sugar. Then jackfruit, saba bananas, various tubers, and tapioca pearls are added. Bilo bilo's origin is in Luzon (Laguna province), which is the northern Philippines Island. There are different recipe versions depending what region in the Philippines it is from. Some recipes call for young coconut meat and some call for adding pandan leaves. This is usually and traditionally eaten hot while others prefer eating them after refrigeration.

Bubble tea

Bubble tea (also known as pearl milk tea, bubble milk tea, or boba) (Chinese: 珍珠奶茶; pinyin: zhēnzhū nǎichá, 波霸奶茶; bōbà nǎichá) is a Taiwanese tea-based drink invented in Tainan and Taichung in the 1980s. Recipes contain tea of some kind, flavors of milk, and sugar (optional). Toppings, known as "pearls", such as chewy tapioca balls (also known as pearls or boba), popping boba, fruit jelly, grass jelly, agar jelly, and puddings are often added. Ice-blended versions are frozen and put into a blender, resulting in a slushy consistency. There are many varieties of the drink with a wide range of flavors. The two most popular varieties are black pearl milk tea and green pearl milk tea.

Bánh canh

Bánh canh (literally "cake soup") is a thick Vietnamese noodle that can be made from tapioca flour or a mixture of rice and tapioca flour. "Cake" refers to the thick sheet of uncooked dough from which the noodles are cut.

Bánh canh cua – a rich, thick crab soup, often with the addition of quail eggs.

Bánh canh bột lọc – a more translucent and chewy version of the noodle.

Bánh canh chả cá – the dish includes fish cake and is popular in the South Central, Vietnam.

Bánh canh giò heo tôm thịt – includes pork knuckle and shrimp.

Bánh canh Trảng Bàng – bánh canh made in the southeastern Vietnamese town of Trảng Bàng, served with boiled pork, tapioca noodles, and local herbs.

Bánh canh tôm – a shrimp-flavoured broth that is also mixed with coconut milk.The Vietnamese word bánh refers to items such as noodles or cakes that are made from flour, and canh means "soup."

Bánh tráng

Bánh tráng or bánh đa nem, a northern Vietnamese term (literally, coated cake and nem skins, respectively), sometimes called rice paper wrappers, rice crepes, rice wafers or nem wrappers, are edible Vietnamese wrappers used in Vietnamese cuisine, primarily in finger foods and appetizers such as Vietnamese nem dishes. The term rice paper wrappers can sometimes be a misnomer, as some banh trang wrappers are made from rice flour supplemented with tapioca flour or sometimes replaced completely with tapioca starch. The roasted version is bánh tráng nướng.

Cassava

Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava (), manioc, yuca, macaxeira, mandioca and aipim is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. Although a perennial plant, cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Though it is often called yuca in Latin American Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to yucca, a shrub in the family Asparagaceae. Cassava is predominantly consumed in boiled form, but substantial quantities are used to extract cassava starch, called tapioca, which is used for food, animal feed and industrial purposes. The Brazilian farinha, and the related garri of Western Africa, is an edible coarse flour obtained by grating cassava roots, pressing moisture off the obtained grated pulp, and finally drying it (and roasting in the case of farinha).

Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after rice and maize. Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people. It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of cassava starch.

Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain antinutritional factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts. It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication, goiters, and even ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places. Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves.

Iskrambol

Iskrambol, also known as ice scramble, is a Filipino frozen dessert made from shaved ice with banana extract and evaporated milk with sugar (or condensed milk), topped with a variety of ingredients including powdered milk, marshmallows, strawberry syrup, chocolate syrup, pinipig, tapioca pearls, and sprinkles, among others. It is characteristically dyed pink. It is usually sold by street vendors and is a popular dessert among children for its bright colors and cheapness. The name is derived from the method of eating the dessert, wherein the ingredients are stirred ("scrambled") with the included straw.

Kemplang

Kemplang is a traditional savory fish cracker (krupuk ikan) snack commonly found in southern parts of Sumatra, Indonesia. Kemplang crackers are commonly made of ikan tenggiri (wahoo) or any type of Spanish mackerel, mixed with tapioca starch and other flavorings, sun-dried and then grilled or fried.

The shape of a kemplang is similar to Japanese senbei cracker. It is flat and round with whitish color, sometimes with dark burnt acquired from grilling process. Kemplang is usually consumed with a sour and spicy sambal chili paste.

Kutsinta

Puto cuchinta or kutsinta is a type of steamed rice cake (puto) found throughout the Philippines. It is made from a mixture of tapioca or rice flour, brown sugar and lye, enhanced with yellow food coloring or annatto extract, and steamed in small ramekins. The cooked cakes are topped with fresh grated meat from mature coconut. It is consumed year-round as a merienda or snack, and is frequently sold along with puto. Unlike its counterpart, which has a doughy texture, kutsina has a jelly-like, chewy consistency. It can be also enhanced by adding latik for a sweeter taste.

Lai fun

Lai fun is a short and thick variety of Chinese noodles. It is commonly found in the Pearl River Delta region and to some degree among overseas Chinatowns. Its name comes from the Cantonese language.

Lai fun may also be referred to as bánh canh by Vietnamese, in which case, it is made from rice flour and tapioca starch.

Piutu

Piutu, also known as putu, is a traditional Filipino dish that is the staple food of the Sama-Bajau people of the Philippines and the east coast of Sabah. It is made from steamed cassava (panggi) that is mashed and shaped into cylinders. They were traditionally wrapped in banana or palm leaves, but are commonly sold wrapped in clear plastic today. It is typically torn or cut into small disks for eating. It is not flavored and thus need to be eaten with another accompanying dish, usually seafood. The most popular accompaniments include latô salads, kima (giant clams), and siagol (a stew made from shark meat and turmeric). It serves as a replacement for rice, after the introduction of cassava to the Philippines from South America by the Spanish during the colonial period.

Similar and related staple dishes are biamban and sianglag. Biamban (or bamban) is made from steamed tapioca flour cylinders wrapped in banana or palm leaves. Sianglag (also known as tompe, tompek, tinompeh, or anggang) is made from grated cassava that is fried until yellowish. Both also replace rice as an accompaniment to savory dishes.

Sabudana Khichadi

Sabudana khichadi is an Indian dish made from soaked sabudana (tapioca pearls). It is typically prepared in parts of Western India such as Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat. In major towns like Mumbai, Pune, Indore, Bhopal, Jaipur and Nagpur, it is available as street food and is widely eaten throughout the year. It is the dish of choice when an individual observes a "fast" during Shivratri, Navratri, or a similar Hindu religious occasion. It is known as Sabudana Usal in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra.

Sago

Sago is a starch extracted from the spongy centre, or pith, of various tropical palm stems, especially that of Metroxylon sagu. It is a major staple food for the lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas, where it is called saksak, rabia and sagu. The largest supply of sago comes from Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia and Malaysia. Large quantities of sago are sent to Europe and North America for cooking purposes. It is traditionally cooked and eaten in various forms, such as rolled into balls, mixed with boiling water to form a glue-like paste (papeda), or as a pancake. Sago is often produced commercially in the form of "pearls" (small rounded starch aggregates, partly gelatinized by heating). Sago pearls can be boiled with water or milk and sugar to make a sweet sago pudding. Sago pearls are similar in appearance to the pearled starches of other origin, e.g. cassava starch (tapioca) and potato starch, and they may be used interchangeably in some dishes.

The name sago is also sometimes used for starch extracted from other sources, especially the sago cycad, Cycas revoluta. The sago cycad is also commonly known (confusingly) as the sago palm, although this is a misnomer as cycads are not palms. Extracting edible starch from the sago cycad requires special care due to the poisonous nature of cycads. Cycad sago is used for many of the same purposes as palm sago.

The fruit of palm trees from which the sago is produced is not allowed to ripen fully. The full ripening completes the life cycle of the tree and exhausts the starch reserves in the trunk to produce the seeds. It leaves a hollow shell and causes the tree to die. The palms are cut down when they are about 15 years old, just before or shortly after the inflorescence appears. The stems, which grow 10 to 15 metres high), are split out. The starch-containing pith is taken from the stems and ground to powder. The powder is kneaded in water over a cloth or sieve to release the starch. The water with the starch passes into a trough where the starch settles. After a few washings, the starch is ready to be used in cooking. A single palm yields about 800 pounds (360 kilograms) of dry starch.

Sago pudding

Sago pudding is a sweet pudding made by boiling sago with either water or milk and adding sugar and sometimes additional flavourings. It is made in many cultures with varying styles, and may be produced in a variety of ways.

In Malaysia, sago gula melaka is a sago pudding made by boiling pearl sago in water and serving it with syrup of palm sugar (gula melaka) and coconut milk.Sago pudding is also a popular delicacy in New Guinea.

In the UK, "sago pudding" is generally made by boiling pearl sago and sugar in milk until the sago pearls become clear, and thickening it with eggs or cornflour. Depending on the proportions used it can range from a runny consistency to fairly thick, and can be similar to tapioca pudding or rice pudding. In the UK "sago pudding" is often referred to as "frog spawn" as it is made using pearl sago. Tapioca pudding is similar in that it too can be made using pearl tapioca – it can also be called "frog spawn" but is generally made using flake tapioca in the north which results in a finer, more grainy, consistency.

Sakhu sai mu

Sakhu sai mu (Thai: สาคูไส้หมู, pronounced [sǎː.kʰūː sâj mǔː], "tapioca balls with pork filling") is a Thai snack. Although it is traditionally made with sago starch (hence the name sakhu, which is Thai for sago), today tapioca is more commonly used as a substitute. It is a popular food in Thailand and found at street stalls and markets. sakhu sai mu is a dumpling which consists of a flour ball with a pork filling. Most people in Thailand eat sakhu sai mu with khao kriap pak mo. The difference between sakhu sai mu and khao kriap pak mo is that sakhu sai mu is covered with flour batter like a dumping while khao kriap pak mo is wrapped with flour batter. They have the same filling.

The ingredients of sakhu sai mu are tapioca flour, cilantro, finely chopped onion, lean pork finely chopped, brown sugar, Thai fish sauce, finely chopped fresh hot chilies and roasted peanuts.

Taho

Taho (Tagalog: [tɐˈhoʔ]) (Chinese: 豆花; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: tāu-hoe) is a Philippine snack food made of fresh soft/silken tofu, arnibal (sweetener and flavoring), and sago pearl (similar to tapioca pearls). This staple comfort food is a signature sweet and taho peddlers can be found all over the country. The Indonesian and Thai equivalent of this snack is Tauhue, and the Malaysian equivalent of this snack is called Taufufah.

Tampico, Illinois

Tampico is a village located in Tampico Township, Whiteside County, Illinois, United States next to Rock Falls and Sterling IL. As of the 2010 census the village had a total population of 790, up from 772 at the 2000 census. It is known as the birthplace of Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States.

Tapioca balls

Tapioca balls are translucent spheres; a product of tapioca, a starch extracted from the cassava root. They originated as a cheaper alternative to pearl sago in Southeast Asian cuisine. They are also known as boba (a transliteration of the word "bubble"), or pearls when in bubble tea. Some boba are five-to-ten-millimeter starch balls, consisting of sweet potato powder, potato powder, or jelly. By adding different ingredients, like water, sugar and seasoning, tapioca balls can be made to vary in color and in texture. Tapioca balls typically lack flavor and gel easily, and are therefore often used as a thickening agent in foods like pudding. For this reason, tapioca balls also complement sweet drinks such as milk tea and fruit smoothies.

Tapioca chip

Tapioca chips is a snack food made from thin wafers of deep fried cassava root. It is commonly found in South India and Sri Lanka, as well as in Indonesia where it is known as kripik singkong (cassava chips).

It is also a bulk commodity product that is produced and traded, and in this form is used to create products such as alcohol, animal feed, biofuel and starch.

Tapioca pudding

Tapioca pudding (similar to sago pudding) is a sweet pudding made with tapioca and either milk or cream. Coconut milk is also used in cases in which the flavor is preferred or in areas in which it is a commonplace ingredient for cooking. It is made in many cultures with equally varying styles, and may be produced in a variety of ways. Its consistency ranges from thin (runny), to thick, to firm enough to eat with a fork.

The pudding can be made from scratch using tapioca in a variety of forms: flakes, coarse meal, sticks, and pearls. Many commercial packaged mixes are also available.British schoolchildren have traditionally nicknamed the dish frog spawn, due to its appearance. The Guardian described it as "Britain's most hated school pudding", with names such as fish eyes, frogspawn and eyeball pudding. It is however making a comeback in the 21st century in Michelin-starred restaurants and less exalted places.

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