The crater at Takht-e Soleymān
Shown within Iran
|Location||West Azarbaijan, Iran|
|Official name||Takht-e Soleyman|
|Criteria||i, ii, iii, iv, vi|
|Designated||2003 (27th session)|
Takht-e Soleymān (Persian: تخت سلیمان), also known as Azar Goshnasp (Persian: آتشکده آذرگشنسپ), literally "the Fire of the Warriors", is an archaeological site in West Azarbaijan, Iran. It lies midway between Urmia and Hamadan, very near the present-day town of Takab, and 400 km (250 mi) west of Tehran.
The fortified site, which is located on a hill created by the outflow of a calcium-rich spring pond, was recognized as a World Heritage Site in July 2003. The citadel includes the remains of a Zoroastrian fire temple built during the Sassanid period and partially rebuilt (as a mosque) during the Ilkhanid period. This temple housed one of the three "Great Fires" or "Royal Fires" that Sassanid rulers humbled themselves before in order to ascend the throne. The fire at Takht-i Soleiman was called ādur Wishnāsp and was dedicated to the arteshtar or warrior class of the Sasanid. A 4th century Armenian manuscript relating to Jesus and Zarathustra, and various historians of the Islamic period, mention this pond. The foundations of the fire temple around the pond is attributed to that legend. Takht-E Soleyman appears on the 4th century Peutinger Map.
This site got its biblical name after the Arab conquest. Folk legend relates that King Solomon used to imprison monsters inside a nearby 100 m deep crater which is called Zendan-e Soleyman "Prison of Solomon". Solomon is also said to have created the flowing pond in the fortress.
Archaeological excavations have revealed traces of a 5th-century BC occupation during the Achaemenid period, as well as later Parthian settlements in the citadel. Coins belonging to the reign of Sassanid kings, and that of the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II (AD 408-450), have also been discovered there.
Andaruni (Persian: اندرونی "inside") is a term used in Iranian architecture.
In traditional Persian residential architecture, the andaruni, is in contrast to the biruni, and is a part of the House in which the private quarters are established. This is specifically where the women of the house are free to move about without being seen by an outsider (na mahram). The only men allowed in the Andaruni are those directly related to the lord of the house (his sons) and the lord himself, which may include boys under the age of puberty, and guests allowed in under special circumstances.
The court (usually in the talar) of the house would usually be situated in the Andaruni.Ardabil Bazaar
Ardabil Bazaar is a bazaar built during Safavid Dynasty in Ardabil, north-western Iran.
In the 4th century historians described the bazaar as a building in the shape of the cross with a domed ceiling. It was constructed during the Safavid dynasty from the 16th to 18th century and renovated through the Zand dynasty in the 18th century.In and around the Ardabil Bazaar are many caravansaries and inns, owned by the estate of the Safavid Dynasty shrine, and mosques, some of which were endowed by Ata-Malik Juvayni (1226–1283) for the Shaykh Safi shrine. The proceeds from the many shops, bathhouses and inns in the bazaar that are owned by the estate of the shrine are used for the shrines upkeep.Cochylis maestana
Cochylis maestana is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found in northern Iran (Elburz Mountains, Shahkuh, Takht-e Soleymān), eastern Afghanistan and eastern Asia Minor.Hashti
Hashti or Dlan-e-voroudi, in most traditional houses in Iran, is the space one behind the sar-dar (doorway). Hashtis are designed in many different shapes, including octagonal, hexagonal, square and rectangular. In more luxurious homes the hashti has more ornamentation and a seating area.After the hashti, a series of curved and narrow spaces called "rahro" follow, which usually lead to the home's courtyard. In a mosque, the hashti is designed so as to guide the visitor through purification before prayer.Howz
In traditional Persian architecture, a howz (Persian: حوض) is a centrally positioned symmetrical axis pool. If in a traditional house or private courtyard, it is used for bathing, aesthetics or both. If in a sahn of a mosque, it is used for performing ablutions. A howz is usually around 30 centimetres (12 in) deep. It may be used as a "theatre" for people to sit on all sides of the pool while others entertain.Howz is a feature of the Persian gardens.Imamieh
Imamieh is a suburb of Tabriz, Iran found in the southern part of the city. It is famous for its cemetery where Samad Behrangi has been buried.Isfahani style
The "Esfahani" or "Isfahani style" (شیوه معماری اصفهانی) is a style (sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history. Landmarks of this style span through the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties starting from the 16th century to the early 20th century.The Isfahani style is the last style of traditional Persian—Iranian architecture.The Safavid dynasty were chiefly instrumental in the emergence of this style of architecture, which soon spread to India in what became known as Mughal architecture.Khorasani style
The "Khorasani style" (Persian: شیوه معماری خراسانی) is a style (sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history. It is the first style of architecture appearing after the Muslim conquest of Persia, but is highly influenced by pre-Islamic designs. Landmarks of this style appear in the late 7th century, and span through the end of the 10th century CE.Examples of this style are Mosque of Nain, Tarikhaneh-i Damghan, and Jame mosque of IsfahanList of archaeological sites in Iran
Some of the prehistoric archaeological sites of Iran are listed below:
Hajji Firuz TepeJiroft culture (3rd millennium BC)
Shahr-e SukhtehElam (3rd to 2nd millennia BC)
Tappeh HasanluMedian to Achaemenid period
Bābā Jān TepeSassanid period
Qumis, IranParsian style
The "Parsian style" (New Persian:شیوه معماری پارسی) is a style of architecture ("sabk") when categorizing the history of Persian/Iranian architectural development. Although the Median and Achaemenid architecture fall under this classification, the pre-Achaemenid architecture is also studied as a sub-class of this category.This style of architecture flourished from eighth century BCE from the time of the Median Empire, through the Achaemenid empire, to the arrival of Alexander III of Macedonia in the third century BCEParthian style
The Parthian style is a style (sabk) of historical Iranian architecture.
This style of architecture includes designs from the Seleucid (310–140 BCE), Parthian (247 BCE – 224 CE), and Sassanid (224–651 CE) eras, reaching its apex of development in the Sassanid period.
Examples of this style are Ghal'eh Dokhtar, the royal compounds at Nysa, Anahita Temple, Khorheh, Hatra, the Ctesiphon vault of Kasra, Bishapur, and the Palace of Ardashir in Ardeshir Khwarreh (Firouzabad).The Parthi style of architecture appeared after Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire in the 3rd century BCE, and historically includes the Sassanid, Parthian, and post Islamic eras, up to the 9-10th centuries. The remains of the architectural style of this period are not abundant, and although much was borrowed and incorporated from Greek designs and methods, architects and builders of this age employed many innovative concepts of their own as well.Pre-Parsian style
The pre-Parsian style (New Persian:شیوه معماری پیش از پارسی) is a sub-style of architecture (or "zeer-sabk") when categorizing the history of Persian/Iranian architectural development.
This style of architecture flourished in the Iranian Plateau until the eighth century B.C.E. during the era of the Median Empire. It is often classified as a subcategory of Parsian architecture.The oldest remains of the architectural landmarks in this style are the Teppe Zagheh, near Qazvin. Other extant examples of this style are Chogha zanbil, Sialk, Shahr-i Sokhta, and Ecbatana.
Elamite and proto-Elamite buildings among others, are covered within this stylistic subcategory as well.Razi style
The "Razi style" (شیوه معماری رازی) is a style (sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history.The Dictionary of Traditional Iranian Architecture defines the Razi Style as:
"A style of architecture dating from the 11th century to the Mongol invasion period, which includes the methods and devices of The Samanids, Ghaznavids, and Seljukids."Shabestan
A shabestan or shabistan (Persian: شبستان; Old Persian xšapā.stāna) is an underground space that can be usually found in traditional architecture of mosques, houses, and schools in ancient Iran.
These spaces were usually used during summers and could be ventilated by windcatchers and qanats.
During the Sasanian Empire and the subsequent Islamic periods, "shabestan" also referred to inner sanctums of the shahs where their concubines resided. Later these structures came to be called زنانه zanāneh (feminine residence), اندرونی andaruni (inner private zone) and حرم haram (from Arabic harem).Shebeli Tower
Shebeli Tower is a historical tower in Damavand, in Tehran Province of Iran.
Standing approximately 10 metres (33 ft) tall, the structure is a roofed octagon tomb of Sheikh Shebeli, a Sufi mystic. A sardāb (basement) also exists under the structure.
The structure is a remnant of the Samanid era, making it from the 12th century, at the latest, and is similar in design to extant structures in Bukhara.
The structure recently underwent some preservations.Takht-e Soleyman District
Takht-e Soleyman District (Persian: بخش تخت سلیمان, meaning the "Throne of Solomon") is a district (bakhsh) in Takab County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 22,996, in 4,577 families. The District has no cities. The District is the site of the Takht-e Soleymān World Heritage Site. The District has three rural districts (dehestan): Ahmadabad Rural District, Chaman Rural District, and Saruq Rural District.Takht-i-Suleiman
Takht-i-Suleiman (Persian "Throne of Solomon") is a common name for various flat-topped mountains throughout the Middle East and Central Asia.
Takht-i-Suleiman (Pakistan) (Urdu, Pashto : تخت سليمان, from Persian : "Solomon 's throne") peak in the southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan
Takht-e-Sulaiman (Srinagar, Kashmir) (meaning Throne of Solomon) is located on top of Shankracharya Hill, also called Koh-i-Sulaiman (meaning Solomon's Hill)
Ghasre Abu-Nasr (Abu-Nasr Palace) or Takht e Sulayman (Throne of Solomon), archeological remains in Shiraz, Iran
Takht-e Soleyman District (بخش تخت سلیمان, meaning the "Throne of Solomon"), district in West Azerbaijan, Iran
Takht-e Soleymān (تخت سلیمان, Takht-e Soleymān, "Throne of Solomon") archaeological site in West Azerbaijan, IranTalar
The Talaar (Persian: تالار) is the throne of the Persian monarchs carved on the rock-cut tomb of Darius at Naqsh-e Rostam, near Persepolis, and above the portico which was copied from his palace.Tekyeh
Tekyeh (Persian: تکیه) is a place where Shiite gather for mourning of Muharram. Such places are particularly found in Iran. They are usually traditionally designed with observable elements of Persian architecture. Tehran is said to have had up to 50 tekyehs in the Qajar era.