Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic,[a] also commonly known as Soviet Tajikistan and Tajik SSR, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union which existed from 1929 to 1991 located in Central Asia.

The Tajik Republic was created on 5 December 1929 as a national entity for the Tajik people within the Soviet Union. It succeeded the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik ASSR), which had been created on 14 October 1924 as a part of the predominantly Turkic Uzbek SSR in the process of national delimitation in Soviet Central Asia. On 24 August 1990, the Tajik SSR declared sovereignty in its borders. The republic was renamed to the Republic of Tajikistan on 31 August 1991 and declared its independence from the Soviet Union on 9 September 1991.

Geographically, at 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi), it was bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kirghizia to the north, and China to the east. Pakistan was to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor.

Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Таджикская Советская Социалистическая Республика
Ҷумҳурии Шӯравии Сотсиалистии Тоҷикистон
Республикаи Советии Социалистии Тоҷикистон
1929–1991
Motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! (Tajik)
Proletarhoi hamai mamlakatho, yak shaved! (transliteration)
"Proletarians of all nations, unite!"
Anthem: Гимни Республикаи Советии Сотсиалистии Тоҷикистон
Gimni Respublikai Sovetiji Sotsialistiji Toçikiston
"Anthem of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic"


Location of Tajikistan (red) within the Soviet Union.
Location of Tajikistan (red) within the Soviet Union.
StatusSoviet Socialist Republic
CapitalDushanbea
Common languagesTajik · Russian
GovernmentUnitary Marxist-Leninist single-party Soviet socialist republic (1929–1990)
Unitary presidential republic (1990–1991)
Leader 
• 1929–1933
Mirza Davud Huseynov (first)
• 1985–1991
Qahhor Mahkamov (last)
Premier 
• 1929–1933
Abdurrahim Hojibayev (first)
• 1986–1991
Izatullo Khayoyev (last)
LegislatureSupreme Soviet
History 
• Union republic proclaimed
5 December 1929
• Name adopted
5 December 1936
12 February 1990
• Sovereignty declared
24 August 1990
• Renamed to the Republic of Tajikistan
31 August 1991
• Independence declared
9 September 1991
• Independence recognized
26 December 1991
Area
1989143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi)
Population
• 1989
5,112,000
CurrencySoviet ruble (руб) (SUR)
Calling code7 377/379
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tajik ASSR
Tajikistan
Today part ofTajikistan
China
  1. "Stalinabad" between 1929 and 1961.

Nomenclature

The name Tajik refers to the name of a pre-Islamic tribe that existed before the seventh century A.D. Based on the Library of Congress's 1997 Country Study of Tajikistan, it is difficult to definitively state the origins of the word "Tajik" citing due to its "embroiled in twentieth-century political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian peoples were the original inhabitants of Central Asia."[1]

The name of the country was often spelt "Tadzhikistan" in the English language during Soviet times due to it being borrowed directly from the Russian spelling "Таджикистан", where the letters 'дж' produce a 'j' sound.

Date Name
5 December 1929 Tajik Socialist Soviet Republic
5 December 1936 Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
31 August 1991 Republic of Tajikistan

History

One of the new states created in the process of national delimitation of Soviet Central Asia in October 1924 was the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic – Uzbek SSR or Soviet Uzbekistan. Soviet Tajikistan was created at the same time within the predominantly Turkic Uzbek SSR as an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik ASSR) – one rank below a Soviet Socialist Republic in USSR geopolitical hierarchy. The new autonomous republic included what had been eastern Bukhara and had a population of about 740,000, out of a total population of nearly 5 million in the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic as a whole. Its capital was established in Dyushambe, which had been a village of 3,000 in 1920. In December 1929, Tajik ASSR was detached from the Uzbek SSR and given full status as a Soviet Socialist RepublicTajik Socialist Soviet Republic. At that time, its capital was renamed Stalinabad, after Joseph Stalin, and the territory that is now northern Tajikistan (Sughd Province) was added to the new republic. Even with the additional territory, the Tajik SSR remained the smallest Central Asian republic. On 5 December 1936, it was renamed to the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic.

With the creation of a Tajik republic defined in national terms came the creation of institutions that, at least in form, were likewise national. The first Tajik-language newspaper in Soviet Tajikistan began publication in 1926. New educational institutions also began operation at about the same time. The first state schools, available to both children and adults and designed to provide basic education, opened in 1926. The central government also trained a small number of Tajiks for public office, either by putting them through courses offered by government departments or by sending them to schools in the Uzbek SSR.

Under Soviet rule, Tajikistan experienced some economic and social progress. However, living standards in the republic were still among the lowest in the Union. Most people still lived in rural qishlaqs, settlements that were composed of 200 to 700 one-family houses built along a waterway.

After Stalin's death in March 1953, Stalinabad, was renamed to Dushanbe on 10 November 1961 as part of the De-Stalinization program.

In February 1990, tensions between the Tajiks and Armenians squared off in the republic's capital Dushanbe. 26 people died and 565 more were injured and the Soviet troops put down the riots. Both Yaqub Salimov, the Interior Minister and the youth activists were convicted for the participation in the riots.

Later on 24 August 1990, Tajik SSR declared its sovereignty over Soviet laws. By 1991, Tajikistan participated in a referendum in March as part of the attempt to preserve the union with a turnout of 96.85%. However, this did not happen when hardliners took control of Moscow during the next three days in August. After the failure of the coup, the Tajik SSR was renamed to the Republic of Tajikistan on 31 August 1991. On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan seceded from the Soviet Union months before the country itself ceased to exist on 26 December 1991. Conflicts after independence caused a civil war throughout the country over the next six years.

Politics

Government

Tajikistan, like all other republics in the Soviet Union, was officially a soviet republic governed by the Tajik republican branch within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in all organs of government, politics and society. The Supreme Soviet was a unicameral legislature of the republic headed by a Chairman, with its superiority to both the executive and judicial branches and its members convened in the Supreme Soviet building in Dushanbe. Since independence in 1991, it retained the unicameral structure before being replaced by a bicameral system in 1999 using the presidential system. The republic's government structure was similar to those of other republics.

Military

Tajikistan was the only Central Asian Republic to not form an army under the Soviet Armed Forces. In replacement were the Soviet units under the Ministry of Defence, as well as troops who were subordinates of the Turkestan Military District and the Central Asian Military District in neighboring Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan respectively. In the early 1990s the army was the smallest in the union and had more Russians than native Tajiks in it. The army failed to effectively defend the regime as proven in the 1990 Dushanbe riots. There was a large contingent of Soviet border guards who were commanded by Russians based from Moscow who commanded ethnic Tajik conscripts. When the TurkVO was dissolved in June 1992, its personnel were distributed between Tajikistan and the other 4 Central Asian republics.

The Tajik SSR also operated its own Ministry of Internal Affairs and Internal Troops, which was an independent republican affiliate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Soviet Union.

Economy

Like all other republics in the Soviet Union, its economy was highly centralised. After independence it has its Transition economy.

Industry

Light industry and food industries accounted for over 60% of industrial output. The main branches of heavy industry were electric power, mining, non-ferrous metallurgy, machine building and metalworking, and building materials industry. The basis of the electricity accounted for HPP. Mining activities concentrate on brown coal, oil and natural gas. Non-ferrous metals industries were an aluminum plant in Tursunzade and hydrometallurgical in Isfara. Engineering enterprises produced winding, agricultural machinery, equipment for trading enterprises and public catering, textile, lighting and wiring equipment, transformers, household refrigerators, cable and other (main center - Dushanbe). The chemical industry included plants - nitrogen fertilizer in Kurgan-Tube, electrochemical in Yavan, and plastics in Dushanbe. The main branches of light industry were cotton ginning, silk, and carpet weaving. In the food industry stood fruit-canning, vegetable oil and fat industry.

Agriculture

In 1986, there were 299 state and 157 collective farms in the country. Agricultural land was 4.2 million hectares.

Due to the large irrigation works in the area of irrigated land 1986 have reached 662 thousand hectares. Agriculture gave about 65% of gross agricultural output. The leading branch of agriculture was cotton (cotton collection 922 thousand tons in 1986), developed in Fergana, Vakhsh, Hissar valleys. Tajikistan was the main base of the country for the production of long-staple cotton. Cultured and tobacco, geranium, linen - Kudryashov, sesame. Approximately 20% of crops were occupied by grain crops (gross grain harvest - 246 thousand tons in 1986 in.). They grow vegetables and melons. Was developed fruit (including citrus fruit) and grapes . Meat and wool sheep and meat and dairy cattle. Livestock (in 1987, in millions): cattle - 1.4 (including cows - 0.6), sheep and goats - 3.2. Sericulture.

Transportation

Operating length (in 1986):

  • Railways – 470 km
  • Roads – 13,200 km (including paved – 11,600 km.)
  • Airports

Tajikistan is supplied with gas from Uzbekistan and Afghanistan with gas pipelines from Kelif to Dushanbe, from local gas fields.

Notes

  1. ^ Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Шӯравии Сотсиалистии Тоҷикистон, Çumhuriji Şūraviji Sotsialistiji Toçikiston; Russian: Таджикская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Tadzhikskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika

References

  1. ^ A Country Study: Tajikistan, Ethnic Background, Library of Congress Call Number DK851 .K34 1997, [1]

External links

Coordinates: 38°32′N 68°46′E / 38.533°N 68.767°E

Abdullo Rakhimbayev

Abdullo Rahimbayevich Rakhimbayev (June 1, 1896 – May 7, 1938) also spelled Abdullo Raximboyevich Raximboyev, was an ethnic Uzbek, Tajik-born Soviet politician. He was born in Khujand in modern Tajikistan. He was a recipient of the Order of Lenin. He served on the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union as representative of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic from January 1934 to September 1937. He was arrested and executed during the Great Purge. After the death of Joseph Stalin, he was rehabilitated.

Anthem of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

The "State Anthem of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic" (Tajik: Суруди миллии ҶШС Тоҷикистон; Russian: Гимн Таджикской ССР) was the national anthem of Tajikistan until 1994. It was also the regional anthem of the Tajik SSR, a constituent republic of the Soviet Union.

Emblem of Tajikistan

The State Emblem of Tajikistan is a modified version of the original emblem of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic that was in use until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Emblem of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

The State Emblem of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic was adopted on March 1, 1937 by the government of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic. The emblem is based on the State Emblem of the Soviet Union. It shows symbols of agriculture (cotton and wheat). The red star is prominently featured with a small hammer and sickle within it. The rising sun stands for the future of the Tajik nation, and the star as well as the hammer and sickle for the victory of communism and the "world-wide socialist community of states". The emblem was replaced with the new emblem in 1992, which uses a similar design to the Soviet one.

The banner bears the Soviet Union state motto ("Workers of the world, unite!") in both the Tajik and Russian languages. In Tajik, it is "'Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед!" (transliterated: "Proletarhoi hamai mamlakatho, jak şaved!").

The name of the republic is also shown in both Tajik and Russian. The final form of the emblem was designed by painter Alexander Semyonovich Yakovlev.

Flag of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

The flag of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic was the red Soviet flag with white and green stripes below the gold hammer and sickle, with the measures: 1/2 red, 1/5 white, 1/10 green, 1/5 red. The flag sported the Pan-Iranian colors of red, white and green, as a nod to the republic's Persian-descended culture. The flag was adopted on March 20, 1953 by decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR:

The national flag of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic is a panel consisting of four horizontal colored stripes: the upper band of red which is half the width of the flag; white stripe, making one fifth of the width of the flag; green stripes, is one-tenth the width of the flag, and the lower band of red color, is one-fifth the width of the flag. On top of the red band at the flagpole located gold hammer and sickle and above them is a five-pointed red star framed by a gold border. The ratio of the flag's width to its length is 1: 2.

The fitting of the hammer and sickle into a square whose side wound 1/4 width of the flag. The sharp end of the sickle falls in the middle of the upper side of the square, handles the sickle and hammer rest on the bottom corners of the square. hammer with a handle length is 3/4 of the diagonal of a square. The five-pointed star in a circle fits 1/8 width of the flag relating to the upper side of the square. Distance vertical axis of the star, the hammer and sickle from the grapnel is equal to 1/4 of the flag's width. The distance from the top edge of the flag of the flag to the center of the star - 1/10 of the flag's width.

The red represents the unity of the republic and the aspect of workers' revolution, white symbolized cotton production, the basis of Tajik agriculture, and the green was for other agricultural produce.After 1953, the flag received a unique reverse side. The reverse side of the flag was the same as the obverse with the exception of it lacking the yellow hammer and sickle. In 1991, after Tajikistan became an independent country, the reverse side was used as the national flag until a new flag was created and adopted in 1992.

Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region

The Kuhistani Badakhshan Autonomous Region (Tajik: Вилояти Мухтори Кӯҳистони Бадахшон, Viloyati Muxtori Köhistoni Badaxshon; also known as Gorno-Badakhshan (, after Russian: Горно-Бадахшанская автономная область, romanized: Gorno-Badahšanskaja avtonomnaja oblastj, abbrev. GBAO) is an autonomous region in eastern Tajikistan. Located in the Pamir Mountains, it makes up 45% of the land area of the country but only 3% of its population.

Gorno–Badakshan Regional Committee of the Communist Party of the Tajikistan

The First Secretary of the Gorno–Badakshan regional branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the position of highest authority in the Gorno-Badakshan AO in the Tajik SSR of the Soviet Union. The position was created in 1925, and abolished in August 1991. The First Secretary was a de facto appointed position usually by the Politburo or the General Secretary himself.

Igor Yankovsky

Igor Rostislavovich Yankovsky (Russian: И́горь Ростисла́вович Янко́вский; born April 29, 1951, Leninabad, Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union) is a Soviet and Russian actor and a TV presenter. He is a son of Rostislav Yankovsky, and a nephew of Oleg Yankovsky.

Izatullo Khayoyev

Izatullo Khayoyev (Tajik: Иззатулло Ҳаёев, Izzatullo Hayoyev; Russian: Изатулло Хаёевич Хаёев, 22 June 1936 – 25 April 2015) was the Vice-President of Tajikistan between December, 1990 and June 25, 1991 and Prime Minister of Tajikistan between June 25, 1991 and January 9, 1992. Previously he served as Chairmen of the Council of Ministers of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic from January 4, 1986 until December 6, 1990. He died on 25 April 2015, aged 78.

List of Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

The Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic was parliamentary speaker.

List of leaders of Tajikistan

Below is the list of leaders of present-day Tajikistan since the establishment of Tajik ASSR in 1925.

Mamlakat Nakhangova

Mamlakat Akberdyevna Nakhangova (Tajik: Мамлакат Оқбердиевна Наҳангова, Russian: Мамлака́т Акбердыевна Наха́нгова; 1924 — 2003) was a Soviet cotton picker, member of the Stakhanovite movement, the youngest and first among pioneers knight of highest order of the USSR — Order of Lenin (1935).During the World War II he acted in London at a peace conference.In adult life Nakhangova is Soviet philologist, candidate of philological sciences; Associate Professor of the Tajik State Pedagogical University. In 1970-1977 she was the head of the department of foreign languages of the medical institute in Dushanbe.Mamlakat Nakhangova became the heroine of the first poem by Mirzo Tursunzoda The Sun of the Country.Was married. Two children — a daughter Roxana and son Alisher.

People's Artist of the Tajik SSR

People's Artist of the Tajik SSR (Народный артист Таджикской ССР), is an honorary title awarded to citizens of the Tajik SSR in the Soviet Union. It is awarded for outstanding performance in the performing arts, whose merits are exceptional in the sphere of the development of the performing arts (theatre, music, dance, circus, cinema, etc.).

Postage stamps and postal history of Tajikistan

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Tajikistan.

Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Once part of the Samanid Empire, Tajikistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in the 20th century, known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR). It became independent in 1991.

Prime Minister of Tajikistan

The Prime Minister of Tajikistan is the title held by the head of government of Tajikistan. After the President, the Prime minister is second most powerful person of the country. The Prime Minister coordinates the work of the Cabinet and advises and assists the President in the execution of the functions of Government.

State Committee for National Security (Tajikistan)

The State Committee for National Security (SCNS; Tajik: Кумитаи давлатии амнияти миллӣ; Russian: Государственный комитет национальной безопасности) is the principal national security and intelligence agency of Tajikistan. Its main responsibilities include internal and border security, counter-intelligence, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics, fighting organized crime, and surveillance. The chairman of the committee and all of his deputies are appointed by and answerable to the president of Tajikistan. Lieutenant General Saymumin Yatimov has served as the SCNS chairman since September 2, 2010.

The SCNS is governed by the Law About National Security Bodies of the Republic of Tajikistan. Its activity is formally overseen by the Office of the Prosecutor General, although in practice the external oversight of the SCNS is virtually non-existent.

The committee operates the Higher School of the State Committee for National Security in Dushanbe which trains officers for the agency.

Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR

The Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR (Russian: Верховный Совет Таджикской ССР) was the supreme soviet (main legislative institution) of the Tajik SSR, one of the republics comprising the Soviet Union. The Soviet had very little power and carried out orders given by the Communist Party of Tajikistan (CPT).

Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

The Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik ASSR) (Russian: Таджикская Автономная Социалистическая Советская Республика) was an autonomous republic within the Uzbek SSR in the Soviet Union. It was created in October 1924 by a series of legal acts that partitioned the three existing regional entities in Central Asia – Turkestan ASSR, Bukharan People's Soviet Republic, and Khorezm People's Soviet Republic – into five new entities based on ethnic principles: Uzbek SSR, Turkmen SSR, Tajik ASSR (within Uzbek SSR), Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (as a province of Russian SFSR), and Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast (as a province of Kazak ASSR).

The capital of Tajik ASSR was in Dyushambe (today's Dushanbe). In October 1929, under the initiative of Shirinsho Shotemur, the Tajik ASSR was transformed into a full-fledged Soviet Socialist Republic and became Tajik SSR, which additionally absorbed the Khujand region (today's Sughd Province in northern Tajikistan) from Uzbek SSR. The capital Dyushambe was renamed Stalinabad in honor of Joseph Stalin.

Tajik Soviet Encyclopedia

The Tajik Soviet Encyclopedia (Tajik: Энциклопедияи советии тоҷик) is the first universal encyclopedia in the Tajik language, published in Dushanbe from 1978 to 1988 in eight volumes. An additional volume, Tajik SSR, was published in both Tajik and Russian.

The main editor was the president of the Academy of Sciences of the Tajik SSR, Mukhamed Asimov.

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