Tagetes

Tagetes is a genus[2] of annual or perennial, mostly herbaceous plants in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It was described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753.[3][4]

The genus is native to North and South America, but some species have become naturalized around the world. One species, T. minuta, is considered a noxious invasive plant in some areas.[2]

Tagetes
Marigolds
Tagetes erecta chendumalli chedi
Tagetes erecta,
African marigold
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Supertribe: Helianthodae
Tribe: Tageteae
Genus: Tagetes
L.[1]
Synonyms
  • Diglossus Cass.
  • Enalcida Cass.
  • Solenotheca Nutt.
  • Vilobia Strother

Description

Tagetes species vary in size from 0.1 to 2.2 m tall. Most species have pinnate green leaves. Blooms naturally occur in golden, orange, yellow, and white colors, often with maroon highlights. Floral heads are typically (1-) to 4–6 cm diameter, generally with both ray florets and disc florets. In horticulture, they tend to be planted as annuals, although the perennial species are gaining popularity. They have fibrous roots.

Depending on the species, Tagetes species grow well in almost any sort of soil. Most horticultural selections grow best in soil with good drainage, even though some cultivars are known to have good tolerance to drought.[5]

Habitats

Shores, ponds, springs, quiet waters in streams, ditches, wetlands, wet meadows, waterside swamps and meadows which are prone to flooding, damp hollows in broad-leaved forests, snow-bed sites, sometimes underwater.

Nomenclature

The name Tagetes is from the name of the Etruscan Tages, born from the plowing of the earth.[6] It likely refers to the ease with which plants of this genus come out each year either by the seeds produced in the previous year, or by the stems which regrow from the stump already in place.[7]

The common name in English, "marigold", is derived from "Mary's gold", a name first applied to a similar plant native to Europe, Calendula officinalis.

The most commonly cultivated varieties of Tagetes are known variously as African marigolds (usually referring to cultivars and hybrids of Tagetes erecta), or French marigolds (usually referring to hybrids and cultivars of Tagetes patula, many of which were developed in France). The so-called signet marigolds are hybrids derived mostly from Tagetes tenuifolia.

Cultivation and uses

Urbana Illinois park 20070928 img 2120-crop
Tagetes patula flowers

Depending on the species, marigold foliage has a musky, pungent scent, though some varieties have been bred to be scentless. It is said to deter some common insect pests, as well as nematodes. Tagetes species are hence often used in companion planting for tomato, eggplant, chili pepper, tobacco, and potato. Due to antibacterial thiophenes exuded by the roots, Tagetes should not be planted near any legume crop.[8] Some of the perennial species are deer-, rabbit-, rodent- and javalina or peccary-resistant.[8]

T. minuta (khakibush or huacatay), originally from South America, has been used as a source of essential oil for the perfume and industry known as tagette or "marigold oil", and as a flavourant in the food and tobacco industries. It is commonly cultivated in South Africa, where the species is also a useful pioneer plant in the reclamation of disturbed land.

The florets of Tagetes erecta are rich in the orange-yellow carotenoid lutein and are used as a food colour (INS-number E161b) in the European Union for foods such as pasta, vegetable oil, margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressing, baked goods, confectionery, dairy products, ice cream, yogurt, citrus juice and mustard. In the United States, however, the powders and extracts are only approved as colorants in poultry feed.

Marigolds are recorded as a food plant for some Lepidoptera caterpillars including the dot moth, and a nectar source for other butterflies. They are often part of butterfly gardening plantings. In the wild, many species are pollinated by beetles.[8]

Cultural significance

Tagetes lucida

The species Tagetes lucida, known as pericón, is used to prepare a sweetish, anise-flavored medicinal tea in Mexico. It is also used as a culinary herb in many warm climates, as a substitute for tarragon, and offered in the nursery as "Texas tarragon" or "Mexican mint marigold".

Tagetes minuta

Tagetes minuta, native to southern South America, is a tall, upright marigold plant with small flowers used as a culinary herb in Peru, Ecuador, and parts of Chile and Bolivia, where it is called by the Incan term huacatay. The paste is used to make the popular potato dish called ocopa. Having both "green" and "yellow/orange" notes, the taste and odor of fresh T. minuta is like a mixture of sweet basil, tarragon, mint and citrus. It is also used as a medicinal tea in some areas.[9]

Tagetes - various species

Sepulcro adornado
Marigolds decorating a grave for Day of the Dead in Mexico

The marigold was regarded as the flower of the dead in pre-Hispanic Mexico, parallel to the lily in Europe, and is still widely used in the Day of the Dead celebrations.

The marigold is very significant in Nepalese culture, where marigold garlands are used almost in every household, especially during the Tihar festival. It is always sold in the markets for daily worships and rituals. The marigold is also widely cultivated in India and Thailand, particularly the species T. erecta, T. patula, and T. tenuifolia. Vast quantities of marigolds are used in garlands and decoration for weddings, festivals, and religious events. Marigold cultivation is extensively seen in Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh[10] states of India.

In Ukraine, chornobryvtsi (T. erecta, T. patula, and the signet marigold, l. tenuifolia) are regarded as one of the national symbols, and are often mentioned in songs, poems, and tales.

Species

Accepted species[11]
  1. Tagetes apetala
  2. Tagetes arenicola
  3. Tagetes argentina Cabrera
  4. Tagetes biflora Cabrera
  5. Tagetes campanulata Griseb.
  6. Tagetes daucoides
  7. Tagetes elliptica Sm.
  8. Tagetes elongata
  9. Tagetes epapposa
  10. Tagetes erecta L. – African marigold, Aztec marigold
  11. Tagetes filifolia Lag.
  12. Tagetes foeniculacea
  13. Tagetes foetidissima DC.
  14. Tagetes hartwegii Greenm.
  15. Tagetes iltisiana Rydb.
  16. Tagetes inclusa
  17. Tagetes lacera
  18. Tagetes laxa Cabrera
  19. Tagetes lemmonii A.Gray – Mt. Lemmon marigold, Mexican marigold[12]
  20. Tagetes linifolia
  21. Tagetes lucida Cav. – Mexican mint marigold, Texas tarragon
  22. Tagetes mandonii
  23. Tagetes mendocina Phil.
  24. Tagetes micrantha Cav. – licorice marigold
  25. Tagetes microglossa
  26. Tagetes minima
  27. Tagetes minuta L. – wild marigold
  28. Tagetes moorei
  29. Tagetes mulleri S.F.Blake
  30. Tagetes multiflora Kunth
  31. Tagetes nelsonii Greenm.
  32. Tagetes oaxacana
  33. Tagetes osteni
  34. Tagetes palmeri
  35. Tagetes parryi A.Gray
  36. Tagetes patula L. – French marigold
  37. Tagetes perezii Cabrera
  38. Tagetes praetermissa
  39. Tagetes pringlei S.Watson
  40. Tagetes pusilla
  41. Tagetes riojana M.Ferraro
  42. Tagetes rupestris Cabrera
  43. Tagetes stenophylla B.L.Rob.
  44. Tagetes subulata Cerv.
  45. Tagetes subvillosa
  46. Tagetes tenuifolia Cav. – signet marigold
  47. Tagetes terniflora Kunth
  48. Tagetes triradiata
  49. Tagetes verticillata Lag. & Rodr.
  50. Tagetes zypaquirensis Humb. & Bonpl.

Gallery

Marigold 2

A marigold

Marigold 1

Marigold with a bee

Orgyia Antiqua caterpillar

Orgyia antiqua caterpillar on Tagetes

Red Marigold

Tagetes patula
(Hybrid Marigold)

TagetesPatulaYellow

(Tagetes spp.)

Tagetes-anatomy

Tagetes anatomy

Tagetes-flower grow-1

Growing Tagetes flower

Tagetes-flower grow-2

Growing Tagetes flower

Tagetes-flower grow-3

Growing Tagetes flower

Marigoldjf

'Maxima Yellow' (Philippines)

Marigold Flower 'Genda ful'
R10 kamera049be22
Indian marigold

marigold flower

Marigold at lingaraj temple

Marigold varieties prepared as offerings to a god during the Hindu festival of Maha Shivaratri

Flor de ofrenda

Marigold on an altar in Mexico

References

  1. ^ "Genus: Tagetes L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2011-01-06. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
  2. ^ a b Soule, J. A. 1996. Infrageneric Systematics of Tagetes. Pgs. 435-443 in Compositae: Systematics, Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew 1994, Vol. I, Eds. D.J.N. Hind & H.J. Beentje.
  3. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 887 in Latin
  4. ^ Tropicos Tagetes L.
  5. ^ Cicevan R, Al Hassan M, Sestras AF, Prohens J, Vicente O, Sestras RE, Boscaiu M. (2016) Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae) PeerJ 4:e2133 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2133
  6. ^ Everett, Thomas H. (1982). The New York Botanical Garden illustrated encyclopedia of horticulture. Taylor & Francis. p. 3290. ISBN 978-0-8240-7240-7.
  7. ^ Filippi, Olivier (2007). Pour un jardin sans arrosage (For a garden without irrigation) (in French). Arles: Actes Sud. p. 188. ISBN 978-2-7427-6730-4.
  8. ^ a b c Soule, J. A. 1993. Biosystematics of Tagetes (Compositae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas.
  9. ^ Soule, J. A. 1993. Tagetes minuta: A Potential New Herb from South America. Pgs. 649-654 in New Crops, Proceedings of the New Crops Conference 1993, Eds. J. Janick & J. E. Simon.
  10. ^ Gupta, Y.C.; Y. D. Sharma; N.S. Pathania (2002-09-09). "Let the flower of gods bless you". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India (web site). Retrieved 2007-09-01.
  11. ^ The Plant List, search for Tagetes
  12. ^ USDA: Tagetes lemmoni

External links

Adenopappus

Adenopappus is a genus of plants in the Asteraceae described as a genus in 1840.There is only one known species, Adenopappus persicaefolius, endemic to central Mexico (Hidalgo, Nayarit, etc.).

Nematicide

A nematicide is a type of chemical pesticide used to kill plant-parasitic nematodes. Nematicides have tended to be broad-spectrum toxicants possessing high volatility or other properties promoting migration through the soil. Aldicarb (Temik), a carbamate insecticide marketed by Bayer CropScience, is an example of a commonly used commercial nematicide. It is important in potato production, where it has been used for control of soil-borne nematodes. Aldicarb is a cholinesterase inhibitor, which prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine in the synapse. In case of severe poisoning, the victim dies of respiratory failure. It is no longer authorised for use in the EU and, in August 2010, Bayer CropScience announced that it planned to discontinue aldicarb by 2014. Human health safety and environmental concerns have resulted in the widespread deregistration of several other agronomically important nematicides. Prior to 1985, the persistent halocarbon DBCP was a widely used nematicide and soil fumigant. However, it was banned from use after being linked to sterility among male workers; the Dow Chemical company was subsequently found liable for more than $600 million in damages.

Several natural nematicides are known. An environmentally benign garlic-derived polysulfide product is approved for use in the European Union (under Annex 1 of 91/414) and the UK as a nematicide. Another common natural nematicide is obtained from neem cake, the residue obtained after cold-pressing the fruit and kernels of the neem tree. Known by several names in the world, the tree was first cultivated in India in ancient times and is now widely distributed throughout the world. The root exudate of marigold (Tagetes) is also found to have nematicidal action. Nematophagous fungi, a type of carnivorous fungi, can be useful in controlling nematodes, Paecilomyces being one example.

Besides chemicals, soil steaming can be used in order to kill nematodes. Superheated steam is induced into the soil, which causes almost all organic material to deteriorate.

Papa a la Huancaína

Papa a la Huancaína (literally, Huancayo style potatoes) is a Peruvian appetizer of boiled yellow potatoes (similar to the Yukon Gold potatoes) in a spicy, creamy sauce called Huancaína sauce. Although the dish's name is derived from Huancayo, a city in the Peruvian highlands, this dish is from Lima - Perú. It has become a staple of everyday and holiday cuisine throughout the country.It is typically served cold as a starter over lettuce leaves and garnished with black olives, white corn kernels and hard boiled egg quarters.

The sauce is made of queso fresco (fresh white cheese), vegetable oil, aji amarillo (yellow Peruvian pepper), evaporated milk and salt mixed in a blender. Some recipes call for garlic, onion and crushed saltines. This sauce is also used in many other Peruvian dishes.

In the south of Peru (Cuzco, Puno, Arequipa) it is served with ocopa rather than Huancaína sauce, made from freshly toasted peanuts, fried onions and tomatoes, aji amarillo, cream or condensed milk, crushed crackers or dried bread, salt, and huacatay (Tagetes minuta).

Because it is served cold, Papa a la Huancaina is a favorite food of Peruvians to take on picnics and trips.

Pseudoradiarctia scita

Pseudoradiarctia scita is a moth in the family Erebidae. It was described by Francis Walker in 1865. It is found in Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, the Gambia, Uganda and Zambia.The larvae feed on Cassia tomentosa, Acacia mearnsii, Smilax kraussiana and Tagetes erecta.

Tageteae

Tageteae is a tribe of the plant family Asteraceae. It consists of approximately 216 species divided among 28 genera. All are found in the New World, with a center of diversity in the Mexican highlands. The type genus is Tagetes (marigolds).

Some authors include these plants within a more broadly defined tribe Heliantheae.

Tagetes argentina

Tagetes argentina is a South American plant species in the sunflower family. It is found in Argentina and Bolivia on granitic and rhyolitic soils.Tagetes argentina is an annual herb up to 30 cm tall. The foliage is generally dense, formed of pale green leaves which are narrowly pinnately dissected. The flower heads are white, and, although each head is 5 to 6 mm across, 5 to 25 heads together form showy flat-topped clusters. These clusters are on short peduncles which barely exceed the foliage, and since many branches often bloom at once, the entire plant is generally covered in a blaze of white. Achenes directly sown after the last frost grow to flowering in 8 to 12 weeks, and continue until killing frost. The mounding form is encouraged by early pinching of the young plants. The plants tend to naturally form low mounding shrubs to 30 cm tall. The foliage is generally dense, formed of pale green leaves which are narrowly pinnately dissected.Tagetes argentina responds well to garden soils from acid to neutral. Sandy soils are preferred, but plants did tolerably well in the clay soils of central Texas. In conditions of full sunlight, rich soil, and ample moisture, it forms a compact, rounded plant. Flowering tapered off in the mid-summer as temperatures rose above 37 °C (99 °F), but resumed with cooler weather.

Tagetes campanulata

Tagetes campanulata is a South American species of plants in the sunflower family. It is found in Argentina (Provinces of Catamarca, Jujuy, La Rioja) and Bolivia (Tarija Department).

Tagetes epapposa

Tagetes epapposa is a Mexican species of plants in the sunflower family. It has been found only in the State of Durango in northern Mexico.Tagetes epapposa is an erect aquatic annual plant up to 35 cm (14 inches) tall. Leaves are long and slender, up to 6 cm (2.4 inches) long. Ray florets are much reduced, yellow, only 1 or 2 per head, each only about 1 mm (0.04 inches) long. Disc florets are also yellow, 6-8 per head. The plant grows in shallow standing water at high elevation (circa 8000 feet or 2400 meters) in the Sierra Madre Occidental.

Tagetes erecta

Tagetes erecta, the Mexican marigold or Aztec marigold, is a species of the genus Tagetes native to Mexico. Despite its being native to the Americas, it is often called African marigold. In Mexico, this plant is found in the wild in the states of México, Puebla, and Veracruz.

This plant reaches heights of between 50 and 100 cm (20 and 39 in). The Aztecs gathered the wild plant as well as cultivating it for medicinal, ceremonial and decorative purposes. It is widely cultivated commercially with many cultivars in use as ornamental plants, and for the cut-flower trade.Some authorities regard Tagetes patula (the French marigold) as a synonym of Tagetes erecta.

Tagetes filifolia

Tagetes filifolia is a New World species of marigolds in the sunflower family. It is widespread across much of Latin America from northern Mexico to Argentina. Common name is Irish lace despite the fact that the plant does not grow in Ireland.Tagetes filifolia is a branching annual herb up to 50 cm (20 inches) tall. It has a strong aroma similar to that of anise or liquorice. Leaves resemble small branching, feathery threads.People of the native range of the species use it as a food flavoring, a tea, and a diuretic.

Tagetes lemmonii

Tagetes lemmonii, or Lemmon's marigold, is a North American species of wild marigolds within the daisy family (Asteraceae).

It is native to the states of Sonora and Sinaloa in northwestern Mexico as well as southern Arizona in the United States.

Tagetes lucida

Tagetes lucida Cav. is a perennial plant native to Mexico and Central America. It is used as a medicinal plant and as a culinary herb. The leaves have a tarragon-like flavor, with hints of anise, and it has entered the nursery trade in North America as a tarragon substitute. Common names include sweetscented marigold, Mexican marigold, Mexican mint marigold, Mexican tarragon, sweet mace, Texas tarragon, pericón, yerbaniz, and hierbanís.

Tagetes micrantha

Tagetes micrantha is a North American species wild marigolds within the daisy family (Asteraceae), common name licorice marigold. It is widespread across much of Mexico from Chihuahua to Oaxaca, and found also in the southwestern United States (Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas).Tagetes micrantha is an annual herb sometimes reaching as much as 35 cm (14 inches) tall. Leaves are up to 35 mm (1.4 inches) long, pinnately compound very narrow leaflets. The plant generally produces only one flower head per stem, each head usually with no ray florets but occasionally 1 or 2, along with 5-6 disc florets. The plant is found in disturbed sites as well as in open woodlands with scattered pines and junipers.

Tagetes minuta

Tagetes minuta is a tall upright marigold plant from the genus Tagetes, with small flowers, native to the southern half of South America. Since Spanish colonization, it has been introduced around the world, and has become naturalized in Europe, Asia, Australasia, North America, and Africa. Tagetes minuta has numerous local names that vary by region, most commonly found in the literature as chinchilla, chiquilla, chilca, zuico, suico, or anisillo. Other names include muster John Henry, Southern Cone marigold, Khakibos, stinking roger, wild marigold, and black mint.

It is used as a culinary herb in Peru, Ecuador, and parts of Chile and Bolivia. It is called by the Quechua terms wakatay in Peru or wakataya in Bolivia. It is commonly sold in Latin grocery stores in a bottled, paste format as black mint paste.

Tagetes moorei

Tagetes moorei is a Mexican species of marigolds in the sunflower family.

It is endemic to the states of Hidalgo and Querétaro in central Mexico.

Tagetes patula

Tagetes patula, the French marigold, is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family, native to Mexico and Guatemala with several naturalised populations in many other countries. It is widely cultivated as an easily grown bedding plant, with thousands of different cultivars in brilliant shades of yellow and orange.

Some authorities regard Tagetes patula as a synonym of Tagetes erecta.

Tagetes subulata

Tagetes subulata is an herbaceous plant of the sunflower family. It is widespread across most of Mexico, and found also in Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela. It has highly divided bright green leaves and yellow flowers contained in an elongated calyx.

Tagetes tenuifolia

Tagetes tenuifolia, the signet marigold or golden marigold, is a species of the wild marigold in the daisy family (Asteraceae). It is widespread across most of Mexico as well as Central America, Colombia, and Peru.Tagetes tenuifolia is an annual herb sometimes reaching as much as 50 cm (20 inches) tall. Leaves are less than 3 cm (1.2 inches) long, deeply divided into many small parts. The plant produces many small flower heads in a flat-topped array, each head with 5 ray florets and 7-9 disc florets.

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