A Tabuik is the local manifestation of the Remembrance of Muharram among the Minangkabau people in the coastal regions of West Sumatra, Indonesia, particularly in the city of Pariaman.


Tabuik festival
Tabuik being lowered into the sea in Pariaman

A "tabuik" also refers to the towering funeral biers carried around during the remembrance procession, and is similar in form to several of the indigenous cultures' totems found in the old world Western cultures.

The practice of throwing a tabuik into the sea has taken place every year in Pariaman on the 10th of Muharram since 1831.[1] The practice was introduced to the region by the Shi'ite Muslim sepoy troops from India who were stationed—and later settled—there during the British Raj.[1]

The events

Tabuik Pariaman
A tabuik monument in the center of Pariaman, Indonesia

The festival includes reenactments of the Battle of Karbala, and the playing of tassa and dhol drums. Although originally a Shi'a festival, nowadays most inhabitants of Pariaman and other southeastern Asia areas hold similar festivals which are even celebrated by non-Muslims.

The remembrance bier

The remembrance is referred to as Tabut or Tabot in Indonesian. (Tabut is the name given in the Quran for The Ark of the Covenant.) In preparation for the ceremony, one or more tabuiks are made from bamboo, rattan, and paper. During the week of Tabuik, activities include kite races, traditional plays, and dance expositions (such as the Tari Piring). The memorial draws a large crowd including dignitaries such as the provincial governor. Visitors and celebrants can observe the tabuik in the morning before it is slowly taken to the beach in a procession. At noon the tabuik is thrown into the sea. Afterwards, many people go swimming creating 'memories' of the tabuik to keep.

See also


  1. ^ a b Bachyul Jb, Syofiardi (2006-03-01). "'Tabuik' festival: From a religious event to tourism". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2007-01-27.

External links

Abdullah ibn Hasan

Abdullah ibn Hasan (Arabic: عبدالله بن حسن) was the son of Hasan ibn Ali. He went to Karbala with his uncle (Hussain), and finally was killed at the battle of Karbala. Also, his name has been mentioned in Ziyarat Nahiya Muqaddasa.


Yom Ashura or Ashura (Arabic: عاشوراء‎, romanized: ʻĀshūrā’ [ʕaːʃuːˈraːʔ]) is the tenth day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. It marks the day that Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was martyred in the Battle of Karbala. Ashura is a major holiday and occasion for pilgrimage and fasting in Shia Islam, as well as a recommended but non-obligatory day of fasting in Sunni Islam. Ashura has origins in Yom Kippur from Judaism.Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram, the annual commemoration of the death of Husayn and his family and supporters at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE). Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the battle. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty.

In Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrain and Pakistan Ashura has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religious communities participate in it.For Sunni Muslims, Ashura also marks the day that Moses and the Israelites were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in the Sea or Noah leaving the Ark.


A ḥosayniya or hussainiya (Persian: حسینیه‎ hoseyniye), also known as an ashurkhana, imambargah, or imambara, is a congregation hall for Twelver Shia Muslim commemoration ceremonies, especially those associated with the Mourning of Muharram. The name comes from Husayn ibn Ali, the third of the Twelve Imams and the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Husayn was killed at the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 CE during the reign of Umayyad Caliph Yazid I. The Shia commemorate his martyrdom every year on Ashura, the 10th day of Muharram. There are also other ceremonies which are held during the year in hussainiyas, including religious commemorations unrelated to Ashura.

Islam in Indonesia

Islam is the most adhered to religion in Indonesia, with 87.2% of Indonesian population identifying themselves as Muslim in 2010 estimate. Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world, with approximately 225 million Muslims.

In terms of denomination, absolute majority (99%) adheres to Sunni Islam, while there are around one million Shias (0.5%), who are concentrated around Jakarta, and about 400,000 Ahmadi Muslims (0.2%). In terms of Islamic schools of jurisprudence, based on demographic statistics, 99% of Indonesian Muslims mainly follow the Shafi'i school, although when asked, 56% does not adhere to any specific school. Trends of thought within Islam in Indonesia can be broadly categorized into two orientations; "modernism" which closely adheres to orthodox theology while embracing modern learning, and "traditionalism" which tends to follow the interpretations of local religious leaders and religious teachers at Islamic boarding schools (pesantren). There is also a historically important presence of syncretic form of Islam known as kebatinan.

Islam in Indonesia is roughly considered to have gradually spread through merchant activities by Arab Muslim traders, adoption by local rulers and the influence of mysticism since the 13th century. During the late colonial era, it was adopted as a rallying banner against colonialism. Today, although Indonesia has an overwhelming Muslim majority, it is not an Islamic state, but constitutionally a secular state whose government officially recognizes six formal religions.

Islam in West Sumatra

Islam is the most adhered religion in West Sumatra, a province of Indonesia, embraced by 97.42% of the whole population. The percentage of Muslim population increases to 99.6% if excludes the Mentawai Islands, where the majority of the non-Muslim (Protestant) West Sumatrans reside. Denomination among Islam in West Sumatra is predominantly Sunni Islam, and there is a small Shia Islamic pocket within the coastal city of Pariaman. Minangkabau people who are indigenous to West Sumatra and consist 88% of West Sumatran population today have historically played the important role within the Muslim community in Indonesia. Up until today the region is considered as one of the strongholds of Islam in Indonesia.

List of festivals in Indonesia

Below is a list of festivals in Indonesia. The list is divided based on their respective calendar.


Lohoof (Arabic: لُهوف) is a book by Sayyed Ibn Tawus, a Shia jurist, theologian, and historian. It is kind of Maqtal al-Husayn (Arabic: مقتل الحسين), narrating the Battle of Karbala, the death of Husayn ibn Ali, and subsequent events.


Maddahi is a ceremonial singing or eulogy recitation especially for Shia Muslims. The word Maddahi means "to praise" in Arabic. One who sings this style is called a maddah. Maddahs mostly sing on Ahl al-Bayt's birth and death anniversary. The theme of Maddahi may be joyous or sorrowful. Most maddahs are men but some women perform in exclusively female gatherings. The majority of maddahis are sung in mourning of Ahl al-Bayt, particularly at the Mourning of Muharram in the beginning of Muharram until the Day of Ashura and Arba'een.

Maqtal al-Husayn

Maqtal al-Husayn (Arabic: مقتل الحسين‎) is the title of various books written by different authors throughout the centuries which narrate the story of the battle of Karbala and the death of Husayn ibn Ali. They were first written in the eighth century.


A marsiya (Persian: مرثیه‎) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hussain ibn Ali and his comrades of the Karbala. Marsiyas are essentially religious.

Mourning of Muharram

The Mourning of Muharram (also known as the Remembrance of Muharram or Muharram Observances) is a set of rituals associated with Shia Muslims; and all believers in Islam , as well as some non-Muslims, also take part in the remembrance. The commemoration falls in Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar. Many of the events associated with the ritual take place in congregation halls known as Hussainia.

The event marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala, when Imam Hussein ibn Ali, a grandson of Muhammad, was killed by the forces of the second Umayyad caliph. Family members and companions accompanying him were killed or subjected to humiliation. The commemoration of this event during the yearly mourning season, with the Day of Ashura as the focal date, serves to define Shia communal identity. Muharram observances are carried out in countries with a sizable Shia population.

Both Sunni and Shia Muslims mourn during Muharram, although Sunnis do so to a much lesser extent. Storytelling, weeping, self-flagellation, and re-enactments of the Battle of Karbala form the crux of the observances.


The Tenth day of Muharram is known as the Day of Ashura. Sometimes, as part of the Mourning of Muharram Shia Muslims practice faka (partial fasting) and Sunni Muslims practice fasting on Ashura.

Shia Muslims mourn the death of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī and his family, honoring the martyrs by prayer and abstinence from joyous events. Shia Muslims do not fast on the 10th of Muharram, but some will not eat or drink until Zawal (afternoon) to show their sympathy with Husayn. In addition there is an important ziyarat book, the Ziyarat Ashura about Husayn ibn Ali. In the Shia sect, it is popular to read this ziyarat on this date.


A noha (Persian: نوحه‎, Urdu: نوحہ‎; translit. nūḥa/nawḥa), when interpreted in light of Shia views, is a lament about the tragedy of Husayn ibn Ali in the Battle of Karbala.Marsiya and Noha has the historical and social milieu of pre-Islamic Arabic and Persian culture. The sub-parts of Marsiya are called Noha and Soaz which means lamentation. It is usually a poem of mourning. Lamentation has a central part in the literature of the followers and devotees of the Shia sect and its offshoots. The tradition of elegizing Hussain and the Karbala tragedy is not limited to Arabic speaking poets, poets from different languages have also contributed a significant poetic literature in their language. In Urdu language, a number of poets like, Mir Anis and Mirza Dabeer have contributed a treasure in Marsiya and its sub branch Noha. In like manner, English-speaking poets, whether Muslim, Christian, have also made significant contributions to produce elegies for Imam Hussain and the Karbala tragic incidents. Noha (Latmiyat in Arabic) in English language written by various poets may be listened in voices of different Noha readers like Bassim Al-Karbalaei, Nazim Ali, Syeda Fatima Zaheer Rizvi, Darakhshan and Farheen Fatima in Urdu language, Hashim sisters, Rahil Abbas Rizvi etc.


Pariaman (Jawi: ڤريامن‎), is a coastal city in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Pariaman has 83,151 inhabitants in 2014, an area of 73.36 km2 (28 sq mi) and a 12 km (7 mi) coastline. "Pariaman" means "safe area".

Shia Islam in Indonesia

Shi'a Islam in Indonesia represents a small minority in that largely-Sunni Muslim country. Around one million Indonesians are Shias, who are concentrated around Jakarta. Indonesian Shia are found in areas of Java, Madura and Sumatra.


Soaz or soz (Persian and Urdu: سوز) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the honor of Husain ibn Ali and his family and Sahabah in the battle of Karbala. In its form the soaz, salam and Marsiya, with a rhyming quatrain and a couplet on a different rhyme. This form found a specially congenial soil in Lucknow (a city in Northern India), chiefly because it was the center of Shia Muslim community, which regarded it an act of piety and religious duty to eulogies and bemoan the person who killed in the battle of Karbala. The form reached its peak in the writing of Mir Babar Ali Anis. A soaz is written to commemorate the honor of Ahl al-Bayt, Imam Hussain and Battle of Karbala. The sub-parts of Marsiya can be called Noha and soz which means the lamentation and burning of (heart) respectively.

People who recite soaz are known as soazkhawan.


Ta'zieh or Ta'zïye or Ta'zīya or Tazīa or Ta'ziyeh, (Arabic: تعزية‎, Persian: تعزیه‎, Urdu: تعزیہ‎) means comfort, condolence or expression of grief. It comes from roots aza (عزو and عزى) which means mourning.

Depending on the region, time, occasion, religion, etc. the word can signify different cultural meanings and practices:

In Persian cultural reference it is categorized as Condolence Theater or Passion Play inspired by a historical and religious event, the tragic death of Hussein, symbolizing epic spirit and resistance.

In South Asia and in the Caribbean it refers specifically to the Miniature Mausoleums (imitations of the mausolems of Karbala, generally made of coloured paper and bamboo) used in ritual processions held in the month of Muharram.Ta'zieh, primarily known from the Persian tradition, is a shi'ite Muslim ritual that reenacts the death of Hussein (the prophet Muhammad's grandson) and his male children and companions in a brutal massacre on the plains of Karbala, Iraq in the year 680 A.D. His death was the result of a power struggle in the decision of control of the Muslim community (called the caliph) after the death of the Prophet Muhammad.Today, we know of 250 Ta'zieh pieces. They were collected by an Italian ambassador to Iran, Cherulli, and added to a collection which can be found in the Vatican Library. Various other scripts can be found scattered throughout Iran.


Tabut may refer to:

Tabut, an alternative transliteration of Tabbat, Bukan, a village in Iran

Tabut, another name for Tabuik, a festival in West Sumatra

Tabut, the name given in the Quran for The Ark of the Covenant

Ziyarat Ashura

Ziyarat Ashura (Arabic: زیارة عاشوراء‎) is a Shia salutatory prayer to Husayn ibn Ali and the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala. The prayer is part of the liturgy used in pilgrimages to the shrine of Husayn in Karbala. Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Shia Imam, recommended reciting Ziyarat Ashura on Ashura while facing Karbala, as a symbolic visit to the shrine.

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