Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn

Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn or TQJBR[4] ("Organization of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", Arabic: تنظيم قاعدة الجهاد في بلاد الرافدين‎, translit. tanẓīm qā‘idat al-jihād fī bilād ar-rāfidayn), also referred to as Al-Qaeda in Iraq, AQI, or Al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia) was an Iraqi Sunni Islamic Jihadist organization[2] affiliated with al-Qaeda, for part of the first two decades of the 21st century.

Al-Qaeda in Iraq
(Organization of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia)
Participant in the Iraq War
Flag of al-Qaeda in Iraq (2004-2005)
One of several flags used by AQI in their video releases; others used white text for the circle and the shahada.
Active17 October 2004[1]–October 15, 2006
IdeologySalafi jihadism[2]
LeadersAbu Musab al-Zarqawi (KIA)
Abu Ayyub al-Masri (KIA)
HeadquartersFallujah
Area of operationsIraq
Part of al-Qaeda
Originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad Ansar al-Islam (associate)
BecameMujahideen Shura Council
Islamic State of Iraq
Opponent(s) Multinational force in Iraq
 Iraq (Iraqi security forces, Kurdish and Shia militias)
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq[3]
 Jordan
 United Nations
Battles and war(s)Iraq War
Iraqi insurgency (2003–06)
Sectarian violence in Iraq (2006–2008)

Origins

The group was founded by the Jordanian militant Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in 1999 under the name Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad (Arabic: جماعة التوحيد والجهاد, "Group of Monotheism and Jihad").

The group is believed to have started bomb attacks in Iraq as of August 2003, five months after the coalition invasion and occupation of Iraq, targeting UN representatives, Iraqi Shiite institutions, the Jordanian embassy, provisional Iraqi government institutions.

After it pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network in October 2004, its official name became Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn.[1][5][6][7]

Leadership

On 7 June 2006, the leader of AQI, al-Zarqawi, and his spiritual adviser Sheik Abd-Al-Rahman, were both killed by a U.S. airstrike with two 500 lb (230 kg) bombs on a safe house near Baqubah. The group's leadership was then assumed by the Egyptian militant Abu Ayyub al-Masri, also known as Abu Hamza al-Muhajir.[8]

Purpose

In a letter to al-Zarqawi in July 2005, Al-Qaeda's Ayman al-Zawahiri outlined a four-stage plan beginning with taking control of Iraq. Step 1: expulsion of US forces from Iraq. Step 2: establishing in Iraq an Islamic authority—a caliphate. Step 3: "the jihad wave" should be extended to "the secular countries neighbouring Iraq". Step 4: "the clash with Israel".[9][10]

Violent activities

US Navy 041117-N-4388F-004 Construction Electrician 3rd Class Joe Tank mans a turret mounted M-240B machine gun atop a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) to provide security while Seabees assigned to Naval Mobile
US Navy Seabees during the Second Battle of Fallujah (November 2004)

2004

At the end of October 2004, Al-Qaeda in Iraq kidnapped Japanese citizen Shosei Koda. In an online video, AQI gave Japan 48 hours to withdraw its troops from Iraq, otherwise Koda's fate would be "the same as that of his predecessors, [Nicholas] Berg and [Kenneth] Bigley and other infidels".[11] While Japan refused to comply with this demand, Koda was beheaded, and his dismembered body found on 30 October.

AQI claimed responsibility for the car bomb attacks on 19 December 2004 in the Shiite holy cities Najaf and nearby Karbala, killing 60 people.[12]

2005

According to internal documents seized in 2008, AQI began in 2005 systematically killing Iraqi tribesmen and nationalist insurgents wherever they began to rally against it.[13]

Attacks in 2005 claimed by AQI include:

  • 30 January: AQI launched attacks on voters during the Iraqi legislative election in January.[9] In 100 armed attacks, 44 people were killed, although some attacks may have been carried out by other groups. Abu Musab al-Zarqawi said: "We have declared a fierce war on this evil principle of democracy (…)".
  • 28 February: in the southern city of Hillah, a car bomb struck a crowd of police and Iraqi National Guard recruits, killing 125 people.[12]
  • 2 April: the group launched a combined suicide and conventional attack on Abu Ghraib prison in April.[9]
  • 7 May: in Baghdad, two explosives-laden cars were used against an American security company convoy. 22 people are killed, including two Americans.[12]
  • 6 July: AQI claimed responsibility for the kidnapping and execution of Egypt's ambassador to Iraq, Ihab el-Sherif.[14][15] In a message posted on the Internet, Zarqawi said: "The Islamic court of the al-Qaeda Organization in the Land of Two Rivers has decided to refer the ambassador of the state of Egypt, an ally of the Jews and the Christians, to the mujahideens so that they can execute him."[16]
  • 15–17 July: a three-day series of suicide attacks, including the Musayyib marketplace bombing, left 150 people dead and 260 wounded. AQI claimed that the bombings were part of a campaign to take control of Baghdad.[17]
  • 19 August: In the Jordanian city of Aqaba, a rocket attack kills a Jordanian soldier.[12]
  • 14 September: Al-Qaida in Iraq claimed responsibility for a single-day series of more than a dozen bombings in Baghdad, which killed about 160 people, most of whom were unemployed Shia workers.[18][19] Al-Zarqawi declared "all-out war" on Shiites, Iraqi troops and the Iraqi government in a statement.[18]
  • Friday 16 September: a suicide bomb attack outside a Shiite mosque 200 km north of Baghdad killed 13 worshippers.[19]
  • 24 October: AQI made coordinated suicide attacks outside the Sheraton Ishtar and Palestine Hotel in Baghdad in October.[9]
  • 9 November: in the Jordanian capital Amman, three bomb attacks against hotels killed 60 people.[12]
  • 18 November: AQI claimed responsibility for a series of Shia mosque bombings in the city of Khanaqin, which killed at least 74 people.[19]

2006

Al-Askari Mosque 2006
The Al-Askari Mosque, one of the holiest sites in Shia Islam, after the first attack by Al-Qaeda in Iraq in 2006

Autumn 2006, AQI took over Baqubah, the capital of Diyala Governorate, and before March 2007, AQI or its umbrella organization 'Islamic State of Iraq' (ISI) claimed Baqubah as its capital.[23]

  • The US suggested that 'al Qaeda' was involved in the wave of chlorine bombings in Iraq, October 2006–June 2007, which affected hundreds of people, albeit with few fatalities.[24]
Further violent activities in Iraq after 13 October 2006 blamed on 'al Qaeda (in Iraq)' are listed in article Islamic State of Iraq (ISI).

War: Sunnis against Shias

September 2005, after a U.S.-Iraqi offensive on the town of Tal Afar, al-Zarqawi declared "all-out war" on Shia Muslims in Iraq.[25]

Conflicts between Al Qaeda in Iraq and other Sunni Iraqi groups

In September–October 2005, there were signs of a split between homegrown Iraqi Sunni Arab insurgents who wanted Sunni influence in national politics restored,[26] and therefore supported a "no" vote in the 15 October 2005 referendum on a constitution,[27] and al-Zarqawi's Al Qaeda in Iraq, which strove for a theocratic state and threatened to kill those who engaged in the national political process with Shiites and Kurds,[26] including those who would take part in that referendum.[27]

From mid-2006, AQI began to be pushed out of their strongholds in rural Anbar Province, from Fallujah to Qaim, by tribal leaders in open war. That campaign was assisted by the Iraqi government paying cash gifts and alleged salaries to tribal sheikhs of up to $5,000 a month.[28] In September 2006, 30 tribes in Anbar Province formed an alliance called the "Anbar Awakening" to fight AQI.[29]

January 2006: Tanzim (AQI) creates Mujahideen Shura Council

Beheading japanese
Shosei Koda before his beheading

AQI's efforts to recruit Iraqi Sunni nationalist and secular groups were undermined by its violent tactics against civilians and by its fundamentalist doctrine. In January 2006 it created an umbrella organization called the Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC), in an attempt to unify Sunni insurgents in Iraq.[21]

Strength of AQI in 2004–2006

Western media suggested that foreign fighters continued to flock to AQI.[30] A secret U.S. Marine Corps intelligence report of August 2006 wrote that Iraq's Sunni minority had been increasingly abandoned by their religious and political leaders who had fled or been assassinated, was "embroiled in a daily fight for survival", feared "pogroms" by the Shiite majority, and was increasingly dependent on Al-Qaeda in Iraq as its only hope against growing Iranian dominance across Baghdad.

In western Iraq, AQI was entrenched, autonomous and financially independent, and therefore the death of AQI leader Al-Zarqawi in June 2006 had little impact on the structure or capabilities of AQI. Illicit oil trading provided them with millions of dollars, and their popularity was rising in western Iraq.[31]

In Anbar, most government institutions had disintegrated by August 2006, and AQI was the dominant power, the U.S. Marine Corps intelligence report said.[31] In 2006, the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research estimated that Al-Qaeda in Iraq's core membership was "more than 1,000".[32]

October 2006: Tanzim (AQI) creates Islamic State of Iraq

On 13 October 2006, the MSC declared the establishment of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), comprising Iraq's six mostly Sunni Arab governorates: Baghdad, Anbar, Diyala, Kirkuk, Salah al-Din, Ninawa, and "other parts of the governorate of Babel", with Abu Omar al-Baghdadi being announced as the self-proclaimed state's Emir.[33] A Mujahideen Shura Council leader said: "God willing we will set the law of Sharia here and we will fight the Americans"; the Council urged on Sunni Muslim tribal leaders to join their separate Islamic state "to protect our religion and our people, to prevent strife and so that the blood and sacrifices of your martyrs are not lost".[34]

Following the announcement, scores of gunmen took part in military parades in Ramadi and other Anbar towns to celebrate. In reality, the group did not control territory in Iraq.[34][35]

In November, a statement was issued by Abu Ayyub al-Masri, leader of Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC), announcing the disbanding of the MSC, in favor of the ISI. After this statement, there were a few more claims of responsibility issued under the name of the Mujahideen Shura Council, but these eventually ceased and were totally replaced by claims from the Islamic State of Iraq.

In April 2007, Abu Ayyub al-Masri was given the title of 'Minister of War' within the ISI's ten-member cabinet.[36]

WaziriyaAutobombeIrak
Car bombings were a common form of attack in Iraq during the Coalition occupation

According to a report by US intelligence agencies in May 2007, the ISI planned to seize power in the central and western areas of the country and turn it into a Sunni Islamic state.[37]

By June 2007, the uncompromising brand of extreme fundamentalist Islam of AQI and the ISI had alienated more nationalist Iraqi strands of insurgency.[38]

U.S. fighting Tanzim (Al-Qaeda in Iraq)

In November 2004, al-Zarqawi's network was the main target of the US Operation Phantom Fury in Fallujah, but its leadership managed to escape the American siege and subsequent storming of the city.

On 7 June 2006, al-Zarqawi and his spiritual adviser Sheik Abd-Al-Rahman, were both killed by a U.S. airstrike with two 500 lb (230 kg) bombs on a safe house near Baqubah. The group's leadership was then assumed by Abu Ayyub al-Masri, also known as Abu Hamza al-Muhajir.[8]

Criticisms from al-Zawahiri

U.S. intelligence in October 2005 published an intercepted letter purportedly from Ayman al-Zawahiri questioning AQI's tactic of indiscriminately attacking Shias in Iraq.[39]

In a video that appeared in December 2007, al-Zawahiri defended AQI, but distanced himself from the crimes against civilians committed by "hypocrites and traitors" that he said existed among its ranks.[40]

Operations outside Iraq and other activities

On 3 December 2004, AQI attempted unsuccessfully to blow up an Iraqi–Jordanian border crossing. In 2006 a Jordanian court sentenced al-Zarqawi and two of his associates to death in absentia for their involvement in the plot.[41] AQI claimed to have carried out three attacks outside Iraq in 2005. In the most deadly, suicide bombs killed 60 people in Amman, Jordan on 9 November 2005.[42] They claimed responsibility for the rocket attacks which narrowly missed the American naval ships USS Kearsarge and USS Ashland in Jordan, and also targeted the city of Eilat in Israel, and for the firing of several rockets into Israel from Lebanon in December 2005.[9] The affiliated groups were linked to regional attacks outside Iraq which were consistent with their stated plan, one example being the 2005 Sharm al-Sheikh bombings in Egypt, which killed 88 people, many of them foreign tourists.

The Lebanese-Palestinian militant group Fatah al-Islam, which was defeated by Lebanese government forces during the 2007 Lebanon conflict, was linked to AQI and led by al-Zarqawi's former companion who had fought alongside him in Iraq.[43] The group may have been linked to the little-known group called "Tawhid and Jihad in Syria",[44] and may have influenced the Palestinian militant group in Gaza called Jahafil Al-Tawhid Wal-Jihad fi Filastin.[45]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Pool, Jeffrey (16 December 2004). "Zarqawi's Pledge of Allegiance to Al-Qaeda: From Mu'Asker Al-Battar, Issue 21". Terrorism Monitor. 2 (24): The Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  2. ^ a b "The War between ISIS and al-Qaeda for Supremacy of the Global Jihadist Movement" (PDF). Washington Institute for Near East Policy. June 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  3. ^ http://ahlualhaq.com/index.php/permalink/3358.html
  4. ^ "Govt bans al-Zarqawi terror group". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  5. ^ Middle East and North Africa Overview Archived December 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Country Reports on Terrorism, U.S. State Department, 28 April 2006
  6. ^ "Zarqawi pledges allegiance to Osama". Dawn. Agence France-Presse. 18 October 2004. Archived from the original on 29 December 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  7. ^ "Al-Zarqawi group vows allegiance to bin Laden". NBC News. Associated Press. 18 October 2004. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  8. ^ a b "Al-Qaeda in Iraq names new head". BBC News. 12 June 2006. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Country Reports on Terrorism". United States Department of State. 28 April 2006. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  10. ^ Whitaker, Brian (13 October 2005). "Revealed: Al-Qaida plan to seize control of Iraq". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  11. ^ "Group seizes Japanese man in Iraq". BBC. 27 October 2004. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Fast Facts: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 8 June 2006. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  13. ^ Ware, Michael (11 June 2008). "Papers give peek inside al Qaeda in Iraq". CNN. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  14. ^ "Al-Qaeda claims to have killed Egyptian envoy". The New York Times. 7 July 2005.
  15. ^ Caroll, Rory; Borger, Julian (8 July 2005). "Egyptian envoy to Iraq killed, says al-Qaida". The Guardian. London.
  16. ^ "Al-Qaeda threatens to kill abducted Egyptian envoy". Middle East Online. July 6, 2005. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  17. ^ Howard, Michael (18 July 2005). "Three days of suicide bombs leave 150 dead". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  18. ^ a b "Another wave of bombings hit Iraq". International Herald Tribune. 15 September 2005. Archived from the original on 28 October 2007.
  19. ^ a b c Tavernise, Sabrina (17 September 2005). "20 die as insurgents in Iraq target Shiites". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008.
  20. ^ Insurgents Kill 140 as Iraq Clashes Escalate. Washington Post, 6 January 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  21. ^ a b DeYoung, Karen; Pincus, Walter (18 March 2007). "Al-Qaeda in Iraq May Not Be Threat Here". The Washington Times. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  22. ^ "Al Qaeda leader in Iraq 'killed by insurgents'". ABC News. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  23. ^ "TASK FORCE 5-20 INFANTRY REGIMENT OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM 06-07 (under section 'A Commander's Perspective')". U.S. Army 5th Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment. Archived from the original on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  24. ^ "U.S. says Iraq chlorine bomb factory was al Qaeda's". Reuters. 24 February 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  25. ^ "Al-Zarqawi declares war on Iraqi Shia". Al Jazeera. September 14, 2005. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  26. ^ a b Caroll, Rory; Mansour, Osama (7 September 2005). "Al-Qaida in Iraq seizes border town as it mobilises against poll". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  27. ^ a b Abdul-Ahad, Ghaith (27 October 2005). "We don't need al-Qaida". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  28. ^ Beaumont, Peter (3 October 2006). "Iraqi tribes launch battle to drive al-Qaida out of troubled province". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  29. ^ Klein, Joe (23 May 2007). "Is al-Qaeda on the Run in Iraq?". Time. Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  30. ^ Het Nieuwsblad edition Oostende-Westhoek (Belgian newspaper), 26 March 2016.
  31. ^ a b "Anbar Picture Grows Clearer, and Bleaker". Washington Post, 28 November 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  32. ^ Tilghman, Andrew (October 2007). "The Myth of AQI". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on 2007-09-08. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  33. ^ "The Rump Islamic Emirate of Iraq". The Long War Journal. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  34. ^ a b "Gunmen in Iraq's Ramadi announce Sunni emirate". Reuters. 18 October 2006. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  35. ^ "Iraqi Insurgents Stage Defiant Parades". The Washington Post. 20 October 2006. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  36. ^ "Islamic State of Iraq Announces Establishment of the Cabinet of its First Islamic Administration in Video Issued Through al-Furqan Foundation". SITE Institute. 19 April 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  37. ^ Mahnaimi, Uzi (13 May 2007). "Al-Qaeda planning militant Islamic state within Iraq". The Sunday Times. London. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011.
  38. ^ Muir, Jim (11 June 2007). "US pits Iraqi Sunnis against al-Qaeda". BBC News. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  39. ^ "Al-Qaeda disowns 'fake letter'". BBC News. 13 October 2005. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  40. ^ "British 'fleeing' claims al-Qaeda". Adnkronos. 17 December 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  41. ^ Aloul, Sahar (19 December 2005). "Zarqawi handed second death penalty in Jordan". The Inquirer. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 29 October 2007.
  42. ^ "Al Qaeda claims responsibility for Amman blasts". The New York Times. 10 November 2005.
  43. ^ "Fatah Islam: Obscure group emerges as Lebanon's newest security threat". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 20 May 2007. Archived from the original on 25 May 2007.
  44. ^ "Al-Qaida inspired militant group calls on Syrians to kill country's president". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 28 May 2007. Archived from the original on June 1, 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  45. ^ New Gaza Organization Vows Loyalty to Al-Qaeda, MEMRI 10-11-2008
2004 Karbala and Najaf bombings

The 19 December 2004 Karbala and Najaf bombings were car bombings that tore through a funeral procession in Najaf and through the main bus station in nearby Karbala—two Shiite holy cities. At least 60 people were killed.

2015 Corinthia Hotel attack

In January 2015, the Corinthia Hotel in Tripoli was attacked by men affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). The hotel was popular with foreign officials and government workers; it had previously housed the Libyan Prime Minister.

2015 Niger raid

The 2015 Niger raid was an unsuccessful assault on the Nigerien towns Bosso and Diffa, perpetrated by Boko Haram. The incident occurred on 6 February 2015, marking the first major Boko Haram incursion into Niger.

2015 Qamishli bombings

The 2015 Qamishli bombings refer to three bombs, that detonated in three restaurants in Wusta, an Assyrian district of the Syrian-Turkish border town of Qamishli on 30 December 2015. The first reports stated, that it were suicide bombings, however the military spokesman of the Assyrian, Sootoro, in Qamishli, said, that the attacks were not suicide bombs. A Kurdish militia spokesman said, that the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant was responsible for the blasts and that the bombings were targeting Christians, but Assyrian organisations claimed that the bombings were not likely a deed by ISIL, but possibly a crime by the Kurdish YPG. A total of 16 people were killed, 14 of the victims were Assyrian Christians and 2 Muslims, also 35 people were wounded.

2015 Tunis bombing

On 24 November 2015, a bus carrying Tunisian presidential guards exploded, killing 12, on a principal road in Tunis, Tunisia. ISIL claimed responsibility for the attack. The bomber, who also died in the attack, was identified as Houssem Abdelli.

30 September 2004 Baghdad bombing

30 September 2004 Baghdad bombing was a series of bombings targeting U.S. soldiers handing out sweets to the Iraqi children at the celebration during the opening of a water treatment plant in the Amil District of Baghdad. The bombings killed at least 41, including 35 children, and wounded 131, including 10 U.S. soldiers.

US Army units attacked were from Comanche Troop 1st Squadron 7th Cavalry 1st Cavalry Division.

AQI

AQI or Aqi may refer to:

Air quality index

"Al-Qaeda in Iraq", common English substitute name for the Iraq-based Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn

Australian Questioning Intonation, a feature of some accents of English

AQ Interactive, a former Japanese video game developer and publisher

A'Qi, a character from the wuxia novel The Deer and the Cauldron

Abu Fatima al-Jaheishi

Ni'ma Abd Nayef al-Jabouri (Arabic: نعمة عبد نايف الجبوري‎), known by his nom de guerre Abu Fatima al-Jaheishi (Arabic: أبو فاطمة الجحيشي‎) or Abu Fatima al-Jiburi, was initially in charge of the ISIS operations in southern Iraq before he moved to the northern city of Kirkuk. He is now the Governor of the South and Central Euphrates region in the Islamic State and a senior member in the IS hierarchy.The available information indicates that as of 2016, Abu Fatima is alive and part of the inner circle of Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, serving as his deputy in the position of the overall leader for Iraq. He succeeded Abu Muslim al-Turkmani, who was killed by a US drone strike near Mosul on 18 August 2015.

Al-Bu Badri tribe

Al-Bu Badri is a notable Arab tribe in Iraq, predominantly based in Samarra, Diyala and Baghdad. It is mostly a Sunni tribe of around 25,000 but has a small Shia minority of about 1,500.

Ali Hatem al-Suleiman

Ali Hatem Abd al-Razzaq Ali al-Suleiman al-Assafi al-Dulaimi (Arabic: علي حاتم السليمان‎) (born 1971) is a Sunni sheikh in Anbar province. He is the former Emir of the Dulaim tribe, a position now held by his brother, Abdulrazzaq Hatem Abd al-Razzaq Ali al-Suleiman al-Assafi al-Dulaimi.

April 2015 Jalalabad suicide bombing

The Jalalabad suicide bombing occurred on 18 April 2015 when a suicide bomber allegedly affiliated with ISIL's Khorasan Province struck a bank in the city of Jalalabad in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan, killing at least 33 people and injuring another 100. It marked the first major attack by ISIL Khorasan after it was formed three months earlier, in January 2015.

Dar al-Islam (magazine)

Dar al-Islam is the title of a French-language online magazine produced by the Islamic State (ISIL/ISIS/IS). It has included articles praising terrorist attacks in France, such as the 2016 Nice attack and the January 2015 Île-de-France attacks.As of late 2016, Dar al-Islam had apparently been supplanted by Rumiyah. The magazine's ten editions were released in total and project jihadology.net has unaltered versions that are available online.

Islamic State of Iraq

The Islamic State of Iraq (ISI; Arabic: دولة العراق الإسلامية‎ Dawlat al-ʿIrāq al-ʾIslāmiyyah) (commonly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq) was a militant Salafist jihadist group that aimed to establish an Islamic state in Sunni, Arab-majority areas of Iraq during the Iraq War and later in Syria during the Syrian Civil War.

Islamic State of Iraq traces its origins to Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, which was formed by the Jordanian national Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in Jordan in 1999. Al-Zarqawi led the group, under numerous name changes, until his death in June 2006. Jama'at participated in the Iraqi insurgency (2003–2011) following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces, and on 17 October 2004 al-Zarqawi had pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network; and the group became known as Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq). In January 2006, Tanzim and five other Iraqi insurgent groups formed the Mujahideen Shura Council, which on 15 October 2006 merged to form Islamic State of Iraq. At their height in 2006–2008, ISI had military units or strongholds in Mosul and in the governorates of Baghdad, Al Anbar and Diyala, and they claimed Baqubah as their capital. The new group continued to be commonly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq.

Shortly after al-Zarqawi's death, al-Qaeda in Iraq named a new leader, Abu-Hamzah al-Muhajir, thought to be a pseudonym, which the US military named as Abu Ayyub al-Masri, an Egyptian militant based in Baghdad. Al-Masri and ISI leader Abu Omar al-Baghdadi were killed during a military operation on a safehouse on 18 April 2010. Abu Omar al-Baghdadi was succeeded as leader of ISI by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. On 14 May 2010, al-Masri was succeeded by Abu Suleiman al-Naser (also known as al-Nasser Lideen Illah Abu Suleiman), who was in turn killed some time in 2011. Following Suleiman's death, the position of "War Minister" was replaced by a Military Council composed of former regime military officers under the leadership of Haji Bakr.On 7 April 2013 Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi transformed ISI into the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, ISIS, IS), which is still active today. Haji Bakr, whose name was Samir Abd Muhammad al-Khlifawi, was killed in January 2014, and was succeeded by Abu Abdulrahman al-Bilawi as head of the ISIL Military Council. Al-Bilawi was killed on 4 June 2014, and was reportedly succeeded by Abu Mohannad al-Sweidawi as leader of the ISIL Military Council. There were reports in November 2014 that al-Sweidawi had been killed in an Iraqi airstrike that reportedly also injured Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. The Daily Beast reported that al-Sweidawi was succeeded by senior ISIL figure Abu Ali al-Anbari, who was in turn killed on 24 March 2016. Al-Anbari was considered the ISIL second-in-command in Syria and was viewed as a potential successor of ISIL's present leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. The second-in-command in Iraq was Abu Muslim al-Turkmani, who was killed on 18 August 2015, and who was succeeded as the ISIL leader in Iraq by Abu Fatima al-Jaheishi.

Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad

Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad (English: Organization of Monotheism and Jihad), which may be abbreviated as JTJ or Jama'at, was a militant Jihadist group. It was founded in Jordan in 1999 and was led by Jordanian national Abu Musab al-Zarqawi for the entirety of its existence. During the Iraqi insurgency (2003–11), the group became a decentralized network with foreign fighters and a considerable Iraqi membership.On 17 October 2004, al-Zarqawi pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network, and the group became known as Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq or Tanzim). After several mergers with other groups, it changed its name several times until it called itself Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) in 2006.

July 2018 Jalalabad suicide bombing

On 1 July 2018, a suicide bomber detonated in the center of the eastern Afghan city of Jalalabad, killing 20 people, mainly Sikhs and Hindus, and injuring 20 others.

June 2006 abduction of U.S. soldiers in Iraq

The June 2006 abduction of two U.S. soldiers in Iraq occurred in 2006 when military forces of the U.S. and a dozen more countries conducted military operations in Iraq to "bring order to parts of that country that remain dangerous" for occupying military forces.On 16 June 2006, a U.S. checkpoint near Baghdad was attacked. One of the three American soldiers manning the checkpoint was killed, and the two others, Menchaca and Tucker, were abducted. Those two were recovered three days later, according to an Iraqi spokesman "killed in a very brutal way and tortured". The Mujahedeen Shura Council—an organization of six groups, including Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn ('al-Qaida in Iraq'), and forerunner of Islamic State of Iraq and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)—claimed to have "slaughtered" the two abducted soldiers in revenge for the raping of an Iraqi girl and the killing of her family by soldiers of the same U.S. brigade.

Mujahideen Shura Council (Iraq)

The Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC), (Arabic: مجلس شورى المجاهدين في العراق‎), was an umbrella organization of at least six Sunni Islamic insurgent groups taking part in the Iraqi insurgency against U.S. and coalition and Iraqi forces: Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn ('al-Qaeda in Iraq'), Jaish al-Ta'ifa al-Mansurah, Katbiyan Ansar Al-Tawhid wal Sunnah, Saray al-Jihad Group, al-Ghuraba Brigades, and al-Ahwal Brigades.Al-Qaeda in Iraq—part of the Mujahideen Shura Council—was in September 2006 believed by the United States to be "the most significant political force" in the Iraqi Al Anbar province.In mid-October 2006, a statement was released, stating that the Mujahideen Shura Council had been disbanded, and was replaced by the Islamic State of Iraq.

Worldwide caliphate

A worldwide caliphate is the concept of a single one-world government, supported in particular by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, a leader of the Islamic fundamentalist militant group the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. On April 8, 2006, the Daily Times of Pakistan reported that at a rally held in Islamabad the militant organization Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan called for the formation of a worldwide caliphate, which was to begin in Pakistan. In 2014, Baghdadi claimed the successful creation of a worldwide caliphate.A Constitution guides the governance of activities of the principal bodies located in Pakistan.

Hizb ut-Tahrir, a pan-Islamist political organization, believes that all Muslims should unite in a worldwide caliphate that will "challenge, and ultimately conquer, the West." Because extremists often commit acts of violence in pursuit of this goal, it lacks appeal among a wider audience. Brigitte Gabriel argues that the goal of a worldwide caliphate is central to the enterprise of radical Islam.

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