Tanganyika

Tanganyika /ˌtæŋɡənˈjiːkə/ was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964. It first gained independence from the United Kingdom on 9 December 1961 as a state headed by Queen Elizabeth II before becoming a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations exactly a year later. After signing the Articles of Union on 22 April 1964 and passing an Act of Union on 25 April, Tanganyika officially joined with the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar on Union Day, 26 April 1964.[1] The new state changed its name to the United Republic of Tanzania within a year.[2]

Tanganyika (1961–62)
Republic of Tanganyika (1962–64)

1961–1964
Anthem: Mungu ibariki Afrika
'God Bless Africa'
Tanzania (orthographic projection)
CapitalDar es Salaam
Common languages
GovernmentParliamentary monarchy (1961–62)
Presidential republic (1962–64)
Head of state 
• 1961–62
Elizabeth II
• 1962–64
Julius Nyerere
Governor-General 
• 1961–62
Richard Turnbull
History 
• Independence from British Empire
9 December 1961
• Republic
9 December 1962
• Union with Zanzibar
26 April 1964
CurrencyEast African shilling
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tanganyika (territory)
Tanzania

History

Tanganyika originally consisted of the Tanganyika Territory, the British share of German East Africa, which the British took under a League of Nations Mandate in 1922, and which was later transformed into a United Nations Trust Territory after World War II. The other parts of German East Africa were taken into Belgian trusteeship, eventually becoming present-day Rwanda and Burundi.

The Tanganyika Independence Act 1961 transformed the United Nations trust territory into the independent sovereign state of Tanganyika. The British monarch Elizabeth II remained head of state as Queen of Tanganyika and Tanganyika shared the Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms. The monarch's constitutional roles were mostly delegated to the Governor-General of Tanganyika. The royal succession was governed by the English Act of Settlement of 1701.

Tanganyika adopted a new constitution in 1962 that abolished the monarchy, with the Tanzanian Parliament (the majority of whom were members of the Tanganyika African National Union Party) drastically revising the new Constitution to favor a strong executive branch of government, namely a president.[2] Tanganyika then became a republic within the Commonwealth, with Julius Nyerere as President of Tanganyika. After the Union of Zanzibar and Tanganyika, an interim Constitution amended from the 1962 Constitution became the governing document. Although meant to be temporary, the Constitutions remained effective until 1977.[2]

The unification of Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964 followed Nyerere's principle of Ujamaa which entailed a strong "territorial nationalism."[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ "United Republic of Tanzania; Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar act, 1964".
  2. ^ a b c Katundu, Mangasini (August 2015). "Tanzania's Constitutional Reform Predicament and the Survival of the Tanganyika and Zanzibar Union". The Journal of Pan African Studies. 8 (3).
  3. ^ Gunderson, Frank (4 May 2013). "Expressive Bodies / Controlling Impulses: The Dance Between Official Culture and Musical Resistance in Colonial Western Tanganyika". Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 96 (2): 145–169. ISSN 2161-6302.
Flag of Tanzania

The flag of Tanzania consists of a Yellow-edged black diagonal band, divided diagonally from the lower hoist-side corner, with a green upper triangle and blue lower triangle. Adopted in 1964 to replace the individual flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, it has been the flag of the United Republic of Tanzania since the two states merged that year. The design of the present flag incorporates the elements from the two former flags.

History of Tanzania

The African Great Lakes nation of Tanzania dates formally from 1964, when it was formed out of the union of the much larger mainland territory of Tanganyika and the coastal archipelago of Zanzibar. The former was a colony and part of German East Africa from the 1880s to 1919, when, under the League of Nations, it became a British mandate. It served as a military outpost during World War II, providing financial help, munitions, and soldiers. In 1947, Tanganyika became a United Nations Trust Territory under British administration, a status it kept until its independence in 1961. Zanzibar was settled as a trading hub, subsequently controlled by the Portuguese, the Sultanate of Oman, and then as a British protectorate by the end of the nineteenth century.

Julius Nyerere, independence leader and "baba wa taifa for Tanganyika" (father of the Tanganyika nation), ruled the country for decades, assisted by Abeid Amaan Karume, the Zanzibar Father of Nation. Following Nyerere's retirement in 1985, various political and economic reforms began. He was succeeded in office by President Ali Hassan Mwinyi.

Julius Nyerere

Julius Kambarage Nyerere (Swahili pronunciation: [ˈdʒuːliəs kɑmˈbɑɾɑgə njɛˈɾɛɾɛ]; 13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian anti-colonial activist, politician, and political theorist. He governed Tanganyika as Prime Minister from 1961 to 1962 and then as President from 1963 to 1964, after which he led its successor state, Tanzania, as President from 1964 to 1985. A founding member of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) party—which in 1977 became the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party—he chaired it until 1990. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he promoted a political philosophy known as Ujamaa.

Born in Butiama, then in the British colony of Tanganyika, Nyerere was the son of a Zanaki chief. After completing his schooling, he studied at Makerere College in Uganda and then Edinburgh University in Scotland. In 1952 he returned to Tanganyika, married, and worked as a teacher. In 1954, he helped form TANU, through which he campaigned for Tanganyikan independence from the British Empire. Influenced by the Indian independence leader Mahatma Gandhi, Nyerere preached non-violent protest to achieve this aim. Elected to the Legislative Council in the 1958–59 elections, Nyerere then led TANU to victory at the 1960 general election, becoming Prime Minister. Negotiations with the British authorities resulted in Tanganyikan independence in 1961. In 1962, Tanganyika became a republic, with Nyerere elected its first president. His administration pursued decolonisation and the "Africanisation" of the civil service while promoting unity between indigenous Africans and the country's Asian and European minorities. He encouraged the formation of a one-party state and unsuccessfully pursued the Pan-Africanist formation of an East African Federation with Uganda and Kenya. A 1963 mutiny within the army was suppressed with British assistance.

Following the Zanzibar Revolution of 1964, the island of Zanzibar was unified with Tanganyika to form Tanzania. Nyerere placed a growing emphasis on national self-reliance and socialism. Although his vision of socialism differed from that promoted by Marxism, Tanzania developed close links with Mao Zedong's Marxist-governed China. In 1967, Nyerere issued the Arusha Declaration, which outlined his vision of ujamaa. Banks and other major industries and companies were nationalised; education and healthcare were significantly expanded. Renewed emphasis was placed on agricultural development through the formation of communal farms, although these reforms hampered food production and left Tanzania dependent on foreign food aid. His government provided training and aid to anti-colonialist groups fighting white-minority rule throughout southern Africa and oversaw Tanzania's 1978–79 war with Uganda which resulted in the overthrow of Ugandan President Idi Amin. In 1985, Nyerere stood down and was succeeded by Ali Hassan Mwinyi, who reversed many of Nyerere's policies. He remained chair of Chama Cha Mapinduzi until 1990, supporting a transition to a multi-party system, and later served as mediator in attempts to end the Burundian Civil War.

Nyerere was a controversial figure. Across Africa he gained widespread respect as an anti-colonialist and in power received praise for ensuring that, unlike many of its neighbours, Tanzania remained stable and unified in the decades following independence. His construction of the one-party state and use of detention without trial led to accusations of dictatorial governance, while he has also been blamed for economic mismanagement. He is held in deep respect within Tanzania, where he is often referred to by the Swahili honorific Mwalimu ("teacher") and described as the "Father of the Nation".

Lake Tanganyika

Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is the second oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second largest by volume, and the second deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia. It is the world's longest freshwater lake. The lake is divided among four countries – Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Burundi, and Zambia, with Tanzania (46%) and DRC (40%) possessing the majority of the lake. The water flows into the Congo River system and ultimately into the Atlantic Ocean.

List of Prime Ministers of Tanzania

This is a list of the Prime Ministers of Tanzania, from the establishment of the office of Chief Minister of Tanganyika in 1960 to the present day.

Tanzania was formed after the Zanzibar Revolution in 1964, when the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba united with mainland Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was later renamed to the United Republic of Tanzania.

List of governors of Tanganyika

The colony of German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was founded in the 1880s, after the German explorer Carl Peters signed treaties with native chieftains on neighboring Zanzibar. On 3 March 1885, the government of the German Empire granted an imperial charter to the German East Africa Company, and a protectorate was established. German colonial rule in the region lasted until World War I, when the British occupied the colony during the East African Campaign. The British territory of Tanganyika was established on 20 July 1922, when Britain acquired a mandate to administer the region as a result of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. On 18 April 1946, the mandate was reorganized as a Trust Territory of the United Nations. Afterwards, the region remained under British administration until it gained independence on 9 December 1961 as Tanganyika.

List of heads of state of Tanzania

This is a list of the heads of state of Tanzania, from the independence of Tanganyika in 1961 to the present day.

From 1961 to 1962 the head of state under the Tanganyika Independence Act 1961 was the Queen of Tanganyika, Elizabeth II, who was also the Monarch of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The Monarch was represented in Tanganyika by a Governor-General. Tanganyika became a republic under the Constitution of 1962 and the Monarch and Governor-General were replaced by an executive President. After the Zanzibar Revolution in 1964, the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba united with mainland Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was later renamed to the United Republic of Tanzania.

National Assembly (Tanzania)

The National Assembly of Tanzania (Swahili: Bunge la Tanzania) and the President of the United Republic make up the Parliament of Tanzania. The current Speaker of the National Assembly is Job Ndugai, who presides over a unicameral assembly of 393 members.The National Assembly of Tanzania was formed as the Legislative Council of Tanzania Mainland – then known as Tanganyika – in 1926. The Council was formed under a law enacted by the British Parliament called the Tanganyika Legislative Council Order and Council. The law was gazetted in Tanganyika on 18 June 1926. The Council consisted of 20 members when it was formed on 7 December 1926 under the Chairmanship of the Governor of Tanganyika, Sir Donald Cameron.

The first Speaker was appointed to replace the Governor as the Chairman of the Council in 1953. The office of Speaker was first occupied on 1 November 1953.

In 1958, the Council got a few elected representatives for the first time. This was the first election allowed in the colony. Of the three political parties which participated in the elections, namely Tanganyika African Union (TANU), United Tanganyika Party (UTP) and African National Congress (ANC), only TANU won in some constituencies, thus becoming the first party to have elected members on the Council.

Second elections for positions on the Council were held in 1960. These elections were part of the preparations being made to make Tanganyika an independent nation. All members appointed by the Governor were abolished and the people of Tanganyika were allowed to elect all members of the Council.

In the same year, the name of the Council was changed to Legislative Assembly. The changes made in this year were constitutionally necessary so as to allow the President of Tanganyika to give assent to all laws passed instead of the Queen of the United Kingdom.

Postage stamps and postal history of Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika

Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika (KUT) is the name on British postage stamps made for use in the British colonies of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanganyika. The stamps were circulated between 1935 and 1963 by the joint postal service of the three colonies, the East African Posts and Telecommunications Administration, reconstituted as part of the East African High Commission from 1948 to 1961, the East African Common Services Organization from 1961 to 1967, and the East African Community from 1967 to 1977. Even after independence, the new separate nations continued to use the KUT stamps, and they remained valid for postage until 1977.

Postage stamps and postal history of Tanganyika

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the Tanganyika under British mandate.

President of Tanzania

The President of the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania) is the head of state and head of government of Tanzania. The president leads the executive branch of the Government of Tanzania and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

Queen of Tanganyika

From 1961 to 1962, Tanganyika was an independent sovereign state with Elizabeth II as its queen. The Queen was formal head of state and was represented in Tanganyika by the Governor-General. Tanganyika shared the Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms, including the United Kingdom.

The monarchy was created by the Tanganyika Independence Act 1961 which transformed the United Nations trust territory of Tanganyika into an independent sovereign constitutional monarchy. The monarchy was abolished in 1962, when Tanganyika became a republic within the Commonwealth with the President of Tanganyika as head of state. The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs wrote:

On December 9, 1961, when Tanganyika became independent, it suddenly became a monarchy with the monarch as Queen of Tanganyika. But the British monarchy was regarded as a foreign institution and the new position increased the sense of alienation from the Crown. It is made clear, however, that the proposal to become a republic does not imply any disrespect towards the person of the Queen, whose position as Head of the Commonwealth is readily acknowledged ... The chief, as the leader of the tribe, still holds a position of great importance in most areas ... by and large the chiefs have retained the affection and loyalty of their people and since it is a monarchical system, it might be thought that the idea of monarchy was acceptable to the people and that in some areas it was strongly entrenched. There is, however, a difference between the monarchical idea of chieftainship and that of an alien monarch who is a European and who lives thousands of miles away and is never seen. The days have gone when the English sovereign can be expected to command the personal loyalty of African subjects in the same way as people of British origin.

Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar in 1964 after the Zanzibar Revolution to form Tanzania. The Queen visited Tanzania on 19–22 July 1979, visiting Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, and Kilimanjaro.

Tanganyika (territory)

Tanganyika was a territory administered by the United Kingdom from 1916 until 1961. The UK initially administered the territory as an occupying power with the Royal Navy and British Indian infantry seizing the territory from the Germans in 1916. From 20 July 1922, British administration was formalised by Tanganyika being created a British League of Nations mandate. From 1946, it was administered by the UK as a United Nations trust territory.

Before the end of World War I, the territory was part of the German colony of German East Africa (GEA). After the war started, the British invaded GEA but were unable to defeat the German army. The German leader in the African Great Lakes, Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, did not surrender until notified about the Armistice of 11 November 1918 that ended the war. After this, the League of Nations formalised the UK's control of the area, who renamed it "Tanganyika". The UK held Tanganyika as a League of Nations mandate until the end of World War II after which it was held as a United Nations trust territory. In 1961, Tanganyika gained its independence from the UK as Tanganyika. It became a republic a year later. Tanganyika now forms part of the modern-day sovereign state of Tanzania.

Tanganyika African National Union

The Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) was the principal political party in the struggle for sovereignty in the East African state of Tanganyika (now Tanzania). The party was formed from the Tanganyika African Association by Julius Nyerere in July 1954 when he was teaching at St. Francis' College (which is now known as Pugu High School). From 1964 the party was called Tanzania African National Union. In January 1977 the TANU merged with the ruling party in Zanzibar, the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) to form the current Revolutionary State Party or Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM). The policy of TANU was to build and maintain a socialist state aiming towards economic self-sufficiency and to eradicate corruption and exploitation, with the major means of production and exchange under the control of the peasants and workers (Ujamaa-Essays on Socialism; "The Arusha Declaration").

Julius Nyerere was the first President of Tanzania, serving from the 1960s to the 1985. In 1962, Nyerere and TANU created the Ministry of National Culture and Youth. Nyerere felt the creation of the ministry was necessary in order to deal with some of the challenges and contradictions of building a nation-state and a national culture after 70 years of colonialism. The government of Tanzania sought to create an innovative public space where Tanzanian popular culture could develop and flourish. By incorporating the varied traditions and customs of all peoples of Tanzania, Nyerere hoped to promote a sense of pride, thus creating a national culture.

Tanganyika Province

Tanganyika is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Specified under Article 2 of the country's 2006 Constitution, Tanganyika was finally created in 2015 from the eponymous Tanganyika District, previously part of the pre-2015 Katanga Province. Its capital is Kalemie.

The new province's territory corresponds to the historic Nord-Katanga province that existed in the early period of post-colonial Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1962 and 1966.

Tanganyika Strut

Tanganyika Strut is the last of the three 1958 Savoy recordings made by jazz musicians John Coltrane and Wilbur Harden. The album would be Harden's last as a leader. The sessions also produced a couple of alternate takes which can be found on some compilations, most notably the ones featuring the complete Savoy recordings made by Harden and Coltrane together, The Complete Mainstream 1958 Sessions (2009) and The Complete Savoy Sessions (1999).

Tanzania

Tanzania (, Swahili: [tanzaˈni.a]) officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands at the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania.

Many important hominid fossils have been found in Tanzania, such as 6 million year-old Pliocene hominid fossils. The genus Australopithecus ranged all over Africa 4-2 million years ago; and the oldest remains of the Homo genus are found near Lake Olduvai. Following the rise of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago, mankind spread all over the Old World, and later in the New World and Australia under the species Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens also overtook Africa and absorbed the older archaic species and subspecies of humanity. One of the oldest known ethnic groups still existing, the Hadzabe, appears to have originated in Tanzania, and their oral history recalls ancestors who were tall and were the first to use fire, medicine, and lived in caves, much like Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis who lived in the same region before them.

Later in the Stone and Bronze Age, prehistoric migrations into Tanzania included Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from present-day Ethiopia; Eastern Cushitic people who moved into Tanzania from north of Lake Turkana about 2,000 and 4,000 years ago; and the Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, who originated from the present-day South Sudan–Ethiopia border region between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago. These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania.The United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million. The population is composed of several ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The sovereign state of Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president's office, the National Assembly, and some government ministries are located. Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, and leading commercial centre. Tanzania is a de facto one-party state with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power.

Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the south lies Lake Malawi. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area. The Kalambo Falls, located on the Kalambo River at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa.Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. The country does not have a de jure official language, although the national language is Swahili. Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether. Approximately 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language.

Tanzania national football team

The Tanzania national football team (Swahili: Timu ya Taifa ya Mpira wa Miguu ya Tanzania) represents Tanzania in association football and is controlled by the Tanzania Football Federation, the governing body for football in Tanzania. Tanzania's home ground is Benjamin Mkapa National Stadium in Dar-es-Salaam and their head coach is Mart Nooij from the Netherlands. Tanzania has never qualified for the World Cup finals. Before uniting with Zanzibar, the team played as the Tanganyika national football team.

The island of Zanzibar, part of Tanzania (and once an independent nation), is also an associate member of CAF and has played matches with other nations, but is not eligible to enter the World Cup or Africa Cup of Nations. See Zanzibar national football team.

Tanzanian masked weaver

The Tanzanian masked weaver (Ploceus reichardi), or Tanganyika masked weaver, is a species of bird in the weaver family, Ploceidae. It is found in and around swamps in south-western Tanzania and north-eastern Zambia. The Lufira masked weaver is sometimes treated as a subspecies of this bird.

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