Tanius (meaning "of Tan") is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur. It lived in the Late Cretaceous of China. The type species, named and described in 1929 by Carl Wiman, is Tanius sinensis. The generic name honours the Chinese paleontologist Tan Xichou ("H.C. Tan"). The specific epithet refers to China. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated the length of Tanius at seven metres and the weight at two tonnes.
Tan, in April 1923, discovered the remains in the east of Shandong at the village of Ch'ing-kang-kou, ten kilometres southeast of Lai Yang. In October of the same year they were excavated by Tan's associate, the Austrian paleontologist Otto Zdansky. Although the specimen was originally rather complete, only parts could be salvaged. The holotype, PMU R.240, was recovered from the Jiangjunding Formation of the Wangshi Series dating from the Campanian. It consists of the back of the skull, which was flat and elongated.
Other species originally assigned to Tanius have been moved to other genera. These include: Tanius prynadai named in 1939 by Anatoly Nikolaevich Ryabinin, which was assigned to Bactrosaurus; and Tanius chingkankouensis named in 1958 by Yang Zhongjian, and Tanius laiyangensis named in 1976 by Zhen Shuonan, which were both later considered junior subjective synonyms of Tsintaosaurus. However, a more recent study, Zhang et al. (2017) determined that T. sinensis and T. chingkankouensis were valid species of Tanius, and that T. laiyangensis was probably not valid. Zhang et al. (2019) re-assessed "Tanius" laiyangensis as a member of the saurolophine clade Kritosaurini, the first of the clade from Asia.
The type species Tanius sinensis was found in the Jiangjunding Formation of the Chinese Wangshi Group. The Jiangjunding formation consists purpley-grey or reddy-brown sandstones or various consistencies, siltstones and conglomerates. The Wangshi group of geologic formations is generally considered to be from the Late Cretaceous, although some regions are older. Based on the discovery of Pinacosaurus, only known elsewhere in the Djadokhta Formation or regions of the same age, the Wangshi Group was presumed to be a similar age of 75-71 million years old. The specific age for the Hongtuya Formation has been identified as 73.5-72.9 mya. As the Hongtuya is directly older than the Jiangjunding, it was identified that Tanius sinensis lived in the latest Campanian to earliest Maastrichtian by Borinder in 2015.
The Jiangjunding Formation was deposited in a fluvial to lacustrine environment. The climate was warm and humid during the majority of the timespan, although it was beginning to dry out after the Jiangjunding. Taxa that lived alongside Tanius in the formation include the ankylosaur Pinacosaurus cf. grangeri; possibly the cerapodan Micropachycephalosaurus; intermediate sauropods; intermediate coelurosaurs; and intermediate cheloniids which show similarities to Nanhsiungchelyidae. Multiple localities of dinosaur eggs have also been idenfitied.
Both T. chingkankouensis and T. laiyangensis were discovered in the Jingangkou Formation, which is directly above the Jiangjunding. This formation has been the site of massive excavations of hadrosaurs in both the 1950s and the 2010s. A majority of the strata is green-grey mudstone, where the bones excavated are coloured black. The sediment in the location of the hadrosaur excavations was deposited by a mudflow event, where the carcasses were trapped and moved a short distance before rapid burial. At least 20 individuals of hadrosaurs have been uncovered, of various ages. Hadrosaurs from these localities include Tanius, Tsintaosaurus, Laiyangosaurus and Shantungosaurus. Other taxa uncovered include the theropods Chingkankousaurus and cf. Szechuanosaurus campi, and the testudine Glyptops.
"Tanius" laiyangensis is a dubious species of kritosaurin hadrosaur from the Late Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Shandong, China. It was originally described in 1976 as the third species in the genus Tanius, based on a sacrum and partial ilium. The type species of the genus, Tanius sinensis, was later found to be a basal hadrosauroid as opposed to be a member of Hadrosauridae. T. laiyangensis was, after its description, variously considered a nomen dubium or a synonym of the lambeosaur Tsintaosaurus. In 2019, T. laiyangensis was re-evaluated, and found to be an indeterminate kritosaur, unrelated to the true Tanius. Material from the same formation, initially referred to the edmontosaur Laiyangosaurus, was also identified as being from a kritosaur, and so possibly belonged to the same species. It is the first recognized kritosaur to be found in Asia, and its closest relative was found to be Secernosaurus from Argentina.Aralosaurini
Aralosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs endemic to Eurasia. It currently contains Aralosaurus (from the Aral sea of Kazakhstan) and Canardia (from Toulouse, Southern France).Elasmaria
Elasmaria is a clade of iguanodont ornithopods known from Cretaceous deposits in South America, Antarctica, and Australia.Galleonosaurus
Galleonosaurus (meaning "galleon lizard" as the upper jaw bone resembles an upturned galleon) is a genus of basal ornithopod dinosaur from the Wonthaggi Formation of the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia. The type and only species is G. dorisae, described by Herne et al. in 2019.Hadrosauroidea
Hadrosauroidea is a clade or superfamily of ornithischian dinosaurs that includes the "duck-billed" dinosaurs, or hadrosaurids, and all dinosaurs more closely related to them than to Iguanodon.They are from Asia, Europe and Africa. Many primitive hadrosauroids, such as the Asian Probactrosaurus and Altirhinus, have traditionally been included in a paraphyletic (unnatural grouping) "Iguanodontidae". With cladistic analysis, the traditional Iguanodontidae has been largely disbanded, and probably includes only Iguanodon and perhaps its closest relatives.Hadrosauromorpha
Hadrosauromorpha is a cohort of iguanodontian ornithopods, defined in 2014 by David B. Norman to divide Hadrosauroidea into the basal taxa with compressed manual bones and a pollex, and the derived taxa that lack them. The clade is defined as all the taxa closer to Edmontosaurus regalis than Probactrosaurus gobiensis. This results in different taxon inclusion depending on the analysis.Huehuecanauhtlus
Huehuecanauhtlus is an extinct genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous (Santonian stage) of Michoacán, western Mexico. It contains a single species, Huehuecanauhtlus tiquichensis.Iguanodontia
Iguanodontia (the iguanodonts) is a clade of herbivorous dinosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. Some members include Camptosaurus, Dryosaurus, Iguanodon, Tenontosaurus, and the hadrosaurids or "duck-billed dinosaurs". Iguanodontians were one of the first groups of dinosaurs to be found. They are among the best known of the dinosaurs, and were among the most diverse and widespread herbivorous dinosaur groups of the Cretaceous period.Jaxartosaurus
Jaxartosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur similar to Corythosaurus which lived during the Late Cretaceous. Its fossils were found in Kazakhstan.Jeyawati
Jeyawati is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur which lived during the Turonian stage of the Late Cretaceous. The type species, J. rugoculus, was described in 2010, based on fossils recovered in the U.S. state of New Mexico.The holotype, MSM P4166, was discovered in the Moreno Hill Formation. A cladistic analysis indicates that Jeyawati was more plesiomorphic (ancestral) than Shuangmiaosaurus, Telmatosaurus, and Bactrosaurus, but more derived (less like the common ancestor) than Eolambia, Probactrosaurus, and Protohadros.Kritosaurini
Kritosaurini is a clade of saurolophine hadrosaurid dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous.Laiyangosaurus
Laiyangosaurus ("Laiyang lizard") is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of China. It is known from one species, L.youngi, found in the Laiyang Basin within the province of Shandong.Lapampasaurus
Lapampasaurus is an extinct genus of hadrosaurid known from the Late Cretaceous Allen Formation (late Campanian or early Maastrichtian stage) of La Pampa Province, Argentina. It contains a single species, Lapampasaurus cholinoi.The generic name refers to the Argentine province of La Pampa. The specific name honours the late collector José Cholino. The material includes cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae, the forelimb girdle, and the partial hindlimb.Osmakasaurus
Osmakasaurus is a genus of herbivorous iguanodontian dinosaur. It is a basal iguanodontian which lived during the lower Cretaceous period (Valanginian age) in what is now Buffalo Gap of South Dakota, United States. It is known from the Chilson Member of the Lakota Formation. This genus was named by Andrew T. McDonald in 2011 and the type species is Osmakasaurus depressus. O. depressus was previously referred to as Camptosaurus depressus, and was first described in 1909 by Charles W. Gilmore.Sahaliyania
Sahaliyania (from "black" in Manchu, a reference to the Amur/Heilongjiang River) is a genus of lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur (crested duckbilled dinosaur) from the Late Cretaceous of Heilongjiang, China.Tanyus Shahin
Tanyus Shahin Saadeh al-Rayfouni (also spelled Tanios Chahine Saadé Al Rayfouné, given name also spelled Taniyus or Tanius) (1815–1895) was a Maronite muleteer and peasant leader from Mount Lebanon. He led a peasants' revolt in the area of Keserwan in 1859, during which he drove out the area's Maronite nobility, the feudal Khazen lords, and declared a peasants' republic. While he had a reputation as a ruffian and provocateur among members of the Maronite clergy and European consuls, Shahin became a popular figure among Christian commoners, many of whom considered him the guardian of their interests, a view which Shahin promoted.
Following his victory in Keserwan, Shahin and his fighters launched intermittent raids against villages in nearby regions, such as Jubail and Matn, often in the name of defending the rights of local Christians. The assaults and their repercussions served as catalysts of the 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war, particularly the battle of Beit Mery between local Maronites and Druze, in which Shahin was a principal belligerent. Although he claimed he could raise an army of 50,000 to combat the forces of the Druze feudal lords, he did not participate further in the war. Following the war's end, he was defeated by Youssef Karam in a struggle over political influence in Maronite affairs. Shahin subsequently relinquished his republic and worked in the judiciary of his home village, Rayfoun.Tsintaosaurus
Tsintaosaurus (; meaning "Qingdao lizard", after the old transliteration "Tsingtao") is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur from China. It was about 8.3 metres (27 ft) long and weighed 2.5 tonnes. The type species is Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus, first described by Chinese paleontologist C. C. Young in 1958.
A hadrosaur, Tsintaosaurus had a characteristic 'duck bill' snout and a battery of powerful teeth which it used to chew vegetation. It usually walked on all fours, but could rear up on its hind legs to scout for predators and flee when it spotted one. Like other hadrosaurs, Tsintaosaurus probably lived in herds.Xuwulong
Xuwulong is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous period. It lived during the early Cretaceous period (Aptian-Albian age) in what is now Yujingzi Basin in the Jiuquan area, Gansu Province of northwestern China. It is known from the holotype – GSGM F00001, an articulated specimen including a complete cranium, almost complete axial skeleton, and complete left pelvic girdle from Xinminpu Group. Xuwulong was named by You Hailu, Li Daqing and Liu Weichang in 2011 and the type species is Xuwulong yueluni.Yunganglong
Yunganglong is an extinct genus of basal hadrosauroid dinosaur known from the early Late Cretaceous lower Zhumapu Formation of Zuoyun County, Shanxi Province of northeastern China. It contains a single species, Yunganglong datongensis.