The Taiwanese Romanization System (Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-oân Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī and since 2006 has been one of the officially promoted phonetic notation system by Taiwan's Ministry of Education. It is nearly identical to Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA) Romanization for Hakka apart from using ts tsh j instead of c ch j for the fricatives /ts tsʰ dz/.
|Taiwanese Romanization System|
Taiwanese Romanization System uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones.
|Tone No.||1||2 (= 6)||3||4||5||7||8|
|Symbol||None||Acute||Grave||None (-p, -t, -k, -h)||Circumflex||macron||Vertical line above (-p, -t, -k, -h)|
|Example||tong (東)||tóng (黨)||tòng (棟)||tok (督)||tông (同)||tōng (洞)||to̍k (毒)|
A hyphen links elements of a compound word. A double hyphen indicates that the following syllable has a neutral tone and therefore that the preceding syllable does not undergo tone sandhi.
Bbánlám Hōng'ggián Pìngyīm Hōng'àn (Chinese: 閩南方言拼音方案), Bbánlám pìngyīm, Minnan pinyin or simply pingyim, is a romanization system for Hokkien Southern Min, in particular the Amoy (Xiamen) version of this language.Central Min
Central Min, or Min Zhong (simplified Chinese: 闽中语; traditional Chinese: 閩中語; pinyin: Mǐnzhōngyǔ), is a part of the Min group of varieties of Chinese. It is spoken in the valley of the Sha River in Sanming prefecture in the central mountain areas of Fujian, consisting of Yong'an, the urban area of Sanming (Sanyuan and Meilie districts) and Sha County.Fu'an dialect
The Fu'an dialect (福安話) is a dialect of Eastern Min, which is a branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the eastern part of Fujian Province.
The Fu'an dialect covers two city and three counties: Ningde, Fu'an, Shouning, Zhouning and Zherong County.Gutian dialect
Gutian dialect (Eastern Min: 古田話) is a dialect of Eastern Min spoken in Gutian, Ningde in northeastern Fujian province of China.Haikou dialect
Haikou dialect is a topolect of Chinese and a subvariety of Hainanese which is spoken in Haikou, the capital of the Hainan province and island of China.Jian'ou dialect
Jian'ou dialect (Northern Min: Gṳ̿ing-é-dī / 建甌事; Chinese: simplified Chinese: 建瓯话; traditional Chinese: 建甌話; pinyin: Jiàn'ōu huà), also known as Kienow dialect, is a local dialect of Northern Min Chinese spoken in Jian'ou in northern Fujian province. It is regarded as the standard common language in Jian'ou.Jiangle dialect
Jiangle dialect is a dialect of Shao-Jiang Min Chinese spoken in Jiangle, Sanming in northwestern Fujian province of China. It combines elements from Northern Min and Hakka Chinese.Jianyang dialect
Jianyang (Northern Min: Gṳ̿ing-iô̤ng-dī / 建陽事) is a dialect of Northern Min Chinese spoken in Jianyang in the north of Fujian province.Koa-á books
Koa-á books (Hokkien: Koa-á-chheh; hàn-jī: 歌仔冊) is a form of vernacular literature of Hokkien language written in Chinese characters, and it is popular in the Taiwanese and Chinese societies where Hoklo people live. Written Hokkien in hàn-jī system are deeply influenced by koa-á characters.List of Latin-script letters
This is a list of letters of the Latin script. The definition of a Latin-script letter for this list is a character encoded in the Unicode Standard that has a script property of 'Latin' and the general category of 'Letter'. An overview of the distribution of Latin-script letters in Unicode is given in Latin script in Unicode.Mango dialect
Man or Mango (simplified Chinese: 蛮话; traditional Chinese: 蠻話; pinyin: Mánhuà; literally: 'Man speech'), also known as Manjiang (simplified Chinese: 蛮讲; traditional Chinese: 蠻講; pinyin: Mánjiǎng), is an Eastern Min dialect spoken in Taishun and Cangnan counties of Wenzhou prefecture in Southeast Zhejiang province.
As a dialect of Eastern Min, Manjiang is very distant from major Chinese varieties such as Mandarin and Cantonese, and displays very significant elements of a substratal indigenous language, perhaps belonging to the Austroasiatic or Tai–Kadai language families.Ningde dialect
Ningde dialect (Eastern Min: 寧德話) is a dialect of Eastern Min Chinese spoken in urban area of Ningde, which is a prefecture-level city in the northeastern coast of Fujian province.Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī (Taiwanese Hokkien: [peʔ˩ u̯e˩ d͡ʑi˨] (listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Hokkien and Amoy Hokkien. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan, it uses a modified Latin alphabet and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian, POJ became most widespread in Taiwan and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material, religious and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan's first newspaper, the Taiwan Church News.
During Taiwan under Japanese rule (1895–1945), the use of Pe̍h-ōe-jī was suppressed and it faced further countermeasures during the Kuomintang martial law period (1947–1987). In Fujian, use declined after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (1949) and in the early 21st century the system was not in general use there. Taiwanese Christians, non-native learners of Southern Min, and native-speaker enthusiasts in Taiwan are among those that continue to use Pe̍h-ōe-jī. Full native computer support was developed in 2004, and users can now call on fonts, input methods, and extensive online dictionaries. Rival writing systems have evolved, and there is ongoing debate within the Taiwanese mother tongue movement as to which system should be used. Versions of pe̍h-ōe-jī have been devised for other Chinese varieties, including Hakka and Teochew Southern Min.
In the 2006, the Taiwanese Romanization System was developed based on pe̍h-ōe-jī for official use to write Hokkien phonetically.Sanming dialect
Sanming dialect (Central Min: 三明事; Mandarin Chinese: 三明話) is a dialect of Central Min Chinese spoken in urban area of Sanming, which is a prefecture-level city in western Fujian province of China.Shao-Jiang Min
Shao–Jiang or Shaojiang Min (simplified Chinese: 邵将; traditional Chinese: 邵將; pinyin: Shàojiāng) is a collection of dialects of Min Chinese centered on Western Nanping in Northwest Fujian, specifically in the Nanping counties of Guangze, Shaowu, and Western Shunchang and the Northern Sanming county of Jiangle.
Shao-Jiang developed from Northern Min (Min Bei), and was deeply influenced by Gan Chinese and Hakka Chinese. The classification of Shao-Jiang is disputed. It is frequently classified as a dialect of Northern Min, but sometimes it is excluded from Min and classified as Gan Chinese instead. But it is mutually intelligible with neither other Northern Min nor other Gan. Actually it is a collection of dialects which have limited mutual intelligibility instead of a language. Some Chinese scholars call it Min-Gan dialects (闽赣方言), Min-Gan transition dialects (闽赣过渡方言) or Min-Hakka-Gan transition dialects (闽客赣过渡方言).Shaowu dialect
Shaowu dialect is a dialect of Shao-Jiang Min Chinese spoken in Shaowu, Nanping in northwestern Fujian province of China. It combines elements from Northern Min and Gan Chinese.Shaxian dialect
Shaxian dialect (Central Min: 沙縣事, Mandarin Chinese: 沙縣話) is a dialect of Central Min Chinese spoken in Sha County, Sanming in western Fujian province of China.Wenchang dialect
Wenchang dialect (simplified Chinese: 文昌话; traditional Chinese: 文昌話; pinyin: Wénchāng huà) is a dialect of Hainanese which is spoken in Wenchang, a county-level city in the northeast of Hainan, an island province in southern China.
It is considered the prestige form of Hainanese, and is used by the provincial broadcasting media.Xiapu dialect
Xiapu dialect (Eastern Min: 霞浦話) is a dialect of Eastern Min Chinese spoken in Xiapu, Ningde in northeastern Fujian province of China.
|Hanyu Pinyin||Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn|
|Bopomofo||ㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ ㄇㄧㄣˇ ㄋㄢˊ ㄩˇ ㄌㄨㄛˊ ㄇㄚˇ ㄗˋ ㄆㄧㄣ ㄧㄣ ㄈㄤ ㄢˋ|
|Gwoyeu Romatzyh||Tair'uan Miinnanyeu Luomaatzyh Pin'in Fang'ann|
|Wade–Giles||T'ai²-wan¹ Min³-nan²-yü³ Lo²-ma³-tzû⁴ P'in¹-in¹ Fang¹-an⁴|
|Tongyong Pinyin||Táiwan Mǐnnán-yǔ Luómǎzìh Pinyin Fang-àn|
|MPS2||Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn|
|Romanization||Thòi-vàn Men-nàm-ngî Lò-mâ-sṳ Piang-yîm Fông-on|
|Hokkien POJ||Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn|
|Tâi-lô||Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Táiluó Pīnyīn|
|Bopomofo||ㄊㄞˊ ㄌㄨㄛˊ ㄆㄧㄣ ㄧㄣ|
|Gwoyeu Romatzyh||Tairluo Pin'in|
|Tongyong Pinyin||Táiluó Pinyin|
|Hokkien POJ||Tâi-lô Pheng-im|