Tabula Peutingeriana

Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map"), also referred to as Peutinger's Tabula[1] or Peutinger Table, is an illustrated itinerarium (ancient Roman road map) showing the layout of the cursus publicus, the road network of the Roman Empire.

The map is a 13th-century parchment copy of a possible Roman original. It covers Europe (without the Iberian Peninsula and the British Isles), North Africa, and parts of Asia, including the Middle East, Persia, and India. According to one hypothesis, the existing map is based on a document of the 4th or 5th century that contained a copy of the world map originally prepared by Agrippa during the reign of the emperor Augustus (27 BC – AD 14). However, Emily Albu has suggested that the existing map could instead be based on an original from the Carolingian period.[2]

Named after the 16th-century German antiquarian Konrad Peutinger, the map is now conserved at the Austrian National Library in Vienna.

Part of Tabula Peutingeriana
Tabula Peutingeriana (section)—top to bottom: Dalmatian coast, Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, Sicily, African Mediterranean coast

Archetype

The Tabula is thought to be a distant descendant of the map prepared under the direction of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a Roman general, architect, and friend of emperor Augustus. After Agrippa's death in 12 BC, that map was engraved in marble and put on display in the Porticus Vipsania in the Campus Agrippae area in Rome, close to the Ara Pacis building.

The early imperial dating for the archetype of the map is supported by American historian Glen Bowersock, and is based on numerous details of Roman Arabia that look entirely anachronistic for a 4th-century map.[3] Bowersock concluded that the original source is likely the map made by Vipsanius Agrippa.[4] This dating is also consistent with the map's inclusion of the Roman town of Pompeii near modern-day Naples, which was never rebuilt after it had been destroyed in an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.

The original Roman map, of which this may be the only surviving copy, was last revised in the 4th or early 5th century.[5][6] It shows the city of Constantinople, founded in 328, and the prominence of Ravenna, seat of the Western Roman Empire from 402 to 476, which suggests a fifth-century revision according to Levi and Levi.[5] The presence of certain cities of Germania Inferior that were destroyed in the mid-fifth century also provides a terminus ante quem, i.e. the map's latest creation date, though Emily Albu suggests that this information could have been preserved in textual, not cartographic, form.

Map description

The Tabula Peutingeriana is thought to be the only known surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus, the state-run road network. The surviving map itself was created by a monk in Colmar in modern-day eastern France in 1265.[7] It is a parchment scroll, 0.34 metres (1 foot 1 inch) high and 6.75 metres (22.1 feet) long, assembled from eleven sections, a medieval reproduction of the original scroll.

TabulaPeutingeriana Roma
Rome.

It is a very schematic map, designed to give a practical overview of the road network, as opposed to an accurate representation of geographic features: the land masses shown are distorted, especially in the east-west direction. The map shows many Roman settlements and the roads connecting them, as well as other features such as rivers, mountains, forests and seas. The distances between settlements are also given. In total no fewer than 555 cities and 3,500 other place names are shown on the map.[8] The three most important cities of the Roman Empire at the time – Rome, Constantinople and Antioch – are represented with special iconic decoration.

Besides the totality of the empire, the map also shows areas in the Near East, India and the Ganges, Sri Lanka (Insula Taprobane), and even an indication of China. It even shows a "Temple to Augustus" at Muziris on the modern-day Malabar Coast, one of the main ports for trade with the Roman Empire on the southwest coast of India.[9] On the western end of the scroll, the absence of Morocco, the Iberian Peninsula, and the British Isles indicates that a twelfth original section has been lost in the surviving copy; the missing section was reconstructed in 1898 by Konrad Miller.[10]

The map appears to be based on "itineraries", lists of destinations along Roman roads, as the distances between points along the routes are indicated.[11] Travelers would not have possessed anything so sophisticated as a modern map, but they needed to know what lay ahead of them on the road and how far. The Peutinger Table represents these roads as a series of stepped lines along which destinations have been marked in order of travel. The shape of the parchment pages accounts for the conventional rectangular layout. However, a rough similarity to the coordinates of Ptolemy's earth-mapping gives some writers hope that some terrestrial representation was intended by the unknown original compilers.

The stages and cities are represented by hundreds of functional place symbols, used with discrimination from the simplest icon of a building with two towers to the elaborate individualized "portraits" of the three great cities. The editors Annalina and Mario Levi concluded that the semi-schematic, semi-pictorial symbols reproduce Roman cartographic conventions of the itineraria picta described by 4th-century writer Vegetius,[12] of which this is the sole known testimony.

History

The map was discovered in a library in the city of Worms by German scholar Conrad Celtes in 1494, who was unable to publish his find before his death and bequeathed the map in 1508 to Konrad Peutinger, a German humanist and antiquarian in Augsburg, after whom the map is named.[7] The Peutinger family kept possession of the map for more than two hundred years until it was sold in 1714. It then bounced between several royal and elite families until it was purchased by Prince Eugene of Savoy for 100 ducats; upon his death in 1737, it was purchased for the Habsburg Imperial Court Library in Vienna (Hofbibliothek). It is today conserved at the Austrian National Library at the Hofburg palace in Vienna.[13]

In 2007, the map was placed on the UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and in recognition of this, it was displayed to the public for a single day on 26 November 2007. Because of its fragile condition, it is not usually on public display.[14]

Printed editions

The map was copied for Dutch cartographer Abraham Ortelius and published shortly after his death in 1598. A partial first edition was printed at Antwerp in 1591 (titled Fragmenta tabulæ antiquæ) by Johannes Moretus, who would print the full Tabula in December 1598, also at Antwerp. Johannes Janssonius published another version in Amsterdam, c. 1652.

In 1753 Franz Christoph von Scheyb published a copy, and in 1872 Konrad Miller, a German professor, was allowed to copy the map. Several publishing houses in Europe then made copies. In 1892 publishers Williams and Norgate published a copy in London, and in 1911 a sheet was added showing the reconstructed sections of the British Isles and the Iberian peninsula missing in the original.[1]

Map

The Tabula Peutingeriana, from the reconstructed British and Iberian panel in the west to India in the east.
The Tabula Peutingeriana, from the reconstructed British and Iberian panel in the west to India in the east.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Ravenstein 1911, p. 637.
  2. ^ Emily Albu, The Medieval Peutinger Map: Imperial Roman Revival in a German Empire. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014
  3. ^ Bowersock 1994, pp. 169–170,175,177,178–179,181,182,184.
  4. ^ Bowersock 1994, p. 185.
  5. ^ a b Levi & Levi 1967, p. 
  6. ^ Bagrow 2010, p. 37
  7. ^ a b Nussli
  8. ^ Lendering 2016
  9. ^ Ball 2000, p. 123.
  10. ^ Talbert 2010, p. 189
  11. ^ Not all the stages are between towns: sometimes a crossroads marks the staging point.
  12. ^ Vegetius' "...viarum qualitas, compendia, diverticula, montes, flumina ad fidem descripta suggest a more detailed "pictorial itinerary" than either the Antonine Itinerary or the Tabula Peutingeriana offers.
  13. ^ Accession number: Codex 324.
  14. ^ Bell 2007.

References

  • Levi, Annalina; Levi, Mario (1967), Itineraria picta: Contributo allo studio della Tabula Peutingeriana (in Italian), Rome: Bretschneider — Includes the best easily available reproduction of the Tabula Peutingeriana, at 2:3 scale.
  • Levi, Annalina; Levi, Mario (1978), La Tabula Peutingeriana (in Italian), Bologna: Edizioni Edison — Includes a reproduction of the Tabula Peutingeriana, at 1:1 scale.
  • Ball, Warwick (2000), Rome in the East: The transformation of an empire, London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-11376-8
  • Bagrow, Leo (2010), History of Cartography, Transaction Publishers, p. 37, ISBN 978-1-4128-2518-4
  • Bell, Bethany (26 November 2007), Ancient Roman road map unveiled, BBC News
  • Bowersock, Glen (1994), Roman Arabia, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-77756-5
  • Lendering, Jona (24 July 2016) [2003], "Peutinger Map", Livius, retrieved 27 December 2016
  • Nussli, Christos, "The Tabula Peutingeriana, a Roman Road Map", Euratlas.net, retrieved 15 August 2016
  • Ravenstein, Ernest George (1911), "Map" , in Chisholm, Hugh (ed.), Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 637
  • Talbert, Richard (2010), Rome's World: The Peutinger Map Reconsidered, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521764803

Further reading

  • Albu, Emily. 2005. "Imperial Geography and the Medieval Peutinger Map." Imago Mundi 57:136‒148.
  • Brodersen, Kai. 2004. "Mapping (in) the Ancient World." Journal of Roman Studies 94:183–190
  • Elliott, Thomas. 2008. "Constructing a Digital Edition for the Peutinger Map." In Cartography in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Edited by Richard J. A. Talbert and Richard W. Unger, 99–110. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.
  • Gautier Dalché, Patrick. 2003. "The Medieval and Renaissance Transmission of the Tabula Peutingeriana." Translated by W. L. North. In Tabula Peutingeriana. Le Antiche Vie Del Mondo. Edited by Francesco Prontera, 43–52. Florence: Leo S. Olschki.
  • Rathmann, Michael. 2016. "The Tabula Peutingeriana and Antique Cartography." In Brill’s Companion to Ancient Geography: The Inhabited World in Greek and Roman Tradition. Edited by S. Bianchetti, M. R. Cataudella, and H. -J. Gehrke, 337–362. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill.

External links

Argidava

Argidava (Argidaua, Arcidava, Arcidaua, Argedava, Argedauon, Argedabon, Sargedava, Sargedauon, Zargedava, Zargedauon, Ancient Greek: Ἀργίδαυα, Αργεδαυον, Αργεδαβον, Σαργεδαυον) was a Dacian fortress town close to the Danube, inhabited and governed by the Albocense. Located in today's Vărădia, Caraş-Severin County, Romania.

After the Roman conquest of Dacia, it became a military and a civilian center, with a castrum (Roman fort) (see Castra Arcidava) built in the area. The fort was used to monitor the shores of the Danube.

Argiza

Argiza (Ancient Greek: Ἄργιζα) was a Greek town located in ancient Mysia and later in the Byzantine province of Hellespontus. On the Tabula Peutingeriana it is spelled Argesis and placed between Pergamum and Cyzicus. Pliny the Elder notes the town as Erizii and in his day it belonged to the conventus of Adramyttium. In later times it was Christianized and became a bishopric. No longer a residential see, it was restored under the name Algiza by the Roman Catholic Church as a titular see.

Its site is located near Pazarköy in Asiatic Turkey.

Caenophrurium

Caenophrurium (also written as Cænophrurium, Cenophrurium and Coenophrurium; Greek: Καινοφρούριον, Kainophrourion) was a settlement in the Roman province of Europa (the southeasternmost part of Thrace), between Byzantium and Heraclea Perinthus. It appears in late Roman and early Byzantine accounts. Caenophrurium translates as the "stronghold of the Caeni", a Thracian tribe.

Campae

Campae or Kampai (Ancient Greek: Κάμπαι) was a town of ancient Cappadocia, inhabited during Roman and Byzantine times. In the Tabula Peutingeriana it is listed as Cambe and positioned 16 M.P. north or northwest from Mazaca.Its site is tentatively located near Boğazköprü, Asiatic Turkey.

Chelae (Bithynia)

Chelae or Chelai (Ancient Greek: Χῆλαι) was a coastal town of ancient Bithynia located on the Pontus Euxinus. It appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana, and in the Periplus Ponti Euxini written by Arrian, who places it 20 stadia east of Thynias and 180 west of the mouth of the Sangarius River.

Its site is located near Cebice in Asiatic Turkey.

Comitanassus

Comitanassus was a town of ancient Lycaonia, inhabited in Byzantine times. It appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana, under the name Comitanasso, and is located 20 M.P. from Perta.Its site is located near Ortakuyu, Asiatic Turkey.

Congustus

Congustus or Kongoustos (Ancient Greek: Κόγγουστος), also known as Congussus, was a town of ancient Lycaonia or of Galatia, inhabited in Roman and Byzantine times. The Tabula Peutingeriana has the place as Congusso.Its site is located near Altınekin, Asiatic Turkey.

Cordyle

Cordyle or Kordyle (Ancient Greek: Κορδύλη), also called Portus Chordyle, was a town of ancient Pontus, on the Black Sea coast, 40 or 45 stadia east of Hieron Oros or Yoros. The name occurs in the Tabula Peutingeriana in the form Cordile. There appears to be some confusion in Ptolemy about this place.Its site is located near Akçakale in Asiatic Turkey.

Coryphas

Coryphas or Koryphas (Ancient Greek: Κορυφάς), also known as Coryphantis or Koryphantis (Κορυφαντίς), was one of the settlements of the Mytilenaeans, on the coast of ancient Aeolis, opposite to Lesbos, and north of Atarneus. It is evidently the same place which appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana under the name Corifanio, between Adramyttium and Elateia — which may be another name of Heraclea. Strabo mentions Coryphantis and Heraclea, and "after them, Attea." The oysters of Coryphas are mentioned by Pliny the Elder.Its site is located near Keremköy, Asiatic Turkey.

Cromen

Cromen was a town in the west of ancient Pontus, inhabited in Roman and Byzantine times. According to the Tabula Peutingeriana it was 11 M.P. from Amasia.Its site is located near Çatalkaya, Asiatic Turkey.

Dadastana

Dadastana (Ancient Greek: Δαδάστανα) was an inland town of ancient Bithynia. The Tabula Peutingeriana places it on a road from Nicaea to Juliopolis, and 29 M. P. from Juliopolis. It appears to have been near the borders of Bithynia and Galatia, as Ammianus says. The emperor Jovianus on his return from the East came from Ancyra to Dadastana, where he died suddenly.

Its site is located near Karahisar, Asiatic Turkey.

Eusene

Eusene (Ancient Greek: Εὐσήνη) was a town of ancient Pontus, not far from the coast, a little to the northwest of Amisus. The Tabula Peutingeriana calls it Ezene. The anonymous Geographer of Ravenna calls it Aezene and Ecene.

Its site is tentatively located near Incesukahvesi in Asiatic Turkey.

Naustathmus (Pontus)

Naustathmus or Naustathmos (Ancient Greek: Ναύσταθμος) was a port-town on the Euxine, in the western part of ancient Pontus, on a salt lake connected with the sea, and 90 stadia to the east of the Halys River. The Tabula Peutingeriana calls it Nautagmus. The Anonymous Periplus places it only 40 stadia east of the mouth of the Halys.Its site is located in Asiatic Turkey.

Perta (Lycaonia)

Perta was a town of ancient Lycaonia, inhabited in Roman and Byzantine times. The town appears as Petra on the Tabula Peutingeriana.Its site is located near Gimir, Asiatic Turkey.

Rusidava

Rusidava (or Zusidava ) was a Dacian town mentioned in Tabula Peutingeriana between Acidava and Pons Aluti, today's Drăgășani, Vâlcea County, Romania.

Sacidava (Moesia)

Sacidava (Sagadava) was a Dacian town in Moesia Inferior, today's Dunăreni, Constanţa, Romania. Not to be confused with Sacidava, near Apulon.

Virasia

Virasia was a town in the west of ancient Pontus, inhabited in Byzantine times. According to the Tabula Peutingeriana it was on the road from Antoniopolis through Anadynata to Amasia, 16 M.P. from the latter.Its site is located near Doğantepe, Asiatic Turkey.

Zeugma (Dacia)

Zeugma (Ancient Greek: Ζεῦγμα) was a Dacian town mentioned by Ptolemy.

Zurobara

Zurobara (Ancient Greek: Ζουρόβαρα) was a Dacian town located in today's Banat region in Romania. It is positioned by the Tibiscus river (Timiș River), north of Zarmizegethusa Regia and south of Ziridava. It was near the Tisza river, in the area of the Dacian tribe of Biephi.This town was attested by Ptolemy in his Geographia (III; 8; 4), yet its exact location remains unknown. Zurobara is amongst the places, which are not to be found on the great Roman roads between the Tysis and the Aluta,

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