Tamaulipas

Tamaulipas (Spanish pronunciation: [tamau̯ˈlipas] (listen)), officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas (English: Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria.

Located in northeastern Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the southeast, San Luis Potosí to the southwest, and Nuevo León to the west. To the north, it has a 370 km (230 mi) stretch of the U.S.–Mexico border along the state of Texas.[8]

The name Tamaulipas is derived from Tamaholipa, a Huastec term in which the tam- prefix signifies "place (where)". No scholarly agreement exists on the meaning of holipa, but "high hills" is a common interpretation.[9] Another explanation of the state name is that it is derived from Ta ma ho'lipam ("place where the Lipan prey").

In addition to the capital city, Ciudad Victoria, the state's largest cities include Reynosa, Matamoros, Nuevo Laredo, Tampico, and Mante.

Tamaulipas

Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas
Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas
Official seal of Tamaulipas

Seal
Anthem: Himno de Tamaulipas
State of Tamaulipas within Mexico
State of Tamaulipas within Mexico
Coordinates: 24°17′N 98°34′W / 24.283°N 98.567°WCoordinates: 24°17′N 98°34′W / 24.283°N 98.567°W
CapitalCiudad Victoria
Largest cityReynosa
Largest metroTampico
AdmissionFebruary 7, 1824[1]
Order14th
Government
 • GovernorFrancisco García Cabeza de Vaca (PAN logo (Mexico).svg)
 • Senators[2]Ma. Guadalupe Covarrubias Cervantes Morena
Américo Villarreal Anaya Morena
Ismael García Cabeza de Vaca PAN
 • Deputies[3]
Area
 • Total80,249 km2 (30,984 sq mi)
 Ranked 6th
Highest elevation3,280 m (10,760 ft)
Population
 (2015)[6]
 • Total3,441,698
 • Rank13th
 • Density43/km2 (110/sq mi)
 • Density rank21st
Demonym(s)Tamaulipeco (a)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
87–89
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-TAM
HDIIncrease 0.792 high Ranked 10th
GDPUS$ 20,789,236.56 th[a]
WebsiteOfficial Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was $266,102,228 thousand of pesos in 2008, amount corresponding to $20,789,236.56 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[7]

History

The area known as Tamaulipas has been inhabited for at least 8,000 years. Several different cultures (north coastal, south coastal, lowlands, and mountains) have come and gone during that period.

Tamaulipas was originally populated by the Olmec people and later by Chichimec and Huastec tribes. Between 1445 and 1466, Mexica (or Aztec) armies commanded by Moctezuma I Ilhuicamina conquered much of the territory and transformed it into a tributary region for the Mexica empire. However, the Aztecs never fully conquered certain mostly nomadic indigenous groups in the area.

Although Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs rather quickly, a gradual process was needed for Spain to subjugate the inhabitants of Tamaulipas in the 16th and 17th centuries. The first permanent Spanish settlement in the area was Tampico in 1554. Further settlement was done by Franciscan missionaries; widespread cattle and sheep ranching by the Spanish bolstered the area's economy while forcing native populations from their original lands. Repeated indigenous rebellions kept the area unstable and weakened colonial interest in the region. What is now Tamaulipas was first incorporated as a separate province of New Spain in 1746 with the name Nuevo Santander. The local government capital during this time moved from Santander to San Carlos, and finally to Aguayo. The territory of this time spanned from the San Antonio River to the northeast to the Gulf of Mexico, then south to the Pánuco River near Tampico and west to the Sierra Madre Mountains. The area became a haven for rebellious Indians who fled there after increased Spanish settlements in Nuevo León and Coahuila.

In the mid-17th century, various Apache bands from the Southern Plains, after acquiring horses from Europeans in New Mexico, moved southeastward into the Edwards Plateau, displacing the native hunting and gathering groups. One of these groups was known as Lipan (see Hodge 1907 Vol. I:769 for a confusing list of synonyms). After 1750, when most Apache groups of the Central Texas highlands were displaced by Comanche and moved into the coastal plain of southern Texas, the Europeans of the San Antonio area began referring to all Apache groups in southern Texas as Lipan or Lipan Apache.[10]

Many Indian groups of missions in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico had recently been displaced from their territory through the southward push by the Lipan Apaches and were still hostile toward Apaches, linking arms with the local Spanish authorities against their common foe.

By 1790, Europeans turned their attention from the aboriginal groups and focused on containing the Apache invaders. In northeastern Coahuila and adjacent Texas, Spanish and Apache displacements created an unusual ethnic mix. Here, the local Indians mixed with displaced groups from Coahuila and Chihuahua and Texas. Some groups, to escape the pressure, combined and migrated north into the Central Texas highlands.

Independent Mexico

In 1824, after the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, and the fall of the Mexican Empire, Tamaulipas was one of the 19 founder states of the new United Mexican States. During the fights between centralists and federalists that soon followed, the successful Texas Revolution led to the creation of the Republic of Texas in 1836. The new republic claimed as part of its territory northern Tamaulipas.

Political divisions of Mexico 1824 (location map scheme)
Tamaulipas in Mexico, 1824

In 1840, it became a part of the short-lived Republic of the Rio Grande. In 1848, after the Mexican–American War, Tamaulipas lost more than a quarter of its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Its capital was kept at Aguayo, which later was renamed Ciudad Victoria in honor of Guadalupe Victoria, first President of Mexico.

The French occupation and reign of Emperor Maximilian during the 1860s was difficult for Tamaulipas, at least on the borders and in the city of Tampico. Portions of Tamaulipas supported the republican forces led by President Benito Juarez in resisting the French, especially in the north. Two years after French occupation began, Tamaulipas as a state finally acceded to Maximilian's rule, and the last French soldiers left the state in 1866, leading up to Maximilian's execution and fall of the Second Mexican Empire in 1867.

However, the years after Maximilian's defeat were ones of rebuilding and great growth in Tamaulipas. International trade began to blossom, especially with the coming of the railroad to Tampico, which was developing as not only a port city, but also as an industrial and commercial center. The railroad allowed goods to flow quickly from the mines and cities of the interior and the Texas border to Tampico for processing and shipment. This, in turn, caused significant growth in towns such as Matamoros and Nuevo Laredo.

Since the revolution of 1910, successive governments have dedicated themselves to building industry and infrastructure in Tamaulipas, including communications and educational systems. Norberto Treviño Zapata founded the state university system, as well as reformed the state oil industry. Marte Gómez provided increased farm sizes for private family farmers. And more recently, Emilio Martínez Manautou led industrial growth. Lately a push has been to strengthen fishing, including efforts to increase the price of fish and shellfish on the international market.

Geography

Sierra Madre Oriental - La Independencia Jaumave, Tam.
Sierra Madre Oriental

The Tropic of Cancer crosses the southern part of the municipality of Victoria.

The coastal plains along the Gulf have a large presence in the state, whereas inland the landscape is adorned by cactus species and pasture. Predominant fauna in the region include the cougar (Puma concolor), long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), American badger (Taxidea taxus), North American beaver (Castor canadensis), plain chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) and quail.

In the western part of the state, the Sierra Madre Oriental displays warm valleys and high sierras with peaks reaching 3,280 m (10,760 ft) in the Pedragoso Sierra; 3,240 m (10,630 ft) in the Borregos Sierra; 3,220 m (10,560 ft) in La Gloria Sierra; 3,180 m (10,430 ft) in Cerro el Nacimiento; and 3,000 m (9,800 ft) above sea level in the Sierra el Pinal. The Sierra de Tamaulipas and the Sierra de San Carlos are isolated mountain ranges in eastern Tamaulipas.

In terms of hydrology, the Bravo, Purificacion, and Guayalejo Rivers flow into the Gulf of Mexico after crossing the state from the western inland. On their way, their basins and zones of influence naturally correspond to the areas destined for agricultural use. The Rio Grande, known to Mexicans as the Río Bravo, represents the northern frontier shared with the United States. One of the tributaries of this natural border, the San Juan River, feeds the Marte R. Gómez Dam. Agricultural and cattle-raising activities are served by 14 other dams across the state, with a total capacity of 7,500 million m3 of water.

As much as 90% of the state reports a dry or semidry climate, while the Huasteca mountain range presents hot and semihumid conditions, along with humid winds coming from the Gulf, which means it is located in a zone highly influenced by cyclones, with predominant winds coming from the east and southeast.

Government and infrastructure

State agencies include:

Economy and culture

Entrada al Puerto de Tampico México
Port of Tampico

Northern Tamaulipas shares its economic culture with that of Texas, and is primarily characterized by agriculture and strong growth in all industrial sectors. This region is home to many of the maquiladoras, factories owned by foreign companies but worked by Mexicans, primarily by women.

Southern Tamaulipas' economy is based primarily on the petrochemical industries. There are petrochemical production plants around Altamira as well as a principal Gulf coast container port, refinery facilities in Ciudad Madero and many oil-industry support service companies in Tampico, as well as a major general and bulk cargo port.[11] Also of importance are the tourism and fishing industries, as well as much commercial shipping, based in Tampico and Altamira. The little village of La Pesca, in the municipality of Soto La Marina, about midway between Brownsville, Texas and Tampico, is a rapidly growing tourist area with lovely beaches and excellent fishing both in the Gulf of Mexico and the Rio Soto La Marina. The central zone contains the capital, Ciudad Victoria, and is home to much forestry and farming, as well as some industrial development. About 30% of the population lives here, both in the capital and in Ciudad Mante. Ciudad Victoria is a significant educational center, home to the Autonomous University of Tamaulipas (which also has campuses in other cities in the state), the Regional Technical Institute of Ciudad Victoria, the University of Valle de Bravo, and other institutions of learning.

As of the 1990 Mexican census, 13 percent of the homes had only dirt floors, nearly 19 percent had no running water, and over 15 percent of the homes had no electricity. This was better than the national average, but was skewed because of the high rate of development in the urban centers. In rural communities in Tamaulipas, access to running water was available in less than 40 percent of homes.

As of 2005, Tamaulipas's economy represents 3.3% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or 21,664 million USD.[12] Tamaulipas's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 258,762 people are employed in the manufacturing sector.[12] Foreign direct investment in Tamaulipas was 386.2 million USD for 2005. The average wage for an employee in Tamaulipas is approximately 240 pesos per day, $2.00 to $3.00 an hour.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1895[13] 209,106—    
1900 218,948+4.7%
1910 249,641+14.0%
1921 286,904+14.9%
1930 344,039+19.9%
1940 458,832+33.4%
1950 718,167+56.5%
1960 1,024,182+42.6%
1970 1,456,858+42.2%
1980 1,924,484+32.1%
1990 2,249,581+16.9%
1995 2,527,328+12.3%
2000 2,753,222+8.9%
2005 3,024,238+9.8%
2010 3,268,554+8.1%
2015[14] 3,441,698+5.3%
City City
Population[15]
Municipality
Population
Metropolitan
Population[16]
Metropolitan
area type
Reynosa 589,466 608,891 1,501,919[17] International R/RB/H
Matamoros 449,815[18] 489,193 1,136,995[19] International M/C
Nuevo Laredo 373,725 384,033 636,516 International NL/W/H/C
Ciudad Victoria 305,155 321,953 321,953 Municipality
Tampico 297,284 309,003 859,419 In and Out-of-state
Ciudad Madero 197,216 197,216 Part of Tampico Metro
Miramar 118,614 Part of Tampico Metro
Rio Bravo 95,647 118,259 Part of Reynosa Metro
Ciudad Mante 84,787 115,792 115,792 Municipality
Altamira 59,536 212,001 Part of Tampico Metro
Valle Hermoso 48,918 63,170 63,170 Municipality
Bustamante 100 101 101 Municipality

Education

Tamaulipas enjoys standards slightly higher than the national averages, since illiteracy has been reduced to 5% for those over 15 years of age, average schooling reaches 7.8 years, and as many as 11% have earned a professional degree.

Institutions of higher education include:

Transportation

Airports

Tamaulipas is served by 5 international airports and one national airport.

Notable natives and residents

State anthem

The current anthem of the state of Tamaulipas is Himno a Tamaulipas, composed in 1926 by Rafael Antonio Pérez Pérez, set to music by Alfredo Tamayo Marín. Normally, only the chorus, first verse and chorus are sung in public.

Coro:
Viva Tamaulipas altiva y heroica,
la región que dormita en la margen del río.
La sangre palpita en el pecho mío,
al recuerdo glorioso de sus héroes y su honor.
Viva Tamaulipas la tierra querida
que en las horas aciagas dio su sangre y su vida.
Cantemos un himno de amor y lealtad
y todo Tamaulipas vibre a la voz de libertad.

Chorus:
Live proud and heroic Tamaulipas,
The region that slumbers on the banks of the river.
The blood pounding in my chest,
The glorious memory of their heroes and honor.
Long live the beloved land Tamaulipas
That in dire times gave their blood and lives.
Sing a song of love and loyalty
And all Tamaulipas vibrates to the voice of freedom.

Estrofa I:
Fuiste cuna de nobles varones
que con la luz de su saber iluminaron,
y al pasar por la tierra dejaron
con sus obras su nombre inmortal.
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

Verse I:
You were born of noble sons
Who were lit by the light of knowledge.
And whose passing on earth leaves
With their labors and immortal name.
Today the story, sings the glory
Of your heroes' triumphal march.

Estrofa II:
En los tiempos de duelo y de guerra
con tu valor fuiste el honor de nuestro suelo.
Defendiste heroica la tierra
y tu espada fue siempre inmortal.
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

Verse II:
In times of grief and war,
With your courage you were the honor of our soil.
You heroically defended the land
And your sword was always immortal.
Today the story, sings the glory
Of your heroes' triumphal march.

Estrofa III:
En tu seno de mirtos y rosas
fuente de amor en el hogar tamaulipeco.
¡Son tus hijas mujeres virtuosas
que engalanan el patio vergel!
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
con el mirto, la oliva y laurel.

Verse III:
In your heart of myrtle and roses,
Source of love in the Tamaulipecan home.
Your daughters are virtuous women
That adorn the courtyard garden!
Today the story, sings the glory
With the myrtle, olive and laurel.

Estrofa IV:
Los que duermen eterno descanso,
los que por ti con fe y valor su vida dieron,
por hacerte feliz sucumbieron
bajo el fuego que te hizo inmortal.
Hoy la historia, canta la gloria
de tus heroes en marcha triunfal.

Verse IV:
Those who sleep in eternal rest,
That for you with faith and courage gave his life,
Succumbed to make you happy
Under the fire that made you immortal.
Today the story, sings the glory
Of your heroes' triumphal march.

Estrofa V:
Ya la aurora de tiempos mejores
iluminó con su fulgor nuestros albores;
y en los surcos que abre el arado
va sembrando la fraternidad.
Y su anhelo, protege el cielo
floreciendo en la santa hermandad.

Verse V:
Since the dawn of better times
Illuminated by his splendor our dawn;
And in the plow furrows opened
Is sowing the fraternity.
And his desire, protects the heavens
Flourishing in the holy brotherhood.

Estrofa VI:
Nuestros hombres hoy luchan ufanos
por mejorar su condición de ciudadanos.
Igualdad es la flor del ensueño
que el obrero pretende alcanzar.
Y si alcanza, una esperanza
es que sabe morir o triunfar.[22]

Verse VI:
Our self-satisfied men today struggle
To improve their status as citizens.
Equality is the flower of dreams
That the worker strives to achieve.
And if he reaches it, a hope
Is to know death or victory..

Crime

This state is known to be the site of a territorial struggle for both the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas. The resulting deaths and unresolved kidnappings from the gang violence have been described as a "humanitarian tragedy".[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Las Diputaciones Provinciales" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-06-07.
  2. ^ "Senadores por Tamaulipas LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Tamaulipas". Camara de Diputados. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
  4. ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  5. ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
  6. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  7. ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Archived from the original on June 8, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  8. ^ "Tamaulipas" (PDF). SRE. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
  9. ^ "Historia". Gobierno del Estado de Tamaulipas. Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
  10. ^ (Campbell and Campbell 1981:62–64).
  11. ^ "Puerto de Tampico". Ports in Mexico. World Port Source. Archived from the original on 2009-10-19. Retrieved 2009-12-17.
  12. ^ a b Industrial Costs in Mexico – A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 102.
  13. ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  14. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-12-10. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
  15. ^ "Link to tables of population data from Census of 2010". Inegi.org.mx. Archived from the original on 2017-06-29. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
  16. ^ "2010 U.S. Census Data Link to tables of population data from Census of 2010". census.gov. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  17. ^ "McAllen Overview". McAllen Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
  18. ^ "Estadísticas INEGI Población en Matamoros". Copyright © 2011 matamoros.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-01.
  19. ^ "Matamoros-Brownsville". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  20. ^ "Gloria (2014) Full Cast & Crew". IMDb. Retrieved May 30, 2016. Max Appedole ... Executive Producer
  21. ^ Tapio, Helen. "B. Traven's Identity Revisited". Helsinki Historia. Historical Association. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  22. ^ "HIMNO A TAMAULIPAS". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
  23. ^ "Impone EU 'toque de queda' a sus empleados consulares por narcoviolencia en Tamaulipas - Proceso". proceso.com.mx. 4 January 2015. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2018.

External links

2011 San Fernando massacre

The 2011 San Fernando massacre, also known as the second massacre of San Fernando, was the mass murder of 193 people by Los Zetas drug cartel at La Joya ranch in the municipality of San Fernando, Tamaulipas, Mexico in March 2011. Authorities investigating the massacre reported numerous hijackings of passenger buses on Mexican Federal Highway 101 in San Fernando, and the kidnapped victims were later killed and buried in 47 clandestine mass graves. The investigations began immediately after several suitcases and other baggage went unclaimed in Reynosa and Matamoros, Tamaulipas. On 6 April 2011, Mexican authorities exhumed 59 corpses from eight mass graves. By 7 June 2011, after a series of multiple excavations, a total of 193 bodies were exhumed from mass graves in San Fernando.Reports mentioned that female kidnapping victims were raped and able-bodied male kidnapping victims were forced to fight to the death with other hostages, similar to ancient Roman gladiators, where they were given knives, hammers, machetes and clubs to find recruits who were willing to kill for their lives. In the blood sport, the survivor was recruited as a hitman for Los Zetas; those who did not survive were buried in a clandestine gravesite. After the massacre, thousands of citizens from San Fernando fled to other parts of Mexico and to the US. The Mexican government responded by sending 650 soldiers to San Fernando and establishing a military base in the municipality. The troops took over the duties of the police force in the city and worked on social programs. In addition, a total of 82 Zeta members were arrested by 23 August 2011. In 2012 tranquility slowly returned to the city, along with the inhabitants who fled because of the violence.Mexican authorities are not certain why Los Zetas decided to abduct people from buses, and then torture, murder and bury them. They speculate that the Zetas may have forcibly recruited the passengers as foot soldiers for the organization, intending to hold them for ransom or extort them before they crossed into the US. The killers, however, confessed that they abducted and killed the passengers because they feared their rivals, the Gulf Cartel, were getting reinforcements from other states. One of the leaders confessed that Heriberto Lazcano, the supreme leader of Los Zetas, had ordered the investigation of all buses coming in through San Fernando; those "who had nothing to do with it were freed. But those that did, they were killed." In addition, the killers claimed to have investigated passengers' cellphones and text messages to determine if they were involved with the Gulf Cartel or not, and that they were particularly worried about buses coming in from the states of Durango and Michoacán, two strongholds of the rival La Familia and the Sinaloa Cartels.

Ciudad Madero

Ciudad Madero is a coastal city, located in southeast Tamaulipas in the Gulf of Mexico, It is the seventh most populous city in the state, with a census-estimated 2015 population of 209,175 within an area of 18.0 square miles (46.6 km2) the city is the third-largest in the Tampico metropolitan area, It is also an important center of oil refining in Mexico.

Ciudad Madero has a beach named "Playa Miramar", which, in recent years, has been expanding its services with new hotels and restaurants. Near the beach there is a lighthouse, named "Faro de Ciudad Madero" - although this has been replaced by a red beacon light atop a small tower, to guide approaching ships in to the channel of the Río Pánuco. However, in October 2006, the Ciudad Madero Planning Commission signaled its intention to build a new lighthouse because of the cultural and tourist values it would provide.

Ciudad Victoria

Ciudad Victoria (Spanish pronunciation: [sjuˈðað βikˈtoɾja] (listen)) is the capital of the Municipality of Victoria and the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. It is located in the northeast of Mexico at the foot of the Sierra Madre Oriental. It borders the municipality of Güémez to the north, Llera to the south, Casas Municipality to the east, and the municipality of Jaumave to the west. The city is located 246 km (153 mi) from Monterrey and 319 km (198 mi) from the border with the United States. Ciudad Victoria is named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria.In 1825 Ciudad Victoria became the state capital. It is home to higher education institutions such as the Autonomous University of Tamaulipas and the Technological Institute of Ciudad Victoria. General Pedro José Méndez International Airport is located on the outskirts of the city. As a state bureaucratic centre, it is the seat of the three political powers and has sites of tourist and cultural interest.

Correcaminos UAT

Club de Fútbol Correcaminos de la Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas is an association football team from Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas.

It currently plays in the Ascenso MX League of Mexico. The team was founded in 1980, Correcaminos played in the Primera Division De Mexico from the 1987–88 season to the 1994–95 season. They play in the Estadio Marte R. Gómez, which has a capacity of 10,520.

Francisco Javier García Cabeza de Vaca

Francisco Javier García Cabeza de Vaca (born 17 September 1967) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PAN, and the current Governor of Tamaulipas. García Cabeza de Vaca has previously served as a local and federal legislator, having served one term in the Chamber of Deputies and three and a half years in the Senate.

Gulf Cartel

The Gulf Cartel (Spanish: Cártel del Golfo, Golfos, or CDG) is a criminal syndicate and drug trafficking organization in Mexico, and perhaps one of the oldest organized crime groups in the country. It is currently based in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, directly across the U.S. border from Brownsville, Texas.

Their network is international, and are believed to have dealings with crime groups in Europe, West Africa, Asia, Central America, South America, and the United States. Besides drug trafficking, the Gulf Cartel operates through protection rackets, assassinations, extortions, kidnappings, and other criminal activities. The members of the Gulf Cartel are known for intimidating the population and for being particularly violent.Although its founder Juan Nepomuceno Guerra smuggled alcohol in large quantities to the United States during the Prohibition era, it was not until the 1980s that the cartel was formed and shifted to drug trafficking—primarily cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin—under the command of Juan Nepomuceno Guerra and Juan García Ábrego.

Joint Operation Nuevo León-Tamaulipas

Joint Operation Nuevo León-Tamaulipas is an anti-drug joint operation in two Mexican states of Tamaulipas and Nuevo León by Federal Police and the Mexican Armed Forces. The objective of the joint operation is to eliminate Los Zetas and Gulf Cartel operations in the area. So far a large number of cartel members have been either killed or arrested. Recently Los Zetas and the Gulf Cartel have broken relations and started fighting each other.

Juan Nepomuceno Guerra

Juan Nepomuceno Guerra Cárdenas (July 18, 1915 – July 12, 2001) was a Mexican crime lord, bootlegger, businessman and smuggler who founded the Gulf Cartel, a drug trafficking organization. He is often considered the "godfather" of U.S-Mexico border cartels.He began his criminal career in the 1930s by smuggling alcohol from Mexico during the Prohibition in the United States. He later diversified to other cross-border smuggling activities. He is the uncle of Juan García Ábrego, once's Mexico's most-wanted man.

Los Zetas

Los Zetas (pronounced [los ˈsetas], Spanish for "The Zs") is a Mexican criminal syndicate, regarded as one of the most dangerous of the country's drug cartels. While primarily concerned with drug trafficking, the organization also runs profitable sex trafficking and gun running rackets. The origins of Los Zetas date back to the late 1990s, when commandos of the Mexican Army deserted their ranks and began working as the enforcement arm of the Gulf Cartel. In February 2010, Los Zetas broke away and formed their own criminal organization, rivalling the Gulf Cartel.Los Zetas engages in violent tactics such as beheadings, torture, and indiscriminate murder. They were at one point Mexico's largest drug cartel in terms of geographical presence, overtaking their rivals, the Sinaloa Cartel. Los Zetas also operate through protection rackets, assassinations, extortion, kidnappings and other activities. The organization is based in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, directly across the border from Laredo, Texas.In recent times, Los Zetas has become fragmented and seen its influence diminish. As of December 2016, Los Zetas Grupo Bravo (Group Bravo) and Zetas Vieja Escuela (Old School Zetas) formed an alliance with the Gulf Cartel against Cartel Del Noreste (Cartel of the Northeast).

Matamoros, Tamaulipas

Matamoros, officially known as Heroica Matamoros, is a city in the northeastern Mexican state of Tamaulipas.

It is located on the southern bank of the Rio Grande, directly across the border from Brownsville, Texas, in the United States.

Matamoros is the second largest city in the state of Tamaulipas.

As of 2016, Matamoros had a population of 520,367.

In addition, the Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,387,985, making it the 4th largest metropolitan area on the Mexico–US border. Matamoros is the 39th largest city in Mexico and anchors the second largest metropolitan area in Tamaulipas.Matamoros is one of the fastest growing cities in Mexico, and has one of the fastest growing economies in the country. The economy of the city is significantly based on its international trade with the United States through the NAFTA agreement, and it is home to one of the most promising industrial sectors in Mexico, mainly due to the presence of maquiladoras. In Matamoros, the automotive industry hosts the assembly and accessories plants for brands such as General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, BMW, and Mercedes Benz. Prior to the growth of the maquiladoras in the 2000s, Matamoros' economy had historically been principally based on agriculture, since northern Mexico's biggest irrigation zones are in the municipality. PEMEX announced a multi-billion offshore drilling project for the port of Matamoros, one of the future prospects for Mexico's oil industry.Matamoros is a major historical site, the site of several battles and events of the Mexican War of Independence, the Mexican Revolution, the Texas Revolution, the Mexican–American War, the American Civil War, and the French Intervention that allowed the city to earn its title of Undefeated, Loyal, and Heroic. The Mexican National Anthem was played for the first time in public at The Opera Theatre in Matamoros.Matamoros has a semi-arid climate, with mild winters, and hot, humid summers. Matamoros and Brownsville, Texas are home to the Charro Days and Sombrero Festival, two-nation fiestas that commemorate the heritage of the U.S. and Mexico which are celebrated every February.

Mexican Federal Highway 85

Federal Highway 85 (Carretera Federal 85) connects Mexico City with the Mexico–United States border at Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas. Highway 85 runs through Monterrey, Nuevo León; Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas; Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí; and Pachuca, Hidalgo. It ends at the intersection of Highway 95 in the San Pedro area of Mexico City. Highway 85 is the original route of the Pan-American Highway from the border to the capital as well as the Inter-American Highway.

Through most of Tamaulipas and Nuevo León, it is a freeway and is essentially a southern continuation of U.S. Interstate 35. Highway 85 has two alternate toll routes (Autopistas); both are named Carretera federal 85D; one is from Nuevo Laredo to Monterrey (123.1 kilometers MXN$177) and Pachuca to Mexico City (45.8 kilometers MXN$33). Highway 85D has wider lanes, offers a more direct route, and is continuously being repaired and repaved.

Narco tank

A narco tank, also called rhino trucks or monstruo (Spanish for monster), is an improvised fighting vehicle used by drug cartels. The vehicles are primarily civilian trucks with improvised vehicle armour, which adds operational mobility, tactical offensive, and defensive capabilities when fighting law enforcement or rivals during drug trafficking activities.

In Mexico, narco tanks have been extensively manufactured and operated by drug cartels and other gangs involved in the Mexican Drug War. They are often modified semi-trucks, SUVs, or other large vehicles not intended for such a purpose, and come equipped with varying levels of protection and attack capability, but even smaller narco tanks are plated with two inches of steel armor. Mexican authorities have seized about twenty such armored trucks in the state of Tamaulipas alone, four of which were later destroyed. Cartels also began to build narco tanks with the armor installed on the interior rather than outside the vehicle, to draw away suspicion from rival drug cartels and the Mexican government. On May 22, 2011, one such vehicle belonging to the Sinaloa Cartel was seized in the state of Jalisco. In 2015, Mexican authorities found a narco tank factory in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas that had eight vehicles in it, which were in the process of having armor plates with gun holes added to them. Some narco tanks are equipped with improvised battering rams on the front to break through roadblocks.

Nuevo Laredo

Nuevo Laredo (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈnweβo laˈɾeðo]) is a city in the Municipality of Nuevo Laredo in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. The city lies on the banks of the Rio Grande, across from the U.S. city of Laredo, Texas. The 2010 census population of the city was 373,725. Nuevo Laredo is part of the Laredo-Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan Area with a population of 636,516. The municipality has an area of 1,334.02 km2 (515.07 sq mi). Both the city and the municipality rank as the third largest in the state.

The city is connected to Laredo, Texas by three international bridges and a rail bridge. The city is larger and younger than its U.S. counterpart. As an indication of its economic importance, one of Mexico's banderas monumentales is in the city (these flags have been established in state capitals and cities of significance).

Radio Tamaulipas

Radio Tamaulipas is the state radio network of Tamaulipas, originating from studios in the capital of Ciudad Victoria and airing on nine FM and three AM transmitters in the state.

Reynosa

Reynosa (Spanish pronunciation: [reiˈnosa]) is a border city in the northern part of Tamaulipas, Mexico. It is also the municipal seat of Reynosa Municipality.

The city is located on the southern bank of the Rio Grande in the international Reynosa–McAllen Metropolitan Area, directly across of the Mexico-U.S. border from Hidalgo, Texas.

As of 2013, the city of Reynosa has a population of 672,183. If the floating population is included in the census count, the population can reach up to approximately 1,000,000.

Rodolfo Torre Cantú

Rodolfo Torre Cantú (February 14, 1964 – June 28, 2010) was a Mexican physician and politician. He held a number of public offices, such as Federal deputy, Secretary of Health of Tamaulipas and Director-general of the DIF (National System for Integral Family Development) in Ciudad Victoria. While running for governor of Tamaulipas as the candidate of the PRI, he was assassinated, apparently by agents of a drug cartel. Torre was murdered alongside a Tamaulipas lawmaker, Enrique Blackmore, on 28 June 2010 near Ciudad Victoria, which is approximately three hours south of Brownsville, Texas. Felipe Calderón promised a full investigation, saying, "the fight against drug cartels must continue". He further stated, "This was an act not only against a candidate of a political party but against democratic institutions, and it requires a united and firm response from all those who work for democracy." Torre's assassination is the "highest-profile case of political violence" in Mexico since the murder of Luis Donaldo Colosio.In early 2012, Tomás Yarrington, the former governor of Tamaulipas from 1999–2004, was accused of being involved in the slaying of Rodolfo Torre Cantú; the ambush that killed Torre Cantú was allegedly carried out by Jorge Eduardo Costilla Sánchez, the supreme leader of the Gulf Cartel.

Tampico

Tampico is a city and port in the southeastern part of the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. It is located on the north bank of the Pánuco River, about 10 kilometres (6 mi) inland from the Gulf of Mexico, and directly north of the state of Veracruz. Tampico is the fifth-largest city in Tamaulipas, with a population of 314,418 in the city proper and 929,174 in the metropolitan area.

During the period of Mexico's first oil boom in the early 20th century, the city was the "chief oil-exporting port of the Americas" and the second-busiest in the world, yielding profits that were invested in the city's famous architecture, often compared to that of Venice and New Orleans. The first oil well in Mexico was drilled near Tampico in 1901 at Ébano.

In 1923, the major oil field dried up, leading to an exodus of jobs and investment, but economic development in other areas made the city a pioneer in the aviation and soda industries. The city is also a major exporter of silver, copper, and lumber, as well as wool, hemp, and other agricultural products. Containerized cargo is mainly handled by the neighboring ocean port of Altamira.

Televisa Regional

Televisa Regional is a unit of Televisa which owns and operates television stations across Mexico. The stations rebroadcast programming from Televisa's other networks, and they engage in the local production of newscasts and other programs. Televisa Regional stations all have their own distinct branding, except for those that are Nu9ve affiliates and brand as "Nu9ve ".

A handful of Televisa Regional stations are owned by other companies but managed by Televisa.

Televisa also has agreements with independent station owners for local stations. These stations are locally or regionally owned but generally have more autonomy from Televisa and usually more local productions. Televisoras Grupo Pacífico, with stations in five cities in western Mexico, and Tele-Emisoras del Sureste, with multiple stations in southeast Mexico, are among the largest owners of such local stations.

Tomás Yarrington

Tomás Jesús Yarrington Ruvalcaba (Spanish pronunciation: [toˈmas xeˈsus ˈʝarinton ruβalˈkaβa], born 7 March 1957) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He held office as the Mayor of Matamoros from 1993 to 1995, and the Governor of Tamaulipas from 1999 to 2005. Yarrington sought nomination for the presidential elections for the PRI in 2005.

Yarrington graduated with bachelor's degrees in economics and law from the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Studies and the Autonomous University of Nuevo León respectively. He also received a master's degree in public administration from the University of Southern California. In 1991 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies and from 1993 until 1995 he served as mayor of Matamoros, Tamaulipas. Later on he headed the local branch of the Revolutionary Institutional Party, joined the cabinet of Manuel Cavazos Lerma as state secretary of finance and served as governor of Tamaulipas (1999–2004). After leaving the governorship, Yarrington entered the presidential primaries by mid-2005.

He was accused in early 2012 for laundering money for Los Zetas and the Gulf Cartel, after a drug cartel member was apprehended and informed the DEA that Yarringnton had ties with the leaders of the drug trafficking organizations. In addition, Yarrington was accused of plotting the assassination of Rodolfo Torre Cantú, the former candidate for state governor in Tamaulipas, along with the Gulf Cartel, which reportedly carried out the ambush that killed the politician. He was arrested in Florence, Italy, on 9 April 2017.

Tamaulipas State of Tamaulipas
Major cities
Municipalities

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