Tail

The tail is the section at the rear end of certain kinds of animals’ bodies; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso. It is the part of the body that corresponds roughly to the sacrum and coccyx in mammals, reptiles, and birds. While tails are primarily a feature of vertebrates, some invertebrates including scorpions and springtails, as well as snails and slugs, have tail-like appendages that are sometimes referred to as tails. Tailed objects are sometimes referred to as "caudate" and the part of the body associated with or proximal to the tail are given the adjective "caudal".

Based on this definition, the tail of a snake would typically consist of a small portion of the rear end of its body, where none of its vital organs are being housed, and begin at its last rib, contrary to the commonly held assumption that the tail begins precisely at the middle of the snake's body due to its linear shape.

Cub Stalks Tail
A lion's tail

Function

Alopex lagopus IMG 9019
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic fox) sleeping with its tail wrapped as a blanket.

Animal tails are used in a variety of ways. They provide a source of locomotion for fish and some other forms of marine life.[1] Many land animals use their tails to brush away flies and other biting insects.[2] Some species, including cats and kangaroos, use their tails for balance;[3][4] and some, such as New World monkeys and opossums, have what are known as prehensile tails, which are adapted to allow them to grasp tree branches.[5]

Tails are also used for social signaling. Some deer species flash the white underside of their tails to warn other nearby deer of possible danger,[6] beavers slap the water with their tails to indicate danger,[7] and canids (including domestic dogs) indicate emotions through the positioning and movement of their tails.[8] Some species' tails are armored, and some, such as those of scorpions, contain venom.[9]

Some species of lizard can detach ("cast") their tails from their bodies. This can help them to escape predators, which are either distracted by the wriggling, detached tail or left with only the tail while the lizard flees. Tails cast in this manner generally grow back over time, though the replacement is typically darker in colour than the original.[10] Various species of rat demonstrate a similar function with their tails, known as degloving, in which the outer layer is shed in order for the animal to escape from a predator.[11]

Most birds' tails end in long feathers called rectrices. These feathers are used as a rudder, helping the bird steer and maneuver in flight; they also help the bird to balance while it is perched.[12] In some species—such as birds of paradise, lyrebirds, and most notably peafowl—modified tail feathers play an important role in courtship displays.[13] The extra-stiff tail feathers of other species, including woodpeckers and woodcreepers, allow them to brace themselves firmly against tree trunks.[14]

The tails of grazing animals, such as horses, are used both to sweep away insects and positioned or moved in ways that indicate the animal's physical or emotional state.[15]

Human tails

Human embryos have a tail that measures about one-sixth of the size of the embryo itself.[16] As the embryo develops into a fetus, the tail is absorbed by the growing body. Infrequently, a child is born with a ’"soft tail", which contains no vertebrae, but only blood vessels, muscles, and nerves, but this is regarded as an abnormality rather than a vestigial true tail, even when such an appendage is located where the tail would be expected.[17][18]

Humans have a "tail bone" (the coccyx) attached to the pelvis, formed of fused vertebrae, usually four, at the bottom of the vertebral column. It does not protrude externally.

Gallery

Pig tail DSC03974

Pig (Sus domestica)

Queue glyptodon museum dijo

Glyptodon (Glyptodon asper)

Lactoria cornuta (cola).006 - Aquarium Finisterrae

Longhorn cowfish (Lactoria cornuta)

La Palmyre 041-crop

Grévy's zebra (Equus grevyi)

Alligator Tail

American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis)

Flusspferd Backstage

Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius)

See also

References

  1. ^ Robert W. Blake (26 May 1983). Fish Locomotion. CUP Archive. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-521-24303-2.
  2. ^ Gilbert WALDBAUER; Gilbert Waldbauer (30 June 2009). What Good Are Bugs? Insects in the Web of Life. Harvard University Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-674-04474-6.
  3. ^ Outwitting Cats: Tips, Tricks and Techniques for Persuading the Felines in Your Life That What You Want Is Also What They Want. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-59921-625-6.
  4. ^ Byron Dawson (2003). The Heinemann Science Scheme. Heinemann. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-435-58332-3.
  5. ^ Melissa Stewart (1 January 2007). New World Monkeys. Lerner Publications. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8225-6765-3.
  6. ^ D. Muller-Schwarze (6 December 2012). Chemical Signals: Vertebrates and Aquatic Invertebrates. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4684-1027-3.
  7. ^ Bruce M. Carlson (14 October 2008). Beneath the Surface: A Natural History of a Fisherman's Lake. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-87351-656-3.
  8. ^ Stanley Coren; Sarah Hodgson (15 February 2011). Understanding Your Dog For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 250. ISBN 978-1-118-05276-1.
  9. ^ Adele Richardson (1 July 2002). Scorpions. Capstone. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7368-1318-1.
  10. ^ Stephen J. Divers; Douglas R. Mader (13 December 2005). Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 3468. ISBN 1-4160-6477-X.
  11. ^ Mackenzie, SJ (2015). "Innervation and function of rat tail muscles for modeling cauda equina injury and repair". Muscle and Nerve. 52: 94–102.
  12. ^ David Burnie (5 May 2008). DK Eyewitness Books: Bird. DK Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-7566-6758-0.
  13. ^ Exploring Life Science. Marshall Cavendish. 2000. p. 731. ISBN 978-0-7614-7145-5.
  14. ^ Robert W. McFarlane (1994). A Stillness in the Pines: The Ecology of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Norton. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-393-31167-9.
  15. ^ Mary Pope Osborne; Natalie Pope Boyce (28 October 2014). Magic Tree House Fact & Fiction: Horses. Random House Children's Books. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-553-52368-3.
  16. ^ "Human fetuses have tails, proving that evolution is true". The Free Lance-Star. July 5, 2005. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
  17. ^ "Human tail–caudal appendage: tethered cord". Nature. February 1, 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
  18. ^ "The 'human tail' causing tethered cervical cord". Nature. November 14, 2006. Retrieved 2009-04-28.

External links

  • Media related to Tails at Wikimedia Commons
An American Tail

An American Tail is a 1986 American animated musical adventure film directed by Don Bluth and produced by Sullivan Bluth Inc. and Amblin Entertainment. It tells the story of Fievel Mousekewitz and his family as they emigrate from the Imperial Russian territory of Ukraine to the United States for freedom. However, he gets lost and must find a way to reunite with them. It was released on November 21, 1986, to reviews that ranged from positive to mixed and was a box office hit, making it the highest-grossing non-Disney animated film at the time. Its success, along with that of The Land Before Time and Disney's Who Framed Roger Rabbit, and Bluth's departure from their partnership, prompted Steven Spielberg to establish his own animation studio, Amblimation.

Batting order (cricket)

In cricket, the batting order is the sequence in which batters play through their team's innings, there always being two batters taking part at any one time. All eleven players in a team are required to bat if the innings is completed (i.e., if the innings does not close early due to a declaration or other factor).

The batting order is colloquially subdivided into:

Top order (openers and batter three)

Upper Middle order (batters four to six)

Lower Middle order (batters seven and eight)

Tail Enders (batters nine to eleven)The order in which the eleven players will bat is usually established before the start of a cricket match, but may be altered during play. The decision is based on factors such as each player's specialities; the position each batter is most comfortable with; each player's skills and attributes as a batter; possible combinations with other batters; and the match situation whereby, for example, the team may require a more defensive or attacking player at that point in the innings. Also, a middle order batter in Tests may open for ODIs and Twenty20 due to their aggressive approach to the game.

Conventional landing gear

Conventional landing gear, or tailwheel-type landing gear, is an aircraft undercarriage consisting of two main wheels forward of the center of gravity and a small wheel or skid to support the tail. The term taildragger is also used, although some claim it should apply only to those aircraft with a tailskid rather than a wheel.The term "conventional" persists for historical reasons, but all modern jet aircraft and most modern propeller aircraft use tricycle gear.

Empennage

The empennage ( or ), also known as the tail or tail assembly, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow. The term derives from the French language word empenner which means "to feather an arrow". Most aircraft feature an empennage incorporating vertical and horizontal stabilising surfaces which stabilise the flight dynamics of yaw and pitch, as well as housing control surfaces.

In spite of effective control surfaces, many early aircraft that lacked a stabilising empennage were virtually unflyable. Even so-called "tailless aircraft" usually have a tail fin (usually a vertical stabiliser). Heavier-than-air aircraft without any kind of empennage (such as the Northrop B-2) are rare.

Fairy Tail

Fairy Tail (Japanese: フェアリーテイル, Hepburn: Fearī Teiru) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Hiro Mashima. It was serialized in Kodansha's Weekly Shōnen Magazine from August 2, 2006 to July 26, 2017, with the individual chapters collected and published into 63 tankōbon volumes. The story follows the adventures of Natsu Dragneel, a member of the popular wizard guild Fairy Tail, as he searches the fictional world of Earth-land for the dragon Igneel.

The manga has been adapted into an anime series produced by A-1 Pictures, Dentsu Inc., Satelight, Bridge, and CloverWorks which began broadcasting in Japan on October 12, 2009. Additionally, A-1 Pictures has developed nine original video animations and two animated feature films. The series ended its initial run on March 30, 2013. A second series premiered on TV Tokyo on April 5, 2014, and ended on March 26, 2016. A third series of the anime series began airing on October 7, 2018, and is slated to have 51 episodes. The series has also inspired numerous spin-off manga, including a sequel storyboarded by Mashima, titled Fairy Tail: 100 Years Quest, which launched on July 25, 2018.

The manga series was originally licensed for an English language release in North America by Del Rey Manga, which began releasing the individual volumes on March 25, 2008 and ended its licensing with the 12th volume release in September 2010. In December 2010, Kodansha USA took over the North American release of the series. The Southeast Asian network Animax Asia aired an English-language version of the anime for seven seasons from 2010 to 2015. The manga was also licensed in the United Kingdom by Turnaround Publisher Services and in Australia by Penguin Books Australia. The anime has been licensed by Funimation for an English-language release in North America. As of February 2017, Fairy Tail had 60 million copies in print.

Fish fin

Fins are usually the most distinctive anatomical features of a fish. They are composed of bony spines or rays protruding from the body with skin covering them and joining them together, either in a webbed fashion, as seen in most bony fish, or similar to a flipper, as seen in sharks. Apart from the tail or caudal fin, fish fins have no direct connection with the spine and are supported only by muscles. Their principal function is to help the fish swim. Fins located in different places on the fish serve different purposes such as moving forward, turning, keeping an upright position or stopping. Most fish use fins when swimming, flying fish use pectoral fins for gliding, and frogfish use them for crawling. Fins can also be used for other purposes; male sharks and mosquitofish use a modified fin to deliver sperm, thresher sharks use their caudal fin to stun prey, reef stonefish have spines in their dorsal fins that inject venom, anglerfish use the first spine of their dorsal fin like a fishing rod to lure prey, and triggerfish avoid predators by squeezing into coral crevices and using spines in their fins to lock themselves in place.

G

G (named gee ) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Helicopter

A helicopter, or chopper, is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forward, backward, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL (Vertical TakeOff and Landing) aircraft cannot perform.

The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix (ἕλιξ) "helix, spiral, whirl, convolution" and pteron (πτερόν) "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", and "whirlybird".

Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936. Some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration. Tandem rotor helicopters are also in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, and compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, and other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones.

List of Fairy Tail characters

The Fairy Tail manga and anime series features an extensive cast of characters created by Hiro Mashima. The series takes place primarily in the Kingdom of Fiore, a country in the fictional universe Earth-land, where several of its residents perform various forms of magic. Those who practice magic as a profession, referred to as wizards (魔導士, madōshi),[vol. 2:translation notes] join guilds where they share information and do paid jobs for clients. The series' storyline follows a group of wizards from the rambunctious titular guild.

The main protagonists are Natsu Dragneel, a wizard with the powers of a dragonslayer who is searching for his adoptive dragon father, Igneel, and Lucy Heartfilia, a celestial wizard who joins the Fairy Tail guild. In the early part of the series, they form a team including: Happy, a flying cat and best friend of Natsu; Gray Fullbuster, an ice wizard; and Erza Scarlet, a knight who specializes in using various magic weapons and armors. Throughout the series, Lucy and Natsu interact with and befriend other wizards and guilds in Fiore. They also encounter various antagonists from illegal "dark" guilds, and Zeref, an ancient wizard who is the series' main antagonist.

When creating the series, Mashima was influenced by Akira Toriyama, J.R.R. Tolkien and Yudetamago and based the guild on a local bar. He also used people as references in designing other characters. The characters have been well-received overall.

List of Fairy Tail episodes

Fairy Tail is an anime series adapted from the manga of the same title by Hiro Mashima. Produced by A-1 Pictures and Satelight, and directed by Shinji Ishihira, it was broadcast on TV Tokyo from October 12, 2009, to March 30, 2013. It later continued its run on April 5, 2014, and ended on March 26, 2016. A third and final series will air on October 7, 2018 The series follows the adventures of Natsu Dragneel, a member of the Fairy Tail wizards' guild and mage who is searching for the dragon Igneel, and partners with Lucy Heartfilia, a celestial wizard.

The series uses 52 different pieces of theme music: 26 opening themes and 26 ending themes. Several CDs containing the theme music and other tracks have been released by Pony Canyon. The first DVD compilation was released on January 29, 2010, with individual volumes being released monthly. The Southeast Asian network Animax Asia aired part of the series locally in English.In 2011, Funimation licensed the first season for an English-language release in North America. The Funimation-dubbed episodes aired on the Funimation Channel. The first DVD set, containing 12 episodes, was released on November 22, 2011. Similarly sized sets followed, with 14 sets released as of December 2, 2014. Funimation also acquired the rights to simulcast the relaunched anime episodes.

Long tail

In statistics and business, a long tail of some distributions of numbers is the portion of the distribution having a large number of occurrences far from the "head" or central part of the distribution. The distribution could involve popularities, random numbers of occurrences of events with various probabilities, etc. The term is often used loosely, with no definition or arbitrary definition, but precise definitions are possible.

In statistics, the term long-tailed distribution has a narrow technical meaning, and is a subtype of heavy-tailed distribution. Intuitively, a distribution is (right) long-tailed if, for any fixed amount, when a quantity exceeds a high level, it almost certainly exceeds it by at least that amount: large quantities are probably even larger. Note that there is no sense of the "long tail" of a distribution, but only the property of a distribution being long-tailed.

In business, the term long tail is applied to rank-size distributions or rank-frequency distributions (primarily of popularity), which often form power laws and are thus long-tailed distributions in the statistical sense. This is used to describe the retailing strategy of selling a large number of unique items with relatively small quantities sold of each (the "long tail")—usually in addition to selling fewer popular items in large quantities (the "head"). Sometimes an intermediate category is also included, variously called the body, belly, torso, or middle. The specific cutoff of what part of a distribution is the "long tail" is often arbitrary, but in some cases may be specified objectively; see segmentation of rank-size distributions.

The long tail concept has found some ground for application, research, and experimentation. It is a term used in online business, mass media, micro-finance (Grameen Bank, for example), user-driven innovation (Eric von Hippel), knowledge management, and social network mechanisms (e.g. crowdsourcing, crowdcasting, peer-to-peer), economic models, marketing (viral marketing), and IT Security threat hunting within a SOC (Information security operations center).

Ouroboros

The Ouroboros or uroborus () is an ancient symbol depicting a serpent or dragon eating its own tail. Originating in ancient Egyptian iconography, the ouroboros entered western tradition via Greek magical tradition and was adopted as a symbol in Gnosticism and Hermeticism and most notably in alchemy. The term derives from Ancient Greek: οὐροβόρος, from οὐρά (oura), "tail" + βορά (bora), "food", from βιβρώσκω (bibrōskō), "I eat".

Pancreas

The pancreas is an organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdomen behind the stomach.

The pancreas is a gland, having both an endocrine and a digestive exocrine function. As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. As a part of the digestive system, it secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct. This juice contains bicarbonate, which neutralizes acid entering the duodenum from the stomach; and digestive enzymes, which break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in food entering the duodenum from the stomach.

Peafowl

Peafowl is a common name for three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies. Male peafowl are referred to as peacocks, and female peafowl as peahens. The two Asiatic species are the blue or Indian peafowl originally of the Indian subcontinent, and the green peafowl of Southeast Asia; the one African species is the Congo peafowl, native only to the Congo Basin. Male peafowl are known for their piercing calls and their extravagant plumage. The latter is especially prominent in the Asiatic species, which have an eye-spotted "tail" or "train" of covert feathers, which they display as part of a courtship ritual.

The functions of the elaborate iridescent colouration and large "train" of peacocks have been the subject of extensive scientific debate. Charles Darwin suggested they served to attract females, and the showy features of the males had evolved by sexual selection. More recently, Amotz Zahavi proposed in his handicap theory that these features acted as honest signals of the males' fitness, since less-fit males would be disadvantaged by the difficulty of surviving with such large and conspicuous structures.

Polyadenylation

Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to a messenger RNA. The poly(A) tail consists of multiple adenosine monophosphates; in other words, it is a stretch of RNA that has only adenine bases. In eukaryotes, polyadenylation is part of the process that produces mature messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation. It, therefore, forms part of the larger process of gene expression.

The process of polyadenylation begins as the transcription of a gene terminates. The 3'-most segment of the newly made pre-mRNA is first cleaved off by a set of proteins; these proteins then synthesize the poly(A) tail at the RNA's 3' end. In some genes these proteins add a poly(A) tail at one of several possible sites. Therefore, polyadenylation can produce more than one transcript from a single gene (alternative polyadenylation), similar to alternative splicing.The poly(A) tail is important for the nuclear export, translation, and stability of mRNA. The tail is shortened over time, and, when it is short enough, the mRNA is enzymatically degraded. However, in a few cell types, mRNAs with short poly(A) tails are stored for later activation by re-polyadenylation in the cytosol. In contrast, when polyadenylation occurs in bacteria, it promotes RNA degradation. This is also sometimes the case for eukaryotic non-coding RNAs.mRNA molecules in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have polyadenylated 3'-ends, with the prokaryotic poly(A) tails generally shorter and less mRNA molecules polyadenylated.

Rhyme

A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (usually, exactly the same sound) in the final stressed syllables and any following syllables of two or more words. Most often, this kind of "perfect" rhyming is consciously used for effect in the final positions of lines of poems and songs. More broadly, a rhyme may also variously refer to other types of similar sounds near the ends of two or more words. Furthermore, the word rhyme has come to be sometimes used as a shorthand term for any brief poem, such as a rhyming couplet or nursery rhyme.

Tailplane

A tailplane, also known as a horizontal stabiliser (or horizontal stabilizer, the common term in American English), is a small lifting surface located on the tail (empennage) behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes. Not all fixed-wing aircraft have tailplanes. Canards, tailless and flying wing aircraft have no separate tailplane, while in V-tail aircraft the vertical stabiliser, rudder, and the tail-plane and elevator are combined to form two diagonal surfaces in a V layout.

The function of the tailplane is to provide stability and control. In particular, the tailplane helps adjust for changes in position of the centre of pressure or centre of gravity caused by changes in speed and attitude, fuel consumption, or dropping cargo or payload.

Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton. The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs. The vertebral column houses the spinal canal, a cavity that encloses and protects the spinal cord.

There are about 50,000 species of animals that have a vertebral column. The human vertebral column is one of the most-studied examples.

White-tailed deer

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, Ecuador, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia. It has also been introduced to New Zealand, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, the Bahamas, the Lesser Antilles, and some countries in Europe, such as Finland, the Czech Republic, Romania and Serbia. In the Americas, it is the most widely distributed wild ungulate.

In North America, the species is widely distributed east of the Rocky Mountains as well as in most of Mexico, aside from Lower California, and in southwestern Arizona. It is mostly replaced by the black-tailed or mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from that point west. However, it is found in mixed deciduous riparian corridors, river valley bottomlands, and lower foothills of the northern Rocky Mountain region from South Dakota west to eastern Washington and eastern Oregon and north to northeastern British Columbia and southern Yukon, including in the Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands.

The conversion of land adjacent to the Canadian Rockies into agriculture use and partial clear-cutting of coniferous trees (resulting in widespread deciduous vegetation) has been favorable to the white-tailed deer and has pushed its distribution to as far north as Yukon. Populations of deer around the Great Lakes have also expanded their range northwards, due to conversion of land to agricultural uses favoring more deciduous vegetation, and local caribou and moose populations. The westernmost population of the species, known as the Columbian white-tailed deer, once was widespread in the mixed forests along the Willamette and Cowlitz River valleys of western Oregon and southwestern Washington, but today its numbers have been considerably reduced, and it is classified as near-threatened. This population is separated from other white-tailed deer populations.

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