Taiwanese units of measurement (Chinese: 臺制, Taiwanese: Tâi-chè, Hakka: Thòi-chṳ, Mandarin: Táizhì) are the customary and traditional units of measure used in Taiwan. The Taiwanese units formed in the 1900s when Taiwan under Japanese rule. The system mainly refers to Japanese system with some units derived from the Qing era Chinese units and Dutch era Dutch units. The Taiwanese units are pronounced in Taiwanese Hokkien and Hakka before the World War II and adopted by the Mandarin speaking immigrants from China in 1949. Today, the Taiwanese units are used exclusively, in some cases alongside official metric (SI) units, and in other cases they have been supplanted by metric units. Linguistically, practically all Taiwanese units of measure are Chinese classifiers used to classify nouns.
Linear measure in Taiwan is largely metric but some units derived from traditional Japanese units of measurement remain in use as a legacy of Japanese rule.
|Metric||US & Imperial||Notes|
|Hun||Fûn||Fēn||分||1⁄100||1/ m||3.030 mm||125/ yd||0.1193 in||Same as Japanese Bu|
|Chhùn||Chhun||Cùn||寸||1⁄10||1/ m||3.030 cm||1250/ yd||1.193 in||Taiwanese inch; Same as Japanese Sun|
|Chhioh||Chhak||Chǐ||尺||1||10/ m||30.30 cm||12,500/ yd||11.93 in||Taiwanese foot; Same as Japanese Shaku|
|Tn̄g||Chhong||Zhàng||丈||10||100/ m||3.030 m||125,000/ yd||9 ft 11.3 in||Taiwanese fathom; Same as Japanese Jō|
Taiwanese length units and the translation of length units in Metric system (SI) shares the same character. The adjective Taiwanese (台) can be added to address the Taiwanese unis system. For example, 台尺 means Taiwanese foot and 公尺 means meter.
Unlike with other measures, area continues to be almost commonly measured with traditional units. Taiwanese units of area are derived from both traditional Dutch and Japanese measurements. The principal unit for measuring the floor space of an office or apartment is 坪 (Taiwanese: pêⁿ , Hakka: phiàng, Mandarin: píng). The unit is derives from the Japanese tsubo, the base unit of the Japanese area. The principal unit of land measure is 甲 (Taiwanese: kah, Hakka: kap, Mandarin: jiǎ). The unit is derived from the obsolete Dutch morgen, which was introduced during Taiwan's Dutch era. In the later era Kingdom of Tungning, 犁 (Taiwanese: lê, Hakka: lài, Mandarin: lí) is defined to represent the area that could be farmed by one man with one ox and one plow in one day. Today, the rule for converting the two major units from two different sources is
|Unit||Pêⁿ||Kah||Metric||US & Imperial||Notes|
|Pêⁿ||Phiàng||Píng||坪||1||400/ m²||3.306 m²||625,000,000/ yd²||35.58 ft²||Same as Japanese Tsubo|
|Bó͘||Méu||Mǔ||畝||30||12,000/ m²||99.17 m²||6,250,000,000/ yd²||1,067 ft²||Same as Japanese Se|
|Hun||Fûn||Fēn||分||293.4||1⁄10||117360/ m||969.92 m²||—||10,440 ft²|
|Kah||Kap||Jiǎ||甲||2,934||1||1173600/ m||0.9699 ha||—||2.3967 acres||Derived from Dutch Morgen|
|Lê||Lài||Lí||犁||14,670||5||5868000/ m||4.8496 ha||—||11.984 acres||Used from Kingdom of Tungning|
Volume measure in Taiwan is largely metric, with common units such as liter and milliliter.
Packaged goods in Taiwan largely use metric measurements but bulk foodstuffs sold in wet markets and supermarkets are typically measured with units derived from traditional Japanese units of mass, which are similar but not equivalent to corresponding Chinese units of mass.
|Unit||Niú||Metric||US & Imperial||Notes|
|Lî||Lî||Lí||釐||1⁄1000||3/ kg||37.5 mg||3750/ lb||0.5787 gr||Cash; Same as Japanese Rin|
|Hun||Fûn||Fēn||分||1⁄100||3/ kg||375 mg||37,500/ lb||5.787 gr||Candareen; Same as Japanese Fun|
|Chîⁿ||Chhièn||Qián||錢||1⁄10||3/ kg||3.75 g||375,000/ lb||2.116 dr||Mace; Same as Japanese Momme (匁)|
|Niú||Liông||Liǎng||兩||1||3/ kg||37.5 g||3,750,000/ lb||21.16 dr||Tael|
|Kin/Kun||Kîn||Jīn||斤||16||3/ kg||600 g||60,000,000/ lb||1.323 lb||Catty; Same as Japanese Kin|
|Tàⁿ||Tâm||Dàn||擔||1600||60 kg||6,000,000,000/ lb||132.3 lb||Picul; Same as Japanese Tan|
The catty, kati or jin (commonly in China) , symbol 斤, is a traditional Chinese unit of mass used across East and Southeast Asia, notably for weighing food and other groceries in some wet markets, street markets, and shops. Related units include the picul, equal to 100 catties, and the tael (also spelled tahil, in Malay/Indonesian), which is 1⁄16 of a catty. A stone is a former unit used in Hong Kong equal to 120 catties and a gwan (鈞) is 30 catties. Catty or kati is still used in South East Asia as a unit of measurement in some contexts especially by the significant Overseas Chinese populations of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.
The catty is traditionally equivalent to around 1⅓ pound avoirdupois, formalised as 604.78982 grams in Hong Kong, 604.79 grams in Malaysia and 604.8 grams in Singapore. In some countries, the weight has been rounded to 600 grams (Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Thailand). In mainland China, the catty (more commonly translated as jin within China) has been rounded to 500 grams and is referred to as the market catty (市斤 shìjīn) in order to distinguish it from the "metric catty" (公斤 gōngjīn), or kilogram, and it is subdivided into 10 taels rather than the usual 16.Hong Kong units of measurement
Hong Kong has three main systems of units of measurement in current use:
The Chinese units of measurement of the Qing Empire (no longer in widespread use in mainland China);
British Imperial units; and
The metric system.In 1976 the Hong Kong Government started the conversion to the metric system, and as of 2012 measurements for government purposes, such as road signs, are almost always in metric units. However, all three systems are officially permitted for trade, and in the wider society a mixture of all three systems prevails.Japanese units of measurement
Traditional Japanese units of measurement or the shakkanhō (尺貫法, "shaku–kan system") is the traditional system of measurement used by the people of the Japanese archipelago. It is largely based on the Chinese system, which spread to Japan and the rest of the Sinosphere in antiquity. It has remained mostly unaltered since the adoption of the measures of the Tang Dynasty in AD 701. Following the Meiji Restoration, Imperial Japan adopted the metric system and defined the traditional units in metric terms on the basis of a prototype metre and kilogram. The present values of most Korean and Taiwanese units of measurement derive from these values as well, owing to their occupations by the Japanese.For a time in the early 20th century, the traditional, metric, and English systems were all legal in Japan. Although commerce has since been legally restricted to using the metric system, the old system is still used in some instances. The old measures are common in carpentry and agriculture, with tools such as chisels, spatels, saws, and hammers manufactured in sun and bu sizes. Floorspace is expressed in terms of tatami mats, and land is sold on the basis of price in tsubo. Many rice cookers are sold with measuring cups of 1 gō.Mace (unit)
A mace (Chinese: 錢; pinyin: qián; Hong Kong English usage: tsin; Southeast Asian English usage: chee) is a traditional Chinese measurement of weight in East Asia that was also used as a currency denomination. It is equal to 10 candareens and is 1⁄10 of a tael or approximately 3.78 grams. A troy mace is approximately 3.7429 grams. In Hong Kong, one mace is 3.779936375 grams. and in Ordinance 22 of 1884, it is 2⁄15 ounces avoirdupois. In Singapore, one mace (referred to as chee) is 3.77994 grams.In imperial China, 10 candareens equaled 1 mace which was 1⁄10 of a tael and, like the other units, was used in weight-denominated silver currency system. A common denomination was 7 mace and 2 candareens, equal to one silver Chinese yuan.Pyeong
A pyeong (abbreviation py) is a Korean unit of area and floorspace, equal to a square kan or 36 square Korean feet. The ping and tsubo are its equivalent Chinese and Japanese units, similarly based on a square bu (ja:步) or ken, equivalent to 36 square Chinese or Japanese feet.Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien (; Chinese: 臺灣閩南語; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-oân Bân-lâm-gú; translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known simply as Taiwanese (臺灣話; Tâi-oân-oē / 臺灣語; Tâi-oân-gú), is a variety of Hokkien Chinese spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan. It is spoken by the Taiwanese Hoklo people, who descended from immigrants from southern Fujian during the Qing dynasty. The Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ) romanization is a popular orthography for this variant of Hokkien.
Taiwanese Hokkien is generally similar to the speeches of Amoy, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou (branches of Chinese Minnan), as well as their dialectal forms used in Southeast Asia and are generally mutually intelligible. The mass popularity of Hokkien entertainment media from Taiwan has given prominence to the Taiwanese variety of Hokkien, especially since the 1980s.