Taiwan–United States relations

Taiwan–United States relations refers to international relations between Taiwan and the United States. The bilateral relationship between the two states is the subject of China–United States relations before the government led by the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) retreated to Taiwan and its neighboring islands as a result of the Chinese civil war.

After the United States normalized diplomatic relations with the Beijing government under the Communist Party of China in 1979, the Taiwan–United States relations became unofficial and informal. Until March 16, 2018 informal relations between the two states were governed by the United States Taiwan Relations Act, which allows the United States to have relations with the "people on Taiwan" and their government, whose name is not specified. U.S.–Taiwan relations were further informally grounded in the "Six Assurances" in response to the third communiqué on the establishment of US–PRC relations. Following the passage of the Taiwan Travel Act by the U.S. Congress on March 16th, 2018, relations between the United States and Taiwan have since maneuvered to an official and high-level basis.[1]

The official relations between the United States and the Qing dynasty began on June 16, 1844.[2] The policy of deliberate ambiguity of US foreign policy to the ROC is important to stabilize cross-strait relations and to assist the Republic of China (ROC) from an invasion by the People's Republic of China (PRC) if possible, whereas a policy of strategic clarity on Taiwan would likely induce PRC opposition and challenges US legitimacy in East Asia or beyond.[3][4][5]

Taiwan–United States relations
Map indicating locations of Taiwan and USA

Taiwan

United States
Diplomatic mission
Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United StatesAmerican Institute in Taiwan
Taiwan- United States relations
台灣駐美團體舉行元旦升旗儀式 (01)
ROC supporters with ROC and United States flags.
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese臺灣與美國關係
Simplified Chinese台湾与美国关系
Republic of China - United States relations
Traditional Chinese中華民國與美國關係
Simplified Chinese中华民国与美国关系
Japanese name
Kanji台湾とアメリカ関係
Hiraganaたいわんとあめりかかんけい
Katakanaタイ ワン ユイ メイ グオ グワン シイ
Kyūjitai臺灣と米利堅合衆國關係

Country comparison

Common name Taiwan United States
Official name Republic of China (Taiwan) United States of America
Coat of Arms National Emblem of the Republic of China Great Seal of the United States (obverse)
Flag Taiwan United States
Population 23,574,274 (2018 est.)[6] 324,403,593 (September 2016 est.)[7]
Population growth 0.02% (2016 est.) 0.77% (2014 est.)[8]
Urbanization 78.0% of total population (2011) 82.4% of total population (2012)[8]
Area 36,193 km2 (13,974 sq mi) excluding coastal water (sea) territories 9,525,468 km2 (3,677,804 sq mi) excluding coastal water (sea) territories[9]
Population density 651/km2 (1,690/sq mi) 35/km2 (91/sq mi)
Capital Taipei (seat of government)
Nanjing (de jure)
Washington, D.C.
Largest city Taipei-New Taipei – 3,972,204 (7,034,028 Metro) New York City – 8,560,405 (20,182,305 Metro)
Government Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic Federal presidential constitutional republic
First leader Sun Yat-Sen George Washington
Current leader(s) President: Tsai Ing-wen
Vice-President: Chen Chien-jen
President: Donald Trump
Vice-President: Mike Pence
Main languages Taiwanese Mandarin (Guoyu) English
Main religions 35.1% Buddhism, 33.0% Taoism, 18.7% Non-religious,
3.9% Christianity, 3.5% Yiguandao (XTD),
2.4% Other, 2.2% Tiandism (XTD),
1.1% Miledadao (XTD), 0.8% Zailiism,
0.7% Xuanyuanism
70.6% Christianity (46.5% Protestantism, 20.8% Catholicism,
1.6% Mormonism, 1.7% Other Christianity), 22.8% non-Religious,
1.9% Judaism, 0.9% Islam, 0.7% Buddhism, 0.7% Hinduism[10]
Ethnic groups 95% Han Chinese, 70% Hokkien, 14% Hakka, 14% Waishengren 77.1% White, 13.3% African American, 5.6% Asian American,
2.6% Two or more races, 1.2% American Indian or Alaska Native,
0.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander,
With 17.6% Hispanic and Latino (of any race)[11]
GDP (nominal) $579.302 billion (2017) $19.390 trillion (2017)
GDP (nominal) per capita $24,577 (2017) $59,501 (2017)
GDP (PPP) $1.177 trillion (2017) $19.390 trillion (2017)
GDP (PPP) per capita $50,294 (2017) $59,501 (2017)
Real GDP growth rate 0.69% (2015) 2.6% (2015)
Gini 33.6 40.8
HDI 0.882 0.915
Currency New Taiwan dollar (NT$) United States dollar ($)
Military expenditure US$10.9 billion US$640.0 billion
Military personnel 290,000 2,349,950
Laborforce 11,550,000 202,265,000
Mobile phones 28,610,000 327,577,529

Leaders of Taiwan and United States from 1950

History

Taiwan under Qing & Japanese rule (Pre–1945)

American Consulate Taihoku Formosa
United States Consulate in Taihoku, Formosa

Two American diplomats in the 1850s suggested to Washington that the U.S. should obtain the island of Taiwan from China, but the idea was rejected.[12][13] Aboriginals on Taiwan often attacked and massacred shipwrecked western sailors, and American diplomats tried to help them.[14] In 1867, during the Rover incident, Taiwanese aborigines attacked shipwrecked American sailors, killing the entire crew. They subsequently skirmished against and defeated a retaliatory expedition by the American military and killed another American during the battle.[15]

In the Japanese era, the United States also hosted a consulate in Taihoku, Formosa (today Taipei) from 1913. The consulate was closed in 1941 due to United States declaration of war on Japan. The site is now protected as the Former American Consulate in Taipei.

ROC on Taiwan

Beiyang and Nationalist era

In 1784, the United States attempted to send a consul to China, but this was rejected by the Chinese government, with official relations began on June 16, 1844 under President John Tyler,[2] leading to the 1845 Treaty of Wangxia.

As Taiwan was under Japanese control, following the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the William Taft administration recognized the Republic of China (ROC) government as the sole and legitimate government of China despite a number of governments ruling various parts of China. China was reunified by a single government, led by the Kuomintang (KMT) in 1928. The first winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature for writing about China was an American, born in the United States but raised in China, Pearl S. Buck, whose 1938 Nobel lecture was titled The Chinese Novel.[16]

During the Pacific War, the United States and China were allies against Japan. In October 1945, a month after Japan's surrender, representatives of Chiang Kai-shek, on behalf of the Allied Powers, were sent to Formosa to accept the surrender of Japanese troops. However, during the period of the 1940s, there was no recognition by the United States Government that Taiwan had ever been incorporated into Chinese national territory.[17] Chiang continued to remain suspicious of America's motives.[18]

Retreat to Taiwan

As the Korean War broke out, the Truman administration resumed economic and military aid to the ROC on Taiwan and neutralized the Taiwan Strait by United States Seventh Fleet to stop a Communist invasion of Formosa[19] (as well as a potential ROC counter-invasion of the mainland).[20] US military presence in Taiwan consisted of the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) and the United States Taiwan Defense Command (USTDC). Other notable units included the 327th Air Division. Until the US formally recognized the People's Republic of China in 1979, Washington provided ROC with financial grants based on the Foreign Assistance Act,[21] Mutual Security Act and Act for International Development enacted by the US Congress. A separate Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty was signed between the two governments of US and ROC in 1954 and lasted until 1979.

The U.S. State Department's official position in 1959 was:

That the provisional capital of the Republic of China has been at Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa) since December 1949; that the Government of the Republic of China exercises authority over the island; that the sovereignty of Formosa has not been transferred to China; and that Formosa is not a part of China as a country, at least not as yet, and not until and unless appropriate treaties are hereafter entered into. Formosa may be said to be a territory or an area occupied and administered by the Government of the Republic of China, but is not officially recognized as being a part of the Republic of China."[22]

Since 1979

Taipei Office, American Institute in Taiwan 20110625
United States representative office in Taipei, Taiwan
Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States from VOA (1)
Taiwan representative office in Washington, D.C., United States

At the height of the Sino-Soviet Split, and at the start of the reform and opening of People's Republic of China, the United States strategically switched diplomatic recognition from the Republic of China (ROC) to the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979 to counter the political influences and military threats from the Soviet Union. The US Embassy in Taipei was 'migrated' to Beijing and the Taiwanese Embassy in the US was closed. Following the termination of diplomatic relations, the United States terminated its Mutual Defense Treaty with Taiwan on January 1, 1980.

On April 10, 1979, U.S. President Jimmy Carter signed into law the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), which created domestic legal authority for the conduct of unofficial relations with Taiwan. U.S. commercial, cultural, and other interaction with the people on Taiwan is facilitated through the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT), a private nonprofit corporation. The Institute has its headquarters in the Washington, DC area and has offices in Taipei and Kaohsiung. It is authorized to issue visas, accept passport applications, and provide assistance to U.S. citizens in Taiwan. A counterpart organization, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States (TECRO), has been established by Taiwan. It has its headquarters in Taipei, the representative branch office in Washington, DC, and 11 other Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices (TECO) in the continental U.S. and Guam. The Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) continues to provide the legal basis for the unofficial relationship between the U.S. and Taiwan, and enshrines the U.S. commitment to assisting Taiwan maintain its defensive capability.

In July 2002, Minister of Justice Chen Ding-nan (陳定南) became the first Taiwanese government official to be invited into the White House after the US had de-recognized Taiwan.

After de-recognition, the U.S. still maintains unofficial diplomatic relations with Taiwan through Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office; the current head of TECRO in Washington, D.C. is Stanley Kao. The American Institute in Taiwan, a non-profit institute headquarters in the US soil under the laws of the District of Columbia in Arlington County, Virginia and serves as the semi-official, working-level US representation and AIT has branch offices in Taipei and Kaohsiung. The Chairman of AIT is Raymond Burghardt. Christopher J. Marut was appointed to be the new AIT Taipei Office Director in August 2012.[23][24] With the absence of diplomatic recognition, in the present state, Taiwan-US relations are formally guided by the service of enactment of Taiwan Relations Act by US Congress for the continuation of Taiwan-US relations after 1979. In 2013, Taiwan Policy Act of 2013 was raised and passed in House Committee on Foreign Affairs by the US Congress to update the condition of US-Taiwan relations.[25][26] In 2015 Kin Moy was appointed to the Director of the AIT.

U.S. commercial ties with Taiwan have been maintained and have expanded since 1979. Taiwan continues to enjoy Export-Import Bank financing, Overseas Private Investment Corporation guarantees, normal trade relations (NTR) status, and ready access to U.S. markets. In recent years, AIT commercial dealings with Taiwan have focused on expanding market access for American goods and services. AIT has been engaged in a series of trade discussions, which have focused on copyright concerns and market access for U.S. goods and services.

On December 16, 2015, the Obama administration announced a deal to sell $1.83 billion worth of arms to the Armed Forces of Taiwan, a year and eight months after U.S. Congress passed the Taiwan Relations Act Affirmation and Naval Vessel Transfer Act of 2014 to allow the sale of Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates to Taiwan. The deal would include the sale of two decommissioned U.S. Navy frigates, anti-tank missiles, Assault Amphibious Vehicles, and FIM-92 Stinger surface-to-air missiles, amid the territorial disputes in the South China Sea.[27][28] China's foreign ministry had expressed its disapproval for the sales and issued the U.S. a "stern warning", saying it would hurt China–U.S. relations.[29]

A new $250 million compound for the American Institute in Taiwan was unveiled in June 2018, accompanied by a "low-key" American delegation.[30] The Chinese authorities estimated this action as violation of "one China"policy statement and claimed the USA to stop any relations with Taiwan without approbation of China. [1]

In September 2018, the United States approved the sale of $330 million worth of spare parts and other equipment to sustain the Republic of China Air Force.[31][32]

Notable issues

In 1949, when Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's troops decamped to Taiwan at the end of the Chinese civil war, Washington continued to recognize Chiang's "Republic of China" as the government of all China. In late 1978, Washington announced that it would break relations with the government in Taipei and formally recognize the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the "sole legal government of China."[33]

臺灣歡迎美國總統艾森豪 TAIWAN welcomes U.S. President Eisenhower in 1960
Taiwan welcomes U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1960

Washington's "one China" policy, however, does not mean that the United States recognizes, nor agrees with Beijing's claims to sovereignty over Taiwan.[33][34] On July 14, 1982 the Republican Reagan Administration gave specific assurances to Taiwan that the United States did not accept China's claim to sovereignty over the island (Six Assurances),[33][35] and the U.S. Department of State informed the Senate that "[t]he United States takes no position on the question of Taiwan's sovereignty."

The U.S. Department of State, in its U.S. Relations With Taiwan fact sheet, states "The United States and Taiwan enjoy a robust unofficial relationship. The 1979 U.S.-P.R.C. Joint Communique switched diplomatic recognition from Taipei to Beijing. In the Joint Communique, the United States recognized the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal government of China, acknowledging the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China.[36]

The United States position on Taiwan is reflected in "the six assurances to Taiwan", the Three Communiqués, and the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA).[37] The Six Assurances include: 1. The United States has not agreed to set a date for ending arms sales to Taiwan; 2. The United States has not agreed to hold prior consultations with the Chinese on arms sales to Taiwan; 3. The United States would not play any mediation role between Taiwan and Beijing; 4. The United States has not agreed to revise the Taiwan Relations Act; 5. The United States has not altered its position regarding sovereignty over Taiwan; and 6. The United States would not exert pressure on Taiwan to enter into negotiations with the Chinese.[38] The "Three Communiqués" include The Shanghai Communiqué, The Normalisation Communiqué, and The August 17 Communiqué, which pledged to abrogate official US-ROC relations, remove US troops from Taiwan and gradually end the arms sale to Taiwan, but with the latter of no timeline to do so, an effort made by James Lilley, the Director of American Institute in Taiwan.

ST-M1-1-61. Meeting with Chen Cheng, Vice President of the Republic of China
President John F. Kennedy and Vice President Lyndon Johnson meet with Chen Cheng, Vice President of the Republic of China, 31 July 1961

Despite friendly relations with China, United States President George W. Bush was asked on 25 April 2001, "if Taiwan were attacked by China, do we (The U.S.) have an obligation to defend the Taiwanese?" He responded, "Yes, we do...and the Chinese must understand that. The United States would do whatever it took to help Taiwan defend herself."[39] He made it understood that "though we (China and the U.S.) have common interests, the Chinese must understand that there will be some areas where we disagree."[39]

121002-D-BW835-110 (8048395868)
Then Deputy Secretary of Defense Ash Carter greets Taiwan representative to the U.S. Jason Yuan and Vice Minister of Defense Andrew Yang before a meeting at The Pentagon on October 2, 2012

On 19 June 2013, ROC Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed gratitude for a US Congress's bill in support of Taiwan's bid to participate in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).[40] On July 12, 2013, US President Barack Obama signed into law H.R. 1151, codifying the US government's full support for Taiwan's participation in the ICAO as a non-sovereign entity.[41] The United States has continued the sale of appropriate defensive military equipment to Taiwan in accordance with the Taiwan Relations Act, which provides for such sales and which declares that peace and stability in the area are in U.S. interests. Sales of defensive military equipment are also consistent with the 1982 U.S.-P.R.C. Joint Communiqué.

Maintaining diplomatic relations with the PRC has been recognised to be in the long-term interest of the United States by seven consecutive administrations; however, maintaining strong, unofficial relations with Taiwan is also a major U.S. goal, in line with its desire to further peace and stability in Asia. In keeping with its China policy, the U.S. does not support de jure Taiwan independence, but it does support Taiwan's membership in appropriate international organisations, such as the World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, and the Asian Development Bank, where statehood is not a requirement for membership. In addition, the U.S. supports appropriate opportunities for Taiwan's voice to be heard in organisations where its membership is not possible.

On August 24, 2010, the United States State Department announced a change to commercial sales of military equipment in place of the previous foreign military sales in the hope of avoiding political implications.[42] However pressure from the PRC has continued and it seems unlikely that Taiwan will be provided with advanced submarines or jet fighters.[43]

Taiwan has indicated that it is willing to host national missile defense radars to be tied into the American system, but is unwilling to pay for any further cost overruns in the systems.[44]

Taiwan has denied that they are providing American military secrets to the PRC.[45]

12.02 總統由國安會秘書長及外交部長李大維陪同,與美國總統當選人唐納川普(Donald J. Trump)通話 (30561066134)
Tsai Ing-wen (center), President of the Republic of China, accompanied by Secretary-General of National Security Council Joseph Wu (left) and Foreign Minister David Lee (right), made a phone call to Donald Trump, President-elect of the United States, on December 2, 2016.

On December 2, 2016, U.S. President-Elect Donald Trump accepted a congratulatory call from Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-Wen, which was the first time since 1979 that a President-Elect has publicly spoken to a leader of Taiwan.[46] Donald Trump stated the call was regarding "the close economic, political and security ties between Taiwan and the US".[47] The phone call had been arranged by Robert Dole, who acted as a foreign agent on behalf of Taiwan.[48]

PRC Foreign Minister Wang Yi soon made a statement saying that China opposes any move to separate the country, without explicitly mentioning the phone call between Tsai and Trump.[49]

On 16 March 2018 President Trump signed the Taiwan Travel Act,[50] allowing high-level diplomatic engagement between Taiwanese and American officials, and encourages visits between government officials of the United States and Taiwan at all levels.[51][52] The legislation has sparked outrage from the PRC[53][54], and has been applauded by Taiwan.[55][51]

On 17 July 2018 Taiwan’s Army was officially commissioned all of its Apache attack helicopters purchased from the United States, at cost of NT$59.31 billion (USD1.94 billion), having completed the necessary pilot training and verification of the fleet’s combat capability. One of the helicopters was destroyed in a crash during a training flight in Taoyuan in April 2014 and the other 29 have been allocated to the command’s 601st Brigade which is based in Longtan, Taoyuan. Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen said the commissioning of the Apaches was “an important milestone” in meeting the island’s “multiple deterrence” strategy to counter an invasion and to resist Beijing’s pressure with support from Washington, which has been concerned about Beijing’s growing military expansion in the South China Sea and beyond. [56]

See also

References

  1. ^ Steve, Chabot, (March 16, 2018). "H.R.535 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Taiwan Travel Act". Congress.gov. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  2. ^ a b "A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES' HISTORY OF RECOGNITION, DIPLOMATIC, AND CONSULAR RELATIONS, BY COUNTRY, SINCE 1776: CHINA". history.state.gov. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 2, 2015. Mutual Recognition, 1844. Formal recognition by the United States of the Empire of China, and by the Empire of China of the United States, came on or about June 16, 1844, when U.S. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary Caleb Cushing presented his credentials and met with Chinese official Qiying to discuss treaty negotiations. Prior to this, the United States had dispatched consuls to Guangzhou as early as 1784—the first was Samuel Shaw, the supercargo on the Empress of China—but these had never been formally received by Chinese officials as state representatives. The two countries had acknowledged each other's existence before 1844, but the negotiations and treaty of that year marked the first recognition under international law.
  3. ^ "Thesis". repository.library.georgetown.edu.
  4. ^ "We're sorry, that page can't be found" (PDF). fpc.state.gov.
  5. ^ Benson, Brett; Niou, Emerson (April 7, 2000). "Comprehending strategic ambiguity: US policy toward the Taiwan Strait security issue" – via ResearchGate.
  6. ^ "Statistics from Statistical Bureau". National Statistics, Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  7. ^ "Population Clock". Census Bureau. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
  8. ^ a b "The World Factbook".
  9. ^ "Population by sex, annual rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division.
  10. ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
  11. ^ "United States". Census Bureau. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
  12. ^ Leonard H. D. Gordon (2009). Confrontation Over Taiwan: Nineteenth-Century China and the Powers. Lexington Books. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-0-7391-1869-6.
  13. ^ Leonard Gordon, "Early American Relations with Formosa, 1849–1870." Historian 19.3 (1957): 262-289 at pp 271-77.
  14. ^ Leonard Gordon, "Early American Relations with Formosa, 1849–1870." at pp 264-68.
  15. ^ The Nation. 1889. pp. 256–57.
  16. ^ Pearl S. Buck (1938), The Chinese Novel: Lecture Delivered before the Swedish Academy at Stockholm, December 12, 1938, by Pearl S. Buck.
  17. ^ "Plebiscite Proposal". Retrieved December 12, 2009.
  18. ^ Fenby, Jonathan (2005). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 413. ISBN 0-7867-1484-0. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  19. ^ "The Chinese Revolution of 1949". history.state.gov. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  20. ^ "Taiwan's plan to take back mainland". BBC News. September 7, 2009. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 17, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ Sheng v. Rogers, District of Columbia Circuit Court, October 6, 1959, retrieved February 27, 2010
  23. ^ "American Institute in Taiwan".
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved June 29, 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ "H.R. 419, Taiwan Policy Act of 2013".
  26. ^ "HR 419" (PDF). GPO.gov.
  27. ^ "US to sell arms to Taiwan despite Chinese opposition". BBC News. December 16, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  28. ^ "Obama to push ahead on Taiwan frigate sales despite Chinese anger". CNBC. Reuters. December 14, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  29. ^ "China warns against first major US-Taiwan arms sale in four years". The Guardian. Reuters. December 16, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  30. ^ Horton, Chris (June 12, 2018). "U.S. Unveils an Office in Taiwan, but Sends No Top Officials". The New York Times.
  31. ^ Waldron, Greg (September 25, 2018). "USA approves support package for Taiwan air force". FlightGlobal. Singapore. Archived from the original on September 25, 2018. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  32. ^ "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States (TECRO) – Foreign Military Sales Order (FMSO) II Case". United States Defense Security Cooperation Agency. Washington: United States Department of Defense. September 24, 2018. Archived from the original on September 25, 2018. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  33. ^ a b c "Stating America's Case to China's Hu Jintao: A Primer on U.S.-China-Taiwan Policy". The Heritage Foundation.
  34. ^ "Stating America's Case to China's Hu Jintao: A Primer on U.S.-China-Taiwan Policy". The Heritage Foundation.
  35. ^ For a detailed description of the U.S. "one China" stance, see Ambassador Harvey Feldman, "A Primer on U.S. Policy Toward the `One-China' Issue: Questions and Answers," Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 1429, April 12, 2001.
  36. ^ "Taiwan".
  37. ^ "Stating America's Case to China's Hu Jintao: A Primer on U.S.-China-Taiwan Policy". The Heritage Foundation.
  38. ^ Testimony of John H. Holdridge, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian Affairs, in hearing, China-Taiwan: United States Policy, Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, 97th Cong., 2nd Sess., August 18, 1982, pp. 15-16. Holdridge described the Six Assurances in his memoir, Crossing the Divide, p. 232.
  39. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 10, 2003. Retrieved June 1, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ "Taiwan grateful for U.S. House support for ICAO bid".
  41. ^ "US passes law supporting Taiwan ICAO bid".
  42. ^ ROC Central News Agency U.S. arms sales to return to normal track: Taiwan official
  43. ^ Waldron, Greg. "Outlook gloomy for Taiwan F-16 C/D deal." Flight International, May 26, 2011.
  44. ^ "Taiwan rejects further advanced radar system price hikes." CNA, June 14, 2011.
  45. ^ "Taiwan denies reported leaks of weapons secrets to China". WantChinaTimes.com. October 26, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014.
  46. ^ "Trump risks showdown with China after call with Taiwan". CNN. December 2, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
  47. ^ "Trump speaks with Taiwanese president, a major break with decades of U.S. policy on China". Washington Post.
  48. ^ "Bob Dole Worked Behind the Scenes on Trump-Taiwan Call". New York Times.
  49. ^ Jianfeng, Zhang. "Chinese FM: China opposes any move to separate the country - CCTV News - CCTV.com English". english.cctv.com.
  50. ^ van der Wees, Gerrit (March 19, 2018). "The Taiwan Travel Act in Context". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  51. ^ a b "U.S. president signs Taiwan Travel Act despite warnings from China - Politics - FocusTaiwan Mobile - CNA English News".
  52. ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Donald Trump signs Taiwan Travel Act, drawing China's ire - DW - 17.03.2018". DW.COM.
  53. ^ Times, Global. "China lodges representations with US over Taiwan Travel Act - Global Times". Globaltimes.cn.
  54. ^ "China urges US to 'correct mistake' on Taiwan rules - Taipei Times". Taipeitimes.com.
  55. ^ "Beijing 'strongly dissatisfied' as Trump signs Taiwan Travel Act".
  56. ^ Lawrence Chung (July 17, 2018). "Taiwan puts second squad of US Apache attack helicopters on duty as Beijing boosts military presence". South China Morning Post.

Further reading

  • Benson, Brett V., and Emerson MS Niou. "Public opinion, foreign policy, and the security balance in the Taiwan Strait." Security Studies 14.2 (2005): 274-289.
  • Bush, Richard C. At cross purposes: US-Taiwan relations since 1942 (Routledge, 2015).
  • Carpenter, Ted Galen. America's coming war with China: a collision course over Taiwan (Macmillan, 2015).
  • Glaser, Charles L. "A US-China grand bargain? The hard choice between military competition and accommodation." International Security 39#4 (2015): 49-90.
  • Hickey, Dennis Van Vranken. "America's Two-point Policy and the Future of Taiwan." Asian Survey (1988): 881-896. in JSTOR
  • Hickey, Dennis V. "Parallel Progress: US-Taiwan Relations During an Era of Cross-Strait Rapprochement." Journal of Chinese Political Science 20#4 (2015): 369-384.
  • Hu, Shaohua. "A Framework for Analysis of National Interest: United States Policy toward Taiwan," Contemporary Security Policy, Vol. 37, No. 1 (April 2016): 144-167.
  • Liao, Nien-chung Chang, and Dalton Kuen-da Lin. "Rebalancing Taiwan–US Relations." Survival 57#6 (2015): 145-158. online
  • Ling, Lily HM, Ching-Chane Hwang, and Boyu Chen. "Subaltern straits:‘exit’,‘voice’, and ‘loyalty’in the United States–China–Taiwan relations." International Relations of the Asia-Pacific (2009): lcp013.
  • Peraino, Kevin. A Force So Swift: Mao, Truman, and the Birth of Modern China, 1949 (2017), focus on .S. policy in 1949

External links

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm (U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets).

Alan Goodrich Kirk

Admiral Alan Goodrich Kirk (October 30, 1888 – October 15, 1963) was a senior officer in the United States Navy and a diplomat.

American Institute in Taiwan

The American Institute in Taiwan (AIT; Chinese: 美國在台協會; pinyin: Měiguó Zài Tái Xiéhuì) is a government-linked non-profit organization established under the auspices of the United States government to serve its interests in Taiwan. Primarily staffed by employees of the United States Department of State and local workers, AIT is a de facto embassy providing services normally provided by a United States diplomatic mission. The establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1979 required acknowledgment of the One-China policy and termination of diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (ROC). The AIT now serves to assist and protect US interests in Taiwan in a quasi-official manner, and also processes visas and provides consular services to American expatriates. Following the swift passage of the 2018 Taiwan Travel Act by the United States, it now serves as a high-level representative bureau on behalf of United States in Taiwan.

Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs

In the United States Government, the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (EAP, originally the Office of Chinese Affairs) is part of the United States Department of State and is charged with advising the Secretary of State and Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs on matters of the Asia-Pacific region, as well as dealing with U.S. foreign policy and U.S. relations with countries in that area. It is headed by the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, who reports to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs.

Cheng Kung-class frigate

The Cheng Kung-class frigates are guided-missile frigates (PFG) currently in service of the Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy (ROCN). They are based upon the U.S. Oliver Hazard Perry class and built by China Shipbuilding Corporation in Kaohsiung, Taiwan under license throughout the 1990s as parts of the "Kuang Hua One" patrol frigate, guided project. These frigates served as the mainstay of the ROCN's theater air defense prior to the ROCN's acquisition of Keelung (Kidd)-class destroyers in 2005.

Formosa Expedition

The Formosa Expedition, or the Taiwan Expedition of 1867 was a punitive expedition launched by the United States against Formosa. The expedition was undertaken in retaliation for the Rover incident, in which the Rover, an American bark, had been wrecked and its crew massacred by aboriginal Paiwan warriors in March 1867. A United States Navy and Marine company landed in southern Formosa and attempted to advance into the native village. The natives deployed a significant amount of guerrilla warfare, which they ambushed, skirmished, disengaged and retreated repeatedly. Eventually, the Marines ceased their pursuit when their commander was killed and retreated back to their ship due to fatigue and heat exhaustion, with the Formosans dispersing and retreating back into the jungle. The action is regarded as an American failure.

Formosa Resolution of 1955

The Formosa Resolution was a bill enacted by the U.S. Congress on January 29, 1955 that established an American commitment to defend Formosa (now called Taiwan). As a matter of American foreign policy, President Dwight D. Eisenhower promised to protect "territories in the West Pacific under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China" (i.e. Taiwan and Penghu) against invasion by the People's Republic of China (PRC). The legislation provided the President with the power to intervene if the island was attacked.

The legislation was prompted, in part, by attacks on the islands of Kinmen and Matsu in the Taiwan Strait by the Chinese People's Liberation Army in 1954. Both islands had been held by the Kuomintang government of Republic of China under Chiang Kai-shek, which had been handed the island of Taiwan in 1945.

Following the enactment of the Formosa Resolution, the PRC and the US successfully negotiated an agreement to stop the bombing of the islands in the Taiwan Strait. This peaceful result ended the First Taiwan Strait Crisis.

Both the House and Senate approved this resolution: 85 to 3 in the Senate and 409 to 3 in the House.

This resolution expires "when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise, and shall so report to the Congress."

List of ambassadors of the United States to China

The United States Ambassador to China is the chief American diplomat to People's Republic of China (PRC). The United States has sent diplomatic representatives to China since 1844, when Caleb Cushing, as commissioner, negotiated the Treaty of Wanghia. Commissioners represented the United States in China from 1844 to 1857. Until 1898, the Qing Empire did not have a system in place for the Emperor to accept the Letters of Credence of foreign representatives. From 1858 to 1935, the U.S. representative in China was formally Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to China. The American legation in Nanjing was upgraded to an embassy in 1935 and the Envoy was promoted to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

During the republican era, the U.S. recognized the Beiyang Government in Beijing from 1912 to 1928 and the Nationalist Government in Nanjing (and Chongqing from 1937 to 1945) from 1928 onwards. After the Communist People's Republic of China was established in mainland China in 1949 and the Kuomintang moved the Republic of China government from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan, the U.S. continued to recognize the Republic of China as the legitimate Chinese government and maintained its embassy in Taiwan. However, in 1973, the U.S. established a Liaison Office in Beijing to represent its interests in mainland China. In 1976, the Chief of the Liaison Office was promoted to the rank of ambassador. In December 1978, the U.S. severed official relations with the Republic of China and in January 1979, established formal relations with the People's Republic of China. The U.S. Liaison Office in Beijing was upgraded to an embassy on March 1, 1979. The American Institute in Taiwan was established in 1979 to serve as the unofficial U.S. representative to Taiwan, with the director of its Taipei Office taking the role of a de facto ambassador.

On May 22, 2017 the United States Senate approved and confirmed Terry Branstad, former Governor of Iowa, as the U.S. Ambassador to China. He was sworn in on May 24, 2017.

Major non-NATO ally

Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies that have strategic working relationships with the US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). While the status does not automatically include a mutual defense pact with the United States, it still confers a variety of military and financial advantages that otherwise are not obtainable by non-NATO countries.

Raid on Taipei

The Taihoku Air Raid (traditional Chinese and Japanese: 臺北大空襲; ; pinyin: Táiběi Dà Kōngxí; rōmaji: Taihoku Daikūshū) that took place on 31 May 1945 was the largest Allied air raid on the city of Taihoku (modern-day Taipei) during World War II. Despite efforts by Allied planners to minimize civilian casualties, many residents were killed in the raid and tens of thousands wounded or displaced.

Senate Taiwan Caucus

The bipartisan United States Senate Taiwan Caucus focuses exclusively on improving American-Taiwanese relations. It currently has 27 members. Its counterpart in the House is the House Taiwan Caucus.

Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty

The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, formally Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of China, was a defense pact between the United States of America and the Republic of China effective from 1955–1979. It essentially prevented the People's Republic of China from taking over the island of Taiwan in this time. Some of its content was carried over to the Taiwan Relations Act of 1979.

Six Assurances

The Six Assurances are six key foreign policy principles of the United States regarding United States–Taiwan relations. They were passed as unilateral U.S. clarifications to the Third Communiqué between the United States and the People's Republic of China in 1982. They were intended to reassure both Taiwan and the United States Congress that the US would continue to support Taiwan even if it had earlier cut formal diplomatic relations.

The assurances were originally proposed by the then Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) government of the Republic of China on Taiwan during negotiations between the U.S. and the People's Republic of China. The U.S. Reagan administration agreed to assurances and informed the United States Congress of them in July 1982.

Today, the Six Assurances are part of semiformal guidelines used in conducting relations between the US and Taiwan. The assurances have been generally reaffirmed by successive U.S. administrations. Prior to 2016, they were purely informal, but in 2016, their formal content was adopted by the US House of Representatives in a non-binding resolution, upgrading their status to formal but not directly enforceable.

Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Houston

Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Houston (TECO-Houston, Chinese: 駐休士頓台北經濟文化辦事處; pinyin: Zhù Xiūshìdùn Táiběi Jǐngjì Wénhùa Bànshìchù) is the Republic of China's diplomatic facility in Houston, Texas, United States. The Taipei Economic and Cultural Office is on the 20th Floor in 11 Greenway Plaza. The mission also has the Chinese Cultural Center at 10303 West Office Drive in the Westchase district of Houston.The mission's jurisdiction includes Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Oklahoma. It is a de facto consulate.After members of a Taiwanese religious movement in Garland, Texas, did not find God on television on a day in March 1998, an officer of TECO Houston offered assistance to members of the movement to assist travel back to Taiwan. On September 23, 2002, an e-mail relayed through TECO Houston warned the ROC government that there was a possibility of a terrorist attack. In 2005 Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana Mitch Landrieu and Kip Holden, Mayor-President of East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, met with a delegation of TECO Houston officials to negotiate Taiwanese business interests in Louisiana. In 2007 Crescent honored the consulate's information division as a tenant that had occupied a suite in Greenway Plaza for 20–29 years.The office sponsors cultural exhibits such as the 2009 "Nation of Splendor: Taiwan, the Republic of China," which was hosted at 2 Allen Center in Downtown Houston. The mission also sponsors the Hou, Hsiao-Hsien Film Festival in San Antonio along with the Trinity University East Program.

Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States

The Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States; (Chinese: 駐美國台北經濟文化代表處; pinyin: Zhù Měiguó Táiběi Jīngjì Wénhuà Dàibiǎo Chù) represents the interests of Taiwan in the United States in the absence of formal diplomatic relations, functioning as a de facto embassy. Its counterpart in Taiwan is the American Institute in Taiwan in Taipei.

Taipei Film House

The Taipei Film House (Chinese: 光點臺北; pinyin: Guāngdiǎn Táiběi) is a movie theater in Zhongshan District, Taipei, Taiwan.

Taiwan Relations Act

The Taiwan Relations Act (TRA; Pub.L. 96–8, 93 Stat. 14, enacted April 10, 1979; H.R. 2479) is an act of the United States Congress. Since the recognition of the People's Republic of China, the Act has defined the officially substantial but non-diplomatic relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan.

Taiwan Travel Act

The Taiwan Travel Act (H.R. 535, Pub.L. 115–135) is an Act of the United States Congress. Passed on February 28, 2018, it was signed into law by President Donald Trump on March 16, 2018. As a follow-up to the Taiwan Relations Act, the bill allows high-level officials of the United States to visit Taiwan and vice versa.

The law is considered a substantial upgrade to Taiwan–United States relations, making them official though still sub-diplomatic. As such, the law was harshly criticized by the government of the People's Republic of China in Beijing (which had formally protested the bill through ambassador Cui Tankai, demanding it not pass) for violating the One-China principle, which holds that Taiwan is an inalienable sovereign part of China. Although it does not refer to the government of Taiwan by a name, the Act significantly upgrades relations between the United States and the Republic of China, which currently governs Taiwan.

United States beef imports in Taiwan

The status of United States beef imports has been an issue in Taiwan–United States relations. Controversy has centered on cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; commonly known as mad cow disease), and the use of ractopamine as an additive in feeds.

The conflict has sometimes been called the "beef war" in the media, similar to the UK–EU Beef war over BSE.

Walter P. McConaughy

Walter Patrick McConaughy, Jr. (September 11, 1908 – November 10, 2000) was a career American diplomat who served as U.S. Ambassador to a number of countries.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinTáiwān yǔ měiguó guānxì
Bopomofoㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ ㄩˇ ㄇㄟˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄍㄨㄢ ㄒㄧˋ
Yue: Cantonese
JyutpingToi4 waan1 jyu5 mei5 gwok3 gwaan1 hai6
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá mínguó yǔ měiguó guānxì
Bopomofoㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄩˇ ㄇㄟˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄍㄨㄢ ㄒㄧˋ
Yue: Cantonese
JyutpingZung1 waa4 man4 gwok3 jyu5 mei5 gwok3 gwaan1 hai6
Transcriptions
RomanizationTaiwan to Amerika kankei
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