Taiwanese Romanization System

The Taiwanese Romanization System (Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-oân Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī and since 2006 has been one of the officially promoted phonetic notation system by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.[1] It is nearly identical to Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA) Romanization for Hakka apart from using ts tsh j instead of c ch j for the fricatives /ts tsʰ dz/.

20061014 ROC-EDU Taiwanese Romanization System.pdf
Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System


Taiwanese Romanization System uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones.

Capital letter A B E G H I J K Kh L M N Ng O Oo P Ph S T Th Ts Tsh U
Lower case a b e g h i j k kh l m n ng nn o oo p ph s t th ts tsh u
  • "nn" is only used after a vowel to express nasalization, so it has no capital letter.
  • Palatalization occurs when "j, s, ts, tsh" are followed by "i", so "ji, si, tsi, tshi" are sometimes governed as trigraphs and tetragraphs.
  • Of the 10 unused basic Latin letters, "R" is sometimes used to express dialectal vowels (somewhat similar to erhua), while the others (C, D, F, Q, V, W, X, Y, Z) are only used in loanwords.



Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless
Nasal m [m]
ㄇ 毛(moo)
n [n]
ㄋ 耐(nāi)
ng [ŋ]
ㄫ 雅(ngá)
Plosive Unaspirated p [p]
ㄅ 邊(pian)
b [b]
ㆠ 文(bûn)
t [t]
ㄉ 地(tē)
k [k]
ㄍ 求(kiû)
g [g]
ㆣ 語(gí)
Aspirated ph [pʰ]
ㄆ 波(pho)
th [tʰ]
ㄊ 他(thann)
kh [kʰ]
ㄎ 去(khì)
Affricate Unaspirated ts [ts]
ㄗ 曾(tsan)
j [dz]
ㆡ 熱(jua̍h)
tsi [tɕ]
ㄐ 尖(tsiam)
ji [dʑ]
ㆢ 入(ji̍p)
Aspirated tsh [tsʰ]
ㄘ 出(tshut)
tshi [tɕʰ]
ㄑ 手(tshiú)
Fricative s [s]
ㄙ 衫(sann)
si [ɕ]
ㄒ 寫(siá)
h [h]
ㄏ 喜(hí)
Lateral l [l]
ㄌ 柳(liú)
Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal consonant -m [m]
-n [n]
-ng [ŋ]
Stop consonant -p [p̚]
-t [t̚]
-k [k̚]
-h [ʔ]
Syllabic consonant
Bilabial Velar
Nasal m [m̩]
ㆬ 姆(ḿ)
ng [ŋ̍]
ㆭ 酸(sng)

Vowels & Rhymes

Simple & Nasal
Front Central Back
Simple Nasal Simple Simple Nasal
Close i [i]
ㄧ 衣(i)
inn [ĩ]
ㆪ 圓(înn)
u [u]
ㄨ 污(u)
unn [ũ]
ㆫ 張(tiunn)
Mid e [e]
ㆤ 禮(lé)
enn [ẽ]
ㆥ 生(senn)
ㄜ 高(ko)
oo [ɔ]
ㆦ 烏(oo)
onn [ɔ̃]
ㆧ 翁(onn)
Open a [a]
ㄚ 查(tsa)
ann [ã]
ㆩ 衫(sann)
Tâi-lô IPA Bopomofo
ir [ɨ]
er [ə]
ee [ɛ]
ere [əe] ㄜㆤ[a]
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [ŋ] [p̚] [t̚] [k̚] [ʔ]
[a] a ann am an ang ap at ak ah annh
[ai] ai ainn aih ainnh
[au] au auh
[e] e enn eh ennh
[i] i inn im in ing ip it ik ih innh
[ia] ia iann iam ian iang iap iat iak iah iannh
[iau] iau iaunn iauh
[iə] io ioh
[iɔ] iong iok
[iu] iu iunn iuh iunnh
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [ŋ] [p̚] [t̚] [k̚] [ʔ]
[ə] o oh
[ɔ] oo onn om ong op ok ooh onnh
[u] u un ut uh
[ua] ua uann uan uat uah
[uai] uai uainn
[ue] ue ueh
[ui] ui
[m̩] m mh
[ŋ̍] ng ngh
  • ing pronounced [ɪəŋ], ik pronounced [ɪək̚].


Tone No. 1 2 (= 6) 3 4 5 7 8
Name 陰平 上聲 陰去 陰入 陽平 陽去 陽入
im-pîng siōng-siann im-khì im-ji̍p iông-pîng iông-khì iông-ji̍p
Symbol None Acute Grave None (-p, -t, -k, -h) Circumflex macron Vertical line above (-p, -t, -k, -h)
´ ` ˆ ˉ ̍
Pitch ˥ ˥˩ ˧˩ ˧ʔ ˨˦ ˧ ˥ʔ
55 51 31 24 33
Example tong (東) tóng (黨) tòng (棟) tok (督) tông (同) tōng (洞) to̍k (毒)

A hyphen links elements of a compound word. A double hyphen indicates that the following syllable has a neutral tone and therefore that the preceding syllable does not undergo tone sandhi.


  1. ^ In version of Ngoo Siu-le, /ɘe/ [ere] is spelled as [oe] while the Phonetic Symbol "ㄜExtended Bopomofo U+31A4.svg" is replaced with "Extended Bopomofo oe.svg".


  1. ^ Cheng Jei-cheng (2008). Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an Shiyong Shouce 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案使用手冊 [Practical Manual for the Taiwan Southern Min Romanization System] (PDF) (in Chinese) (2nd ed.). ROC Ministry of Education. ISBN 978-986-01-6637-8.
  2. ^ 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案使用手冊 (PDF) (in Chinese). 2007. ISBN 978-986-00-7755-1.

External links

Bbánlám pìngyīm

Bbánlám Hōng'ggián Pìngyīm Hōng'àn (Chinese: 閩南方言拼音方案), Bbánlám pìngyīm, Minnan pinyin or simply pingyim, is a romanization system for Hokkien Southern Min, in particular the Amoy (Xiamen) version of this language.

Central Min

Central Min, or Min Zhong (simplified Chinese: 闽中语; traditional Chinese: 閩中語; pinyin: Mǐnzhōngyǔ), is a part of the Min group of varieties of Chinese. It is spoken in the valley of the Sha River in Sanming prefecture in the central mountain areas of Fujian, consisting of Yong'an, the urban area of Sanming (Sanyuan and Meilie districts) and Sha County.

Fu'an dialect

The Fu'an dialect (福安話) is a dialect of Eastern Min, which is a branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the eastern part of Fujian Province.

The Fu'an dialect covers two city and three counties: Ningde, Fu'an, Shouning, Zhouning and Zherong County.

Gutian dialect

Gutian dialect (Eastern Min: 古田話) is a dialect of Eastern Min spoken in Gutian, Ningde in northeastern Fujian province of China.

Haikou dialect

Haikou dialect is a topolect of Chinese and a subvariety of Hainanese which is spoken in Haikou, the capital of the Hainan province and island of China.

Jian'ou dialect

Jian'ou dialect (Northern Min: Gṳ̿ing-é-dī / 建甌事; Chinese: simplified Chinese: 建瓯话; traditional Chinese: 建甌話; pinyin: Jiàn'ōu huà), also known as Kienow dialect, is a local dialect of Northern Min Chinese spoken in Jian'ou in northern Fujian province. It is regarded as the standard common language in Jian'ou.

Jiangle dialect

Jiangle dialect is a dialect of Shao-Jiang Min Chinese spoken in Jiangle, Sanming in northwestern Fujian province of China. It combines elements from Northern Min and Hakka Chinese.

Jianyang dialect

Jianyang (Northern Min: Gṳ̿ing-iô̤ng-dī / 建陽事) is a dialect of Northern Min Chinese spoken in Jianyang in the north of Fujian province.

Koa-á books

Koa-á books (Hokkien: Koa-á-chheh; hàn-jī: 歌仔冊) is a form of vernacular literature of Hokkien language written in Chinese characters, and it is popular in the Taiwanese and Chinese societies where Hoklo people live. Written Hokkien in hàn-jī system are deeply influenced by koa-á characters.

List of Latin-script letters

This is a list of letters of the Latin script. The definition of a Latin-script letter for this list is a character encoded in the Unicode Standard that has a script property of 'Latin' and the general category of 'Letter'. An overview of the distribution of Latin-script letters in Unicode is given in Latin script in Unicode.

Mango dialect

Man or Mango (simplified Chinese: 蛮话; traditional Chinese: 蠻話; pinyin: Mánhuà; literally: 'Man speech'), also known as Manjiang (simplified Chinese: 蛮讲; traditional Chinese: 蠻講; pinyin: Mánjiǎng), is an Eastern Min dialect spoken in Taishun and Cangnan counties of Wenzhou prefecture in Southeast Zhejiang province.

As a dialect of Eastern Min, Manjiang is very distant from major Chinese varieties such as Mandarin and Cantonese, and displays very significant elements of a substratal indigenous language, perhaps belonging to the Austroasiatic or Tai–Kadai language families.

Ningde dialect

Ningde dialect (Eastern Min: 寧德話) is a dialect of Eastern Min Chinese spoken in urban area of Ningde, which is a prefecture-level city in the northeastern coast of Fujian province.


Pe̍h-ōe-jī (Taiwanese Hokkien: [peʔ˩ u̯e˩ d͡ʑi˨] (listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Hokkien and Amoy Hokkien. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan, it uses a modified Latin alphabet and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian, POJ became most widespread in Taiwan and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material, religious and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan's first newspaper, the Taiwan Church News.

During Taiwan under Japanese rule (1895–1945), the use of Pe̍h-ōe-jī was suppressed and it faced further countermeasures during the Kuomintang martial law period (1947–1987). In Fujian, use declined after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (1949) and in the early 21st century the system was not in general use there. Taiwanese Christians, non-native learners of Southern Min, and native-speaker enthusiasts in Taiwan are among those that continue to use Pe̍h-ōe-jī. Full native computer support was developed in 2004, and users can now call on fonts, input methods, and extensive online dictionaries. Rival writing systems have evolved, and there is ongoing debate within the Taiwanese mother tongue movement as to which system should be used. Versions of pe̍h-ōe-jī have been devised for other Chinese varieties, including Hakka and Teochew Southern Min.

In the 2006, the Taiwanese Romanization System was developed based on pe̍h-ōe-jī for official use to write Hokkien phonetically.

Sanming dialect

Sanming dialect (Central Min: 三明事; Mandarin Chinese: 三明話) is a dialect of Central Min Chinese spoken in urban area of Sanming, which is a prefecture-level city in western Fujian province of China.

Shao-Jiang Min

Shao–Jiang or Shaojiang Min (simplified Chinese: 邵将; traditional Chinese: 邵將; pinyin: Shàojiāng) is a collection of dialects of Min Chinese centered on Western Nanping in Northwest Fujian, specifically in the Nanping counties of Guangze, Shaowu, and Western Shunchang and the Northern Sanming county of Jiangle.

Shao-Jiang developed from Northern Min (Min Bei), and was deeply influenced by Gan Chinese and Hakka Chinese. The classification of Shao-Jiang is disputed. It is frequently classified as a dialect of Northern Min, but sometimes it is excluded from Min and classified as Gan Chinese instead. But it is mutually intelligible with neither other Northern Min nor other Gan. Actually it is a collection of dialects which have limited mutual intelligibility instead of a language. Some Chinese scholars call it Min-Gan dialects (闽赣方言), Min-Gan transition dialects (闽赣过渡方言) or Min-Hakka-Gan transition dialects (闽客赣过渡方言).

Shaowu dialect

Shaowu dialect is a dialect of Shao-Jiang Min Chinese spoken in Shaowu, Nanping in northwestern Fujian province of China. It combines elements from Northern Min and Gan Chinese.

Shaxian dialect

Shaxian dialect (Central Min: 沙縣事, Mandarin Chinese: 沙縣話) is a dialect of Central Min Chinese spoken in Sha County, Sanming in western Fujian province of China.

Wenchang dialect

Wenchang dialect (simplified Chinese: 文昌话; traditional Chinese: 文昌話; pinyin: Wénchāng huà) is a dialect of Hainanese which is spoken in Wenchang, a county-level city in the northeast of Hainan, an island province in southern China.

It is considered the prestige form of Hainanese, and is used by the provincial broadcasting media.

Xiapu dialect

Xiapu dialect (Eastern Min: 霞浦話) is a dialect of Eastern Min Chinese spoken in Xiapu, Ningde in northeastern Fujian province of China.

Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinTáiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn
Bopomofoㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ ㄇㄧㄣˇ ㄋㄢˊ ㄩˇ ㄌㄨㄛˊ ㄇㄚˇ ㄗˋ ㄆㄧㄣ ㄧㄣ ㄈㄤ ㄢˋ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhTair'uan Miinnanyeu Luomaatzyh Pin'in Fang'ann
Wade–GilesT'ai²-wan¹ Min³-nan²-yü³ Lo²-ma³-tzû⁴ P'in¹-in¹ Fang¹-an⁴
Tongyong PinyinTáiwan Mǐnnán-yǔ Luómǎzìh Pinyin Fang-àn
MPS2Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn
RomanizationThòi-vàn Men-nàm-ngî Lò-mâ-sṳ Piang-yîm Fông-on
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn
Tâi-lôTâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinTáiluó Pīnyīn
Bopomofoㄊㄞˊ ㄌㄨㄛˊ ㄆㄧㄣ ㄧㄣ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhTairluo Pin'in
Wade–GilesT'ai²-lo² P'in¹-in¹
Tongyong PinyinTáiluó Pinyin
MPS2Táiluó Pinyin
RomanizationThòi-lò Piang-yîm
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTâi-lô Pheng-im
Tâi-lôTâi-lô Phing-im
Licit syllables[2]
Ø b g h j k kh l m n ng p ph s t th ts tsh
a a ba ga ha ka kha la ma na nga pa pha sa ta tha tsa tsha a
ah ah bah hah kah khah lah nah pah phah sah tah thah tsah tshah ah
ai ai bai gai hai kai khai lai mai nai ngai pai phai sai tai thai tsai tshai ai
ainn ainn hainn kainn khainn phainn tainn tsainn ainn
ak ak bak gak hak kak khak lak pak phak sak tak thak tsak tshak ak
am am gam ham kam kham lam sam tam tham tsam tsham am
an an ban gan han kan khan lan pan phan san tan than tsan tshan an
ang ang bang gang hang kang khang lang pang phang sang tang thang tsang tshang ang
ann ann hann kann khann phann sann tann thann tsann tshann ann
annh hannh sannh annh
ap ap hap kap khap lap sap tap thap tsap tshap ap
at at bat hat kat khat lat pat sat tat that tsat tshat at
au au bau gau hau kau khau lau mau nau ngau pau phau sau tau thau tsau tshau au
auh kauh lauh mauh nauh phauh tauh tshauh auh
e e be ge he ke khe le me ne nge pe phe se te the tse tshe e
eh eh beh heh keh kheh leh meh neh ngeh peh seh teh theh tseh tsheh eh
enn enn henn kenn khenn penn phenn senn tenn thenn tsenn tshenn enn
ennh hennh khennh ennh
i i bi gi hi ji ki khi li mi ni pi phi si ti thi tsi tshi i
ia ia gia hia jia kia khia mia nia ngia sia tia tsia tshia ia
iah iah giah hiah kiah khiah liah piah phiah siah tiah thiah tsiah tshiah iah
iak khiak piak phiak siak tiak tshiak iak
iam iam giam hiam jiam kiam khiam liam siam tiam thiam tsiam tshiam iam
ian ian bian gian hian jian kian khian lian pian phian sian tian thian tsian tshian ian
iang iang giang hiang jiang khiang liang piang phiang siang tsiang tshiang iang
iann iann hiann kiann piann siann tiann thiann tsiann tshiann iann
iannh hiannh iannh
iap iap giap hiap jiap kiap khiap liap siap tiap thiap tsiap tshiap iap
iat iat biat giat hiat jiat kiat khiat liat piat phiat siat tiat thiat tsiat tshiat iat
iau iau biau giau hiau jiau kiau khiau liau miau niau ngiau piau phiau siau tiau thiau tsiau tshiau iau
iauh hiauh khiauh ngiauh iauh
iaunn iaunn iaunn
ih bih khih mih nih pih phih sih tih thih tsih tshih ih
ik ik bik gik hik kik lik pik phik sik tik thik tsik tshik ik
im im gim him jim kim khim lim sim tim thim tsim tshim im
in in bin gin hin jin kin khin lin pin phin sin tin thin tsin tshin in
ing ing bing ging hing king khing ling ping phing sing ting thing tsing tshing ing
inn inn hinn kinn khinn sinn tinn thinn tsinn tshinn inn
io io bio gio hio jio kio khio lio pio phio sio tio thio tsio tshio io
ioh ioh gioh hioh kioh khioh lioh sioh tioh tsioh tshioh ioh
iok iok giok hiok jiok kiok khiok liok siok tiok thiok tsiok tshiok iok
iong iong giong hiong jiong kiong khiong liong siong tiong thiong tsiong tshiong iong
ip ip hip jip kip khip lip sip tsip tship ip
it it bit hit jit kit khit pit phit sit tit tsit tshit it
iu iu biu giu hiu jiu kiu khiu liu niu piu siu tiu thiu tsiu tshiu iu
iunn iunn hiunn kiunn khiunn siunn tiunn tsiunn tshiunn iunn
iunnh iunnh hiunnh iunnh
m m hm m
mh hmh mh
ng ng hng kng khng mng nng png sng tng thng tsng tshng ng
ngh hngh phngh sngh tshngh ngh
o o bo go ho ko kho lo po pho so to tho tso tsho o
oh oh hoh koh loh poh phoh soh toh thoh tsoh tshoh oh
ok ok bok gok hok kok khok lok pok phok sok tok thok tsok tshok ok
om om som tom om
ong ong bong gong hong kong khong long pong phong song tong thong tsong tshong ong
onn onn honn konn onn
onnh onnh honnh onnh
oo oo boo goo hoo koo khoo loo moo noo ngoo poo phoo soo too thoo tsoo tshoo oo
ooh mooh ooh
u u bu gu hu ju ku khu lu pu phu su tu thu tsu tshu u
ua ua bua gua hua kua khua lua mua nua pua phua sua tua thua tsua tshua ua
uah uah buah huah juah kuah khuah luah puah phuah suah thuah tsuah tshuah uah
uai uai huai kuai khuai suai uai
uainn uainn huainn kuainn suainn tsuainn uainn
uan uan buan guan huan kuan khuan luan puan phuan suan tuan thuan tsuan tshuan uan
uang uang tshuang uang
uann uann huann kuann khuann puann phuann suann tuann thuann tshuann uann
uat uat buat guat huat kuat khuat luat puat phuat suat tuat thuat tsuat uat
ue ue bue gue hue jue kue khue lue pue phue sue tue tsue tshue ue
ueh ueh bueh gueh hueh kueh khueh pueh phueh sueh ueh
uh uh khuh puh phuh tuh thuh tsuh tshuh uh
ui ui bui gui hui kui khui lui mui pui phui sui tui thui tsui tshui ui
un un bun gun hun jun kun khun lun pun phun sun tun thun tsun tshun un
ut ut but hut kut khut lut put phut sut tut thut tsut tshut ut
Ø b g h j k kh l m n ng p ph s t th ts tsh

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