Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China (PRC) claims the island of Taiwan to be part its territory under its Constitution as the Taiwan Province. In combination with the Republic of China-controlled Fujian islands, it is usually referred to by mainland media as the Taiwan Region or Taiwan Area.

The PRC has never administered Taiwan: the Taiwan Area, including all of the contemporary Taiwan Province, is currently administered by the government of the Republic of China (ROC). Maps published by the PRC (and other sources that adopt the PRC's views) show Taiwan Province in accordance with its pre-1949 boundaries as a part of China.

While the PRC claims Taiwan to be its rightful territory, it recognises Taiwan is outside its actual territory of control and does not maintain a shadow government or government-in-exile for Taiwan Province. However, its parliament includes legislators that represents Taiwan, most of whom are mainland people of Taiwanese descent. However, one representative in the CPC's National Congress (Lu Li'an) was born and grew up in Taiwan. In deference to the PRC's claim, the United Nations for official purposes calls the Taiwan Area "Taiwan, Province of China".

Taiwan Province

台湾省
Claimed Province
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese台湾省 (Táiwān Shěng)
 • Hokkien POJTâi-oân-séng
 • Hakka PFSThòi-vàn-sén or Thòi-vân-sén
Map showing the location of Taiwan Province
Map showing the location of Taiwan Province
Coordinates: 23°42′N 121°00′E / 23.7°N 121.0°ECoordinates: 23°42′N 121°00′E / 23.7°N 121.0°E
Named forSee Taiwan
Capital
(and largest city)
Taipei
Divisionsn/a prefectures, n/a counties, n/a townships
Government
 • SecretarySee Representation
 • GovernorSee Representation
Area
 • Total35,581 km2 (13,738 sq mi)
Area rank28th
Population
 (2018)
 • Total23,580,000
 • Rankn/a
 • Density660/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
 • Density rankn/a
Demographics
 • Ethnic compositionHan - 98%
Gaoshan (Aborigines) - 2%
ISO 3166 codeCN-TW
GDP (2018 estimate)CNY 4200 billion (n/a)
 • per capitaCNY 177,155 (n/a)
HDI (2015)0.885 (Very high) (n/a)
Taiwan Province
Taiwan (Chinese characters)
"Taiwan" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters

Overview

The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949. While by 1950 it had obtained control over most of the territories previously administered by the ROC, it never gained control of an area made up of Taiwan Province and some other islands (together called the "Taiwan Area"). Instead, the Taiwan Area had been administered by the ROC (now commonly known as "Taiwan") since the end of World War II in 1945, continuing through the Chinese Civil War and past the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949.

Despite the PRC's claim over Taiwan, the PRC has no provisional or shadow provincial government or provincial governor for Taiwan. The Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China is the part of the PRC government that has responsibility over Taiwan-related matters, but it is neither tasked with, nor presented as, a shadow administration for Taiwan. Instead, the ROC government, which actually controls Taiwan Province, is referred to by the PRC as the "Taiwan authorities".[1]

The political status of Taiwan is complex. The PRC considers itself the successor state of the pre-1949 ROC and the sole legitimate government of "China" since its founding on 1 October 1949, and regards Taiwan as a part of an "indivisible China". The ROC government disputes this claim, and is currently recognised by 16 UN member states and the Holy See as the government of "China",[2] although since 1971 it is no longer a member of the United Nations or its suborganisations.[3] Most other countries retain unofficial relations with Taiwan.

Boundary changes since 1949

Until recently, the ROC adopted an analogous practice of depicting mainland administrative boundaries in maps the way they were in 1949, to demonstrate that the ROC did not recognise the PRC government - or any boundary changes enacted by them since 1949 - as legitimate.

In 2017 Xinhua News Agency issued guidelines mandating no scare quotes for all members of local governments of Taiwan authorities (except Fujian and Lianjiang).[4] Even before this, the practice of not recognizing any boundary changes made to Taiwan is ended. For example, New Taipei is accepted instead of Taipei County, and the merging of Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County is accepted at all maps published by PRC entities. Maps published in PRC does not treat borders between Taiwan Province (Republic of China) and Special Municipalities as provincial borders, but county borders, and often does not mandate a capital for Taiwan at all. The borders between Kinmen and Matsu and rest of Fujian Province are never denoted as provincial borders let alone international.

The official databases of PRC does not show any internal divisions of Taiwan, all of them showing "data not yet available" (this no longer applies to Hong Kong and Macau).

As of 2018 PRC official map service Tianditu treats all six special municipalities as prefecture-level cities, all three provincial cities as county-level cities directly administered by the province, and all 14 county-administered cities as subdistricts under each individual county's jurisdiction.

Administrative subdivisions (Tianditu & Mapping database)[5]
ROC (Units) PRC (Units) Divisions
Special municipality 直轄市 Prefecture-level city 地级市 (6) Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, Taoyuan
Provincial city 省轄市 County-level city 县级市
(Directly administered 直辖)
(3) Chiayi Hsinchu, Keelung
County County
(Directly administered 直辖)
(11) Changhua County, Chiayi County, Hsinchu County,
Hualien County, Miaoli County, Nantou County, Penghu County,
Pingtung County, Taitung County, Yilan County, Yunlin County
(Special municipalities) District (直轄市)區 District (158 divisions)
Indigenous district 原住民區
(Provincial city) District (省轄市)區 Subdistrict (12 divisions)
County-administered city 縣轄市 (14 divisions)
Urban township Town (38 divisions)
Rural township Township (146 divisions)
Indigenous township 山地鄉
Urban village Community (5,876 divisions)
Rural village Village (1,885 divisions)
Neighborhoods n/a

Other territories administered by the ROC

Taiwan Province (whether disregarding the ROC's post-1949 boundary changes or not) does not include all the territory under the Republic of China's administration. PRC maps show the islands of Kinmen and Wuqiu, and the Matsu Islands as part of Fujian Province; the Pratas Islands as part of Guangdong Province, and Taiping Island as part of Hainan province. The ROC administers Kinmen, Wuqiu and the Matsu Islands as part of its alternative Fujian Province, and Pratas Islands and Taiping Island under Kaohsiung municipality.

Territories claimed to be part of Taiwan Province by both the ROC and PRC

Both the PRC and the ROC claim the Diaoyu Islands or Diaoyutai Islands (Senkaku Islands), administered by Japan, as a part of Taiwan Province.

Legislative representation in PRC

Although Taiwan Province is not under PRC control, thirteen delegates are elected to represent Taiwan Province to the National People's Congress.

The election of these delegates for Taiwan Province is done in accordance with the Decision (from time to time made) of the relevant Session of relevant National People's Congress of the PRC on the number of deputies to the National People's Congress and the election of the deputies.[6] For example, in 2002 that Decision was as follows:[6]

For the time being, 13 deputies representing Taiwan Province shall be elected from among people of Taiwan origin in the other provinces, the autonomous regions, and the municipalities directly under the Central Government, and the Chinese People's Liberation Army.

Having regard to the relevant Decision, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress adopts a "Plan for the Consultative Election of Deputies of Taiwan Province to the National People's Congress". The Plan typically provides that "the deputies will be elected in Beijing through consultation from among representatives sent by Taiwan compatriots in these provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government and in the Chinese People's Liberation Army."[6]

In the case of the 2002 election, the Standing Committee noted that there were more than 36,000 "Taiwan compatriots" in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government and the central Party, government and army institutions. It was decided that 122 representatives would participate in the conference for election through consultation. The number of representatives was allocated on the basis of the geographic distribution of Taiwan compatriots on the mainland and the standing committees of the people's congresses of the provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government were responsible for making arrangements for the election of the representatives through consultation. The Standing Committee's Plan also provided that the election should be "conducted in a democratic manner".[6]

After the latest election at the 13th National People's Congress, 13 of the Taiwan representatives for the National People's Congress are:[7]

  • Cai Peihui (蔡培輝)
  • Ceng Liqun (曾力群)
  • Chen Jun (陳軍), Amis
  • Chen Yunying (陳雲英), born in Taipei
  • Fu Zhiguan (符之冠)
  • Huang Zhixian (黃志賢), born in Mainland China to a mother from Tainan
  • Liang Zhiqiang (梁志強), born in Mainland China to parents from Miaoli County
  • Liao Haiying (廖海鷹)
  • Lin Qing (林青), born in Taipei
  • Xu Pei (許沛)
  • Zhang Xiaodong (張曉東)
  • Zhang Xiong (張雄)
  • Zou Zhenqiu (鄒振球)

Names used for ROC government, officials, and institutions

Since the PRC does not recognise the ROC as legitimate, PRC government and media refers to some ROC government offices and institutions using generic description which does not imply endorsement of the ROC's claim to be a legitimate government of either Taiwan or China. The precise replacements used are not officially designated, so the politically-designated names for Taiwan have small variations across different source from within the PRC.

For some cases, where the name does not significantly imply sovereignty, the name remains the same, such as for the Mainland Affairs Council,[8][9] County[10] and Mayor.[11]

ROC government bodies

ROC government officials

ROC institutions

ROC events

Proposal under hypothetical reunification

The PRC's current policy proposal for a potential future reunification with Taiwan includes a proposal for Taiwan to become a Special Administrative Region (analogous to Hong Kong and Macau today), rather than a province.[31][32]

"Taiwan, Province of China" or "Taiwan, China"

In deference to the PRC's position, the United Nations officially refers to the Taiwan Area as "Taiwan, Province of China". This has also meant that "Taiwan, Province of China" appears in the list of ISO 3166-1 country codes. A variant of this name is "Taiwan, China", which is also often seen in other contexts.

Demographic data

While demographic data for Taiwan Province published by the PRC government respects the census figures published by the ROC government for the territory, the PRC government does not recognise the ethnic classifications of Taiwanese Aborigines adopted by the ROC. Instead, the PRC government classifies all Taiwanese Aboriginese as Gaoshan people, one of the 56 recognized ethnicities of China.

Naming disputes

In July 2017, Taiwanese crew members of the Malaysian airline AirAsia X were required to change their nationality from Taiwan (TWN) to China (CHN) for any flight flying to and from Mainland China.[33]

Name change

In 2017 Xinhua News Agency issued guidelines abolishing the term Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China. Although Taiwan is a traditional province of China, considering the circumstances, Taiwan Area is used instead. This apparently does not include Kinmen and Matsu, which are expressly forbidden to denote as part of Taiwan as being simply incorrect.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ "The PRC Government website contains numerous references to "Taiwan authorities"". Gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2014-01-08. Retrieved 2019-04-19.
  2. ^ Winkler, Sigrid. "Biding Time: The Challenge of Taiwan's International Status | Brookings Institution". Brookings.edu. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  3. ^ Winkler, Sigrid. "Taiwan's UN Dilemma: To Be or Not to Be | Brookings Institution". Brookings.edu. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  4. ^ a b 靳, 倩倩. "新华社发布新闻报道禁用词". weixin. 广东工业大学大数据战略研究院. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  5. ^ "Tianditu". Tianditu. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d Plan for the Consultative Election of Deputies of Taiwan Province to the Tenth National People's Congress, 2002 (Government of the PRC website)
  7. ^ DeAeth, Duncan (26 February 2018). "Only 2 of 13 deputies for Taiwan in China's Nat. People's Congress are from Taiwan". Taiwan News. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  8. ^ "Taiwan' s mainland affairs authority congratulates Macao' s Chui on reelection". Shanghai Daily. 2015-06-18. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  9. ^ "Chinese Taiwan's Mainland Affairs Council holds press conference - CCTV News - CCTV.com English". 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  10. ^ ???. "Lee Teng-hui's Diaoyu Islands remarks reprimanded in Taiwan_News on Taiwan_ENG.TAIWAN.CN". eng.taiwan.cn.
  11. ^ 张玲 (2014-06-30). "Headline_Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council PRC". Gwytb.gov.cn. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  12. ^ [1] Archived 9 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "Truck crashes into Taiwan leader's office building - People's Daily Online". English.peopledaily.com.cn. 2014-01-26. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  14. ^ a b c d "Taiwan's executive body to be reshuffled - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  15. ^ "Taiwan legislative body reviews no-confidence motion". chinadaily.com.cn. 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  16. ^ "Headline_Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council PRC". Gwytb.gov.cn. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  17. ^ a b "Taiwan's food safety office opens amid scandals - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2014-10-22. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  18. ^ "Taiwan´s chief lawmaker denies lobbying accusation CCTV News - CNTV English". Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  19. ^ "Candidates register for Taiwan leader election - Xinhua - English.news.cn". news.xinhuanet.com.
  20. ^ Jingya, Zhang. "6.7-magnitude quake jolts Taiwan - CCTV News - CCTV.com English". english.cntv.cn.
  21. ^ "Taiwan leader Ma Ying-jeou re-elected KMT chairman - People's Daily Online". English.peopledaily.com.cn. 2013-07-21. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  22. ^ "Taiwan's KMT confirms appointments of four vice chairmen - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2014-09-14. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  23. ^ Zhang Jingya. "Taiwan gas leak explosions kill 24, injure over 270 - CCTV News - CCTV.com English". Archived from the original on 2015-07-11. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  24. ^ "Taiwan's chief prosecutor jailed over information leak - Global Times". Globaltimes.cn. 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  25. ^ "Taiwan demands apology from Philippines for fisherman's death - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  26. ^ "Mainland's Taiwan affairs chief highlights long-waited trip - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  27. ^ ???. "Taiwan punishes officers after celebrity's Apache chopper visit_News on Taiwan_ENG.TAIWAN.CN". eng.taiwan.cn.
  28. ^ 张玲 (2014-08-11). "Headline_Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council PRC". Gwytb.gov.cn. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  29. ^ "Political meeting to promote peaceful development of cross-Strait relations: Taiwan experts - Xinhua | English.news.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. 2014-06-15. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  30. ^ Miao, Tzung-han; Chang, S.C. (20 July 2017). "Refusing to mention ROC? Respect facts, please: MAC". Focus Taiwan. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  31. ^ Bush, Richard C. (2019-01-07). "8 key things to notice from Xi Jinping's New Year speech on Taiwan". Brookings. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
  32. ^ "What will happen to democracy in Taiwan SAR of China?". South China Morning Post. 2019-01-09. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
  33. ^ Strong, Matthew (23 July 2017). "Taiwanese crew at AirAsia X forced to change nationality to Chinese". Taiwan News. Retrieved 24 July 2017.

Further reading

  • Bush, R. & O'Hanlon, M. (2007). A War Like No Other: The Truth About China's Challenge to America. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-98677-1
  • Bush, R. (2006). Untying the Knot: Making Peace in the Taiwan Strait. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-1290-1
  • Carpenter, T. (2006). America's Coming War with China: A Collision Course over Taiwan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6841-1
  • Cole, B. (2006). Taiwan's Security: History and Prospects. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36581-3
  • Copper, J. (2006). Playing with Fire: The Looming War with China over Taiwan. Praeger Security International General Interest. ISBN 0-275-98888-0
  • Federation of American Scientists et al. (2006). Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning
  • Gill, B. (2007). Rising Star: China's New Security Diplomacy. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-3146-9
  • Shirk, S. (2007). China: Fragile Superpower: How China's Internal Politics Could Derail Its Peaceful Rise. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530609-0
  • Tsang, S. (2006). If China Attacks Taiwan: Military Strategy, Politics and Economics. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40785-0
  • Tucker, N.B. (2005). Dangerous Strait: the U.S.-Taiwan-China Crisis. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13564-5

External links

Anti-Secession Law

The Anti-Secession Law is a law of the People's Republic of China (PRC), passed by the 3rd Session of the 10th National People's Congress. It was ratified on March 14, 2005, and went into effect immediately. President Hu Jintao promulgated the law with Presidential Decree No. 34. Although the law, at ten articles, is relatively short, it was met with much controversy because it formalized the long-standing policy of the PRC to use "non-peaceful means" against the "Taiwan independence movement" in the event of a declaration of independence.

China National Highway 228 (Taiwan)

National Highway 228 was a hypothetical highway encircling the island of Taiwan as part of the National Highway System of the People's Republic of China. It had never come into existence due to the political status of Taiwan. The People's Republic of China claims control over Taiwan while it is currently administered and controlled by the Republic of China. Taiwan has its own highway system and does not recognize the designation by the People's Republic of China.

This observation was eventually dropped in new National Highway plans, replaced by the Dandong-Dongxing Highway in 2013.

East China

East China or Eastern China (simplified Chinese: 华东; traditional Chinese: 華東; pinyin: Huádōng) is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.

An abolished concept, for economical purposes the region was defined from 1961 to 1978 by the Chinese Central Government to include the provinces of (in alphabetical order) Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong and Zhejiang, as well as the municipality of Shanghai. Since the Chinese government claims Taiwan and the few outlying islands of Fujian (Kinmen and Matsu) governed by the Republic of China (Taiwanese government) as its territory, the claimed "Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China" was once classified in this region.

Free area of the Republic of China

The Free area of the Republic of China is a term used by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to refer to the territories under its actual control. The area under the definition consists of the island groups of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and some minor islands. This term is used in the "Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China". As the island of Taiwan is the main component of the whole area, it is therefore also referred to as the "Taiwan Area of the Republic of China" or simply the "Taiwan Area" (Chinese: 臺灣地區). The term "Tai-Peng-Kin-Ma" is also essentially equivalent except that it only refers to the four main islands of the region - Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, to the exclusion of the South China Sea area possessions.The term is opposed to "Mainland Area", which is practically viewed as being synonymous to mainland China.

G3 Beijing–Taipei Expressway

The Beijing–Taipei Expressway (Chinese: 北京–台北高速公路; pinyin: Běijīng–Táiběi Gāosù Gōnglù), commonly known as the Jingtai Expressway (Chinese: 京台高速公路; pinyin: Jīngtái Gāosù Gōnglù), is a partially completed Chinese expressway that, if fully constructed, would connect the Mainland China with Taiwan. Currently, the expressway is complete from Beijing to Fuzhou, Fujian, and is fully complete in Mainland China except for a small section in Fujian which is under construction.

In Taiwan, the expressway is proposed to connect with a hypothetical G99 Taiwan Ring Expressway in New Taipei City, which would supposedly encircle the island of Taiwan, as proposed by the People's Republic of China.

The project has been the source of some controversy because of Taiwan's political status. The People's Republic of China claims Taiwan, but does not currently administer it, so therefore does not have any control of its highways. As Taiwan does not recognize the highway designation by the People's Republic of China and has its own highway system, the Taiwan portion of the expressway has not been constructed. Aside from politics, the other challenge is the engineering difficulties in constructing the link through the Taiwan Strait. A bridge seems less likely than an undersea tunnel, which would have to exceed 100 kilometres in length. This is further complicated given the climatic and weather conditions across the straits.

In Mainland China, it connects the cities of Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan, Tai'an, Hefei, and Fuzhou.

G99 Taiwan Ring Expressway

Taiwan Ring Expressway (Chinese: 台湾环线高速公路) is a proposed, hypothetical expressway encircling the island of Taiwan as part of the National Trunk Highway System of the People's Republic of China. It is currently not in existence and hypothetical due to the political status of Taiwan. The People's Republic of China claims control over Taiwan while it is currently administered and controlled by the Republic of China. Taiwan has its own highway system and does not recognize the designation by the People's Republic of China.

According to the People's Republic of China, the expressway would pass through the cities of Taipei, Hsinchu, Taichung, Tainan, Kaohsiung, Taitung, Hualian, Yilan, Keelung, before returning to Taipei.The route of the proposed expressway corresponds to the highways currently designated by Taiwan as (counterclockwise from Taipei):

Nat 1 - Taipei to Kaohsiung

Prov 88 - Kaohsiung to Zhutian

Prov 1 - Zhutian to Fangshan

Prov 9 - Fangshan to Su'ao

Nat 5 - Su'ao to Taipei

History of Taiwan

The history of the island of Taiwan dates back tens of thousands of years to the earliest known evidence of human habitation. The sudden appearance of a culture based on agriculture around 3000 BC is believed to reflect the arrival of the ancestors of today's Taiwanese indigenous peoples. The island was colonized by the Dutch in the 17th century, followed by an influx of Han Chinese including Hakka immigrants from the Fujian and Guangdong areas of mainland China, across the Taiwan Strait. The Spanish built a settlement in the north for a brief period but were driven out by the Dutch in 1642.

In 1662, Koxinga, a loyalist of the Ming dynasty who had lost control of mainland China in 1644, defeated the Dutch and established a base of operations on the island. His forces were defeated by the Qing dynasty in 1683, and parts of Taiwan became increasingly integrated into the Qing empire. Following the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, the Qing ceded the island, along with Penghu, to the Empire of Japan. Taiwan produced rice and sugar to be exported to the Empire of Japan, and also served as a base for the Japanese invasion of Southeast Asia and the Pacific during World War II. Japanese imperial education was implemented in Taiwan and many Taiwanese also fought for Japan during the war.

In 1945, following the end of World War II, the nationalist government of the Republic of China (ROC), led by the Kuomintang (KMT), took control of Taiwan. In 1949, after losing control of mainland China in the Chinese Civil War, the ROC government under the KMT withdrew to Taiwan and Chiang Kai-shek declared martial law. The KMT ruled Taiwan (along with the Islands of Kinmen, Wuqiu and the Matsu on the opposite side of the Taiwan Strait) as a single-party state for forty years, until democratic reforms in the 1980s, which led to the first-ever direct presidential election in 1996. During the post-war period, Taiwan experienced rapid industrialization and economic growth known as the "Taiwan Miracle", and was known as one of the "Four Asian Tigers".

Penghu

The Penghu (Hokkien POJ: Phîⁿ-ô͘ or Phêⁿ-ô͘ ) or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which is also named Magong. Covering an area of 141 square kilometers (54 sq mi), the archipelago collectively forms Penghu County of the Republic of China (Taiwan), and is the second smallest county, after Lienchiang.

Province of Taiwan

Province of Taiwan is a term that currently has multiple meanings, and has multiple previous meanings. It may be rendered in Chinese as simplified Chinese: 台湾省; traditional Chinese: 臺灣省 or 台灣省; pinyin: Táiwān shěng (Taiwan Province)

Taiwan Province, Republic of China, a current administrative division of the Republic of China

Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China, a hypothetical administrative division claimed by the People's Republic of China

Taiwan under Japanese rule, a former administrative division of Empire of Japan

Taiwan under Qing rule, a former administrative division of Qing Dynasty

Provinces of China

Provincial-level administrative divisions (Chinese: 省级行政区; pinyin: shěng-jí xíngzhèngqū) or first-level administrative divisions (一级行政区; yī-jí xíngzhèngqū), are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 23 provinces (Chinese: 省; pinyin: shěng), four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. All but the disputed Taiwan Province (which if included would increase the total to 34) and a small fraction of Fujian Province (currently administered by the Republic of China) are controlled by the People's Republic of China.

Note that every province (except Hong Kong and Macau, the two special administrative regions) has a Communist Party of China provincial committee (Chinese: 省委; pinyin: shěngwěi), headed by a secretary (Chinese: 书记; pinyin: shūjì). The committee secretary is effectively in charge of the province, rather than the nominal governor of the provincial government.

Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the north-east, and the Philippines to the south. The island of Taiwan has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. Taipei is the capital and largest metropolitan area. Other major cities include Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan and Taoyuan. With 23.7 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated states, and is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations (UN).

Taiwanese indigenous peoples settled the island of Taiwan around 6,000 years ago. In the 17th century, Dutch rule opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, and ceded to the Empire of Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan on behalf of the World War II Allies. The resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communist Party of China and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands. In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization called the "Taiwan Miracle". In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ROC transitioned from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system.

Taiwan's export-oriented industrial economy is the 21st-largest in the world, with major contributions from steel, machinery, electronics and chemicals manufacturing. Taiwan is a developed country, ranking 15th in GDP per capita. It is ranked highly in terms of political and civil liberties, education, health care and human development.The political status of Taiwan remains uncertain. The ROC is no longer a member of the UN, having been replaced by the PRC in 1971. Taiwan is claimed by the PRC, which refuses diplomatic relations with countries which recognise the ROC. Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. International organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Taiwan is a member of the World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and Asian Development Bank under various names. Nearby countries and countries with large economies maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. Domestically, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting Taiwanese identity, although both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.

Taiwan, China

"Taiwan, China", "Taiwan, Province of China", or "Taiwan Province, China" are a set of politically controversial and potentially ambiguous terms that characterize Taiwan and its associated territories as a province or territory of "China". The term "Taiwan, China" is used by Chinese media whenever Taiwan is referenced, even though the People's Republic of China (PRC) ― which is widely recognized by the international community as the legitimate representative of "China" ― does not currently exercise jurisdiction over areas controlled by the Republic of China (ROC). In English, "China" is inserted after "Taiwan" by adding ", China", per English grammar rules. In the Chinese language, however, the Chinese characters 中國 ("China") would be inserted in front of "台灣" (Taiwan) per Chinese convention to indicate the larger and higher-level entity first. For example, the word "China" would be inserted into video captions on television, whenever a person mentions the word "Taiwan" but the characters 中國 ("China") would be inserted in front of "Taiwan" (台灣) despite the fact that the person never said the word "China", to propagandize to the audience that Taiwan is part of China. (Video subtitling is standard practice on Chinese television due to the existence of many mutually unintelligible "Chinese dialects".) The term "Taiwan, Province of China" also sometimes appears in the drop-down menu of websites and computer software that show a list of ISO 3166-1 country names (see UN and ISO section below).The terms are contentious and potentially ambiguous because they relate to the controversial issues of the political status of Taiwan and Cross-Strait relations between "Taiwan" and "China", in that whether they are two separate countries or "two areas of one country". Since 1949, two countries with the name "China" (Two Chinas) actually exist, namely the Republic of China (ROC, founded 1912 and now commonly known as "Taiwan") and the People's Republic of China (PRC, founded 1949 and now commonly known as "China", and "the China"). However, only one "China" actually rules Taiwan, namely Republic of China, and has an administrative division called "Taiwan Province" but refers to it as "Taiwan Province, Republic of China"; whereas, the other "China", namely the People's Republic of China, which is the one internationally recognized as "China" (not the ROC), claims but does not control Taiwan as part of its territory.

The juxtaposition of "Taiwan" and "China" in this order into one single term "Taiwan, China" implicitly places the Taiwan under the sovereignty of PRC/"China", in the same sense as "California, USA". The use of this term is officially and politically sanctioned by the Communist Chinese government as a way to claim and propagandize that Taiwan is under its sovereignty, since the PRC claims to be the legitimate government of "all China", which, according to its own definition, includes Taiwan also, despite its lack of control. Some of the ROC government disputes the PRC position and it, along with Many of the Taiwanese people, considers this term incorrect and offensive, in that its use is a lie which denies the ROC's sovereignty and existence, reducing Taiwan's status to a province of the PRC (see "Taiwan, PRC"), and objects to its use. The term is particularly offensive to supporters of Taiwan Independence and want to disassociate Taiwan with "China" and a Chinese identity, (i.e., de-Sinicize), and consider it an oxymoron, i.e. in the view that Taiwan and China are different countries, and that the legitimacy of the ROC's rule of Taiwan is disputed in the first place.

Taiwan (disambiguation)

Taiwan, formally the Republic of China (ROC) or "Chinese Taipei", is a state in East Asia now primarily located on Taiwan Island (Formosa).

Taiwan or Taiwanfu may also refer to:

Taiwan (city) or Taiwanfu, a former name of Tainan, a major city in southeastern Taiwan Island

Taiwan Prefecture or Taiwanfu, a prefecture of the Qing Dynasty between 1684 and 1887, headquartered in present-day Tainan

Taiwanfu River, a former name of the Zengwen, Tainan's major river

Historical states or territories primarily based on Taiwan Island:

Kingdom of Tungning, a Southern Ming stronghold in the early Qing Dynasty

Spanish Formosa, Spanish colonies on the island

Dutch Formosa, a Dutch colony headquartered in present-day Tainan

Republic of Taiwan, better known as the Republic of Formosa, a state that briefly existed in Taiwan in 1895

Taiwan Area, better known as the Free area of the Republic of China, the territory of ROC not lost to the Chinese Communists

Various present-day designations of Taiwan as Chinese territory:

the area covered by the United States' Taiwan Relations Act (the island of Taiwan and the Penghu archipelago, but not the outer islands)

Taiwan Province, Republic of China, a nominal administrative division covering much of Taiwan and the Penghu Islands

"Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China", a political designation reflecting that state's claim of sovereignty

"Taiwan, China", a controversial term presenting Taiwan as part of "China"Tai Wan ("big bay") is the name of several places in Hong Kong, including:

Tai Wan, Hung Hom, an area in Kowloon, which includes Tai Wan Road

Tai Wan, a beach at Tai Long Wan, Sai Kung in the east of the New Territories

Tai Wan, a bay and village on the island of Po Toi

Taiwan Affairs Office

The Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council is an administrative agency under the State Council of Mainland China. It is responsible for setting and implementing guidelines and policies related to Taiwan, as stipulated by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council itself.

According to the arrangement and authorization of the State Council, the office takes charge of relevant preparations for negotiations and agreements with what Mainland China calls the "Taiwan authorities" (i.e., the government of the Republic of China and its authorized government organizations). The agency administers and coordinates direct links in mail, transport and trade across the Taiwan Strait, takes charge of the media and publicity work related to Taiwan, censors and releases news and information concerning Taiwan affairs, and handles major incidents related to Taiwan.The Taiwan Affairs Council is also responsible for the coordination with overall planning the economic relations and trade related to Taiwan and exchanges and cooperation in such areas as finance, culture, academic research, sports, science and technology, health, and others with the departments concerned. It also manages personnel exchange, observations and symposia between the two sides and relevant work on international conferences involving Taiwan.

Members of the Taiwan Affairs Office are simultaneously members of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and Taiwan Task Office. The latter title is used when dealing with officials in Taiwan on a party-to-party basis.

Taiwan Province

Taiwan Province (Chinese: 臺灣省; Pinyin: Táiwān Shěng; POJ: Tâi-oân-séng; PFS: Thòi-vàn-sén or Thòi-vân-sén) is a province of the Republic of China without administrative function. Its administrative powers have been transferred to the central and county governments.

Taiwan Province covers approximately 69% of the actual-controlled territory of the Republic of China, with around 31% of the total population. The province initially included the island of Taiwan (Formosa), Penghu (the Pescadores), Orchid Island, Green Island, Xiaoliuqiu Island, and their surrounding islands. Between 1967 and 2014, six special municipalities (Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei and Taoyuan) were split off from the province, all in the most populous regions.

The Taiwan Provincial Government was established in September 1945, after the Japanese rule. It was downscaled in December 1998, and all the remaining duties and functions have been transferred to the National Development Council and other ministries of the Executive Yuan in July 2018.Note that Kinmen and Matsu Islands are placed under the Fujian Province by the government of the Republic of China. (not to be confused with the Fujian Province of the People's Republic of China)

Taiwan under Chinese rule

Taiwan under Chinese rule can refer to:

Kingdom of Tungning

Taiwan under Qing rule

Taiwan, currently governed by the Republic of China

Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China, theoretical province of the PRC

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinTáiwān Shěng
Bopomofoㄊㄞˊ   ㄨㄢ   ㄕㄥˇ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhTair'uan Sheeng
Wade–GilesTʻai²-wan¹ Shêng³
Tongyong PinyinTáiwan Shěng
MPS2Táiwān Shěng
IPA[tʰǎi.wán ʂə̀ŋ]
Hakka
Pha̍k-fa-sṳThòi-vàn-sén or
Thòi-vân-sén
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationTòihwāan Sáang
IPA[tʰɔ̏ːy.wáːn sǎːŋ]
JyutpingToi4waan1 Saang2
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTâi-oân-séng
Tâi-lôTâi-uân-síng
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCDài-uăng sēng
Provinces
Autonomous regions
Municipalities
Special administrative regions
Other

Languages

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