Tabloid journalism

Tabloid journalism, also known as rag newspaper, is a style of journalism that emphasizes sensational crime stories, gossip columns about celebrities and sports stars, extreme political views and opinions from one perspective, junk food news, and astrology. Although it is associated with tabloid-size newspapers, not all newspapers associated with tabloid journalism are tabloid size, and not all tabloid-size newspapers engage in tabloid journalism; in particular, since about 2000 many broadsheet newspapers converted to the more compact tabloid format. Tabloid journalism often concerns itself with rumors about the private lives of celebrities. In some cases, celebrities have successfully sued for libel, demonstrating that tabloid stories have defamed them.

Notable publications engaging in tabloid journalism include the National Enquirer, and Globe in North America; and the Daily Mail, Daily Express, Daily Mirror, Daily Star, Daily Record, Sunday Mail, The Sun, and the former News of the World in the United Kingdom.

Supermarket tabloids

In the United States and Canada, "supermarket tabloids" are large, national versions of these tabloids, usually published weekly. They are named for their prominent placement along the checkout lines of supermarkets.

In the 1960s, the National Enquirer began selling magazines in supermarkets as an alternative to newsstands. To sweeten the deal with supermarkets, they offered to buy back unsold issues.[1]

Supermarket tabloids are particularly notorious for the over-the-top sensationalizing of stories, the facts of which can often be called into question.[2] These tabloids—such as The Globe and the National Enquirer—often use aggressive and usually mean-spirited tactics to sell their issues. Unlike regular tabloid-format newspapers, supermarket tabloids are distributed through the magazine distribution channel, similarly to other weekly magazines and mass-market paperback books. Leading examples include the National Enquirer, Star, Weekly World News (itself a parody of the style), and the Sun. Most major supermarket tabloids in the U.S. are published by American Media, Inc., including the National Enquirer, Star, The Globe, and National Examiner.

A major event in the history of U.S. supermarket tabloids was the successful libel lawsuit by Carol Burnett against the National Enquirer (Carol Burnett v. National Enquirer, Inc.), arising out of a false 1976 report in the National Enquirer, implying she was drunk and boisterous in a public encounter with U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. Though its impact is widely debated, it is generally seen as a significant turning point in the relations between celebrities and tabloid journalism, increasing the willingness of celebrities to sue for libel in the U.S., and somewhat dampening the recklessness of U.S. tabloids.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] Other celebrities have attempted to sue tabloid magazines for libel and slander including Richard Simmons in 2017[10] and Phil McGraw in 2016.[9] Both McGraw and Simmons sued the National Enquirer, but only McGraw was successful, winning $250 million.[9]

Tabloids may pay for stories. Besides scoops meant to be headline stories, this can be used to censor stories damaging to the paper's allies. Known as "catch and kill", tabloid newspapers may pay someone for the exclusive rights to a story, then choose not to run it.[11] Publisher American Media has been accused of burying stories embarrassing to Arnold Schwarzenegger,[12] Donald Trump,[13] and Harvey Weinstein.[14]

Red tops

Tabloid newspapers in the United Kingdom, collectively called "the tabloid press", tend to be simply and sensationally written and to give more prominence than broadsheets to celebrities, sports, crime stories, and even hoaxes. They also take political positions on news stories: ridiculing politicians, demanding resignations, and predicting election results.[15]

The term "red tops" refers to British tabloids with red mastheads (the American English term is nameplate), such as The Sun, the Daily Star, the Daily Mirror, and the Daily Record.[16]

It is generally regarded as a derogatory term in the UK and is used as a by-word for “low quality” compared to broadsheet newspapers.

Given the associations with the word tabloid in Britain, it is often not applied to newspapers such as The Times or The Independent that have adopted the physical format of a tabloid, having previously been broadsheets.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Dr. Phil and wife Robin sue the National Enquirer for $250 million, citing defamation". The Washington Post. July 14, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  2. ^ "supermarket tabloid". Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  3. ^ Scott, Vernon, "Carol Burnett launches trial balloon", March 22, 1981, United Press International (UPI), retrieved January 1, 2017.
  4. ^ Lindsey, Robert, "Carol Burnett given 1.6 million in suit against National Enquirer", March 27, 1981, The New York Times, retrieved January 1, 2017.
  5. ^ "How the Supermarket Tabloids Stay Out of Court", January 4, 1991, The New York Times, retrieved January 1, 2017.
  6. ^ Langberg, Barry (libel attorney for Carol Burnett and others), opinion essay: "Tabloids' Lies Abuse the First Amendment", August 12, 1991, "], Los Angeles Times, retrieved January 1, 2017.
  7. ^ Beam, Alex, "Tabloid Law", Part 1 of two parts, August 1999, The Atlantic Monthly, retrieved January 1, 2017.
  8. ^ Beam, Alex, "Tabloid Law", Part 2 of two parts, August 1999, The Atlantic Monthly, retrieved January 1, 2017.
  9. ^ a b c Andrews, Travis M., "Dr_ Phil and wife Robin sue the National Enquirer for $250 million, citing defamation", July 14, 2016, The Washington Post, retrieved January 1, 2017.
  10. ^ "Richard Simmons v the National Enquirer". Scribd. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  11. ^ Sullivan, Margaret (November 5, 2016). "'Catch and kill' at National Enquirer gives media one last black eye before election". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  12. ^ Nicholas, Peter; Hall, Carla (August 12, 2005). "Tabloid's Deal With Woman Shielded Schwarzenegger". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  13. ^ Palazzolo, Joe; Rothfield, Michael; Alpert, Lukas (November 4, 2016). "National Enquirer Shielded Donald Trump From Playboy Model's Affair Allegation". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  14. ^ Twohey, Megan; Kantor, Jodi; Dominus, Susan; Rutenberg, Jim; Eder, Steve (December 6, 2017). "Weinstein's Complicity Machine". The New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  15. ^ "Tabloids". AskDefine. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  16. ^ Stephen Brook (December 6, 2007). "Red-tops on the rise, survey shows". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 1, 2012.

Bibliography

  • Martin Conboy (2006). Tabloid Britain: Constructing a Community Through Language. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-35553-7.
  • Kevin Glynn (2000). Tabloid Culture: Trash Taste, Popular Power, and the Transformation of American Television. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2550-0.
  • Paula E. Morton (2009). Tabloid Valley: Supermarket News and American Culture. University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-3364-8.
  • Colin Sparks; John Tulloch (2000). Tabloid Tales: Global Debates over Media Standards. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-9572-0.
  • Herman Wasserman (2010). Tabloid Journalism in South Africa: True Story!. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-22211-4.
  • Barbie Zelizer, ed. (2009). The Changing Faces of Journalism: Tabloidization, Technology and Truthiness. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-77824-4.

External links

A Very Private Affair

A Very Private Affair (French: Vie privée) is a 1962 French film directed by Louis Malle and starring Brigitte Bardot.

Catch and kill

Catch and kill is a technique employed by some newspaper editors to prevent information damaging to someone else from becoming public, presumably to protect allies of the editor. The newspaper buys the exclusive rights to a story without the intention of publishing it, in effect silencing the seller.

Catch and kill is distinct from using hush money: it is practiced by the media and the target may not be aware his or her information will be kept secret. So far, the rare documented cases always involve a tabloid newspaper, specifically the National Enquirer and its parent company.

Five Star Final

Five Star Final is a 1931 American pre-Code film about crime and the excesses of tabloid journalism. The picture was written by Robert Lord and Byron Morgan from the play of the same name by Louis Weitzenkorn, directed by Mervyn LeRoy, starring Edward G. Robinson, and featuring H. B. Warner, Marian Marsh, Oscar Apfel, Aline MacMahon, Frances Starr, Ona Munson, and Boris Karloff.

The title refers to an era when competing newspapers published a series of editions during the day, in this case marking its final edition front page with five stars and the word "Final." "Five Star Final" is also a font similar to those often used in newspaper headlines.

Warners remade the film in 1936 as Two Against the World, also known as One Fatal Hour, starring Humphrey Bogart in Robinson's part and set in a radio station instead of a newspaper.The film was nominated at the 5th Annual Academy Awards in 1931/1932 in the category of Outstanding Production, which later became known as the Academy Award for Best Picture.

Gossip columnist

A gossip columnist is someone who writes a gossip column in a newspaper or magazine, especially a gossip magazine. Gossip columns are material written in a light, informal style, which relates the gossip columnist's opinions about the personal lives or conduct of celebrities from show business (motion picture movie stars, theater, and television actors), politicians, professional sports stars, and other wealthy people or public figures. Some gossip columnists broadcast segments on radio and television.

The columns mix factual material on arrests, divorces, marriages and pregnancies, obtained from official records, with more speculative gossip stories, rumors, and innuendo about romantic relationships, affairs, and purported personal problems.

Gossip columnists have a reciprocal relationship with the celebrities whose private lives are splashed about in the gossip column's pages. While gossip columnists sometimes engage in (borderline) defamatory conduct, spreading innuendo about alleged immoral or illegal conduct that can injure celebrities' reputations, they also are an important part of the "Star System" publicity machine that turns movie actors and musicians into celebrities and superstars that are the objects of the public's obsessive attention and interest. The publicity agents of celebrities often provide or "leak" information or rumors to gossip columnists to publicize the celebrity or their projects, or to counteract "bad press" that has recently surfaced about their conduct.

Gossip magazine

Gossip magazines (sometimes referred to as tabloid magazines) are magazines that feature scandalous stories about the personal lives of celebrities and other well-known individuals. This genre of magazine flourished in North America in the 1950s and early 1960s. The title Confidential alone boasted a monthly circulation in excess of ten million, and it had many competitors, with names such as Whisper, Dare, Suppressed, The Lowdown, Hush-Hush, and Uncensored. These magazines included more lurid and explicit content than did the popular newspaper gossip columnists of the time, including tales of celebrity homosexuality and illegal drug use.

Junk food news

Junk food news (also known as junk news or junk journalism) is a sardonic term for news stories that deliver "sensationalized, personalized, and homogenized inconsequential trivia",

especially when such stories appear at the expense of serious investigative journalism. It implies a criticism of the mass media for disseminating news that, while not very nourishing, is "cheap to produce and profitable for media proprietors."

Lucky Pierre (film)

Lucky Pierre (French: La moutarde me monte au nez) is a 1974 French comedy film directed by Claude Zidi.

Smear campaign

A smear campaign, also referred to as a smear tactic or simply a smear, is an effort to damage or call into question someone's reputation, by propounding negative propaganda. It can be applied to individuals or groups.

Common targets are public officials, politicians, political candidates, activists and ex-spouses. The term also applies in other contexts such as the workplace.The term smear campaign became popular around 1936.

Tabloid

Tabloid may refer to:

Tabloid journalism, a type of journalism

Tabloid (newspaper format), a newspaper with compact page size

Tabloid (paper size), a North American paper size

Tabloid (film), a 2010 documentary by Errol Morris

Tabloid (TV series), a Canadian television series

Tabloid (film)

Tabloid is a 2010 American documentary film directed by Errol Morris. It tells the story of Joyce McKinney, who in 1977 was accused of kidnapping and raping Kirk Anderson, an American Mormon missionary. The incident, known as the Mormon sex in chains case, became a major tabloid story in the United Kingdom and triggered a circulation battle between two popular tabloid newspapers, the Daily Mirror and the Daily Express.

The film is based on interviews of McKinney, journalist Peter Tory (1939-2012), and photographer Kent Gavin conducted by Morris. The film makes reference to Mormon culture, such as temple garments.

Tabloid (newspaper format)

A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format.

The term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, astrology, celebrity gossip and television, and is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a high standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets, even if the newspaper is now printed on smaller pages.

Tabloid Junkie

"Tabloid Junkie" is a song performed by American recording artist Michael Jackson. The song appeared as the eleventh track on Jackson's ninth studio album, entitled HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I, which was released in 1995 as a two-disc set. The song was written, composed, and produced by Michael Jackson, Jimmy Jam (James Harris III) and Terry Lewis.

The song received generally positive reviews from music critics. "Tabloid Junkie" is a funk rock song, with lyrics that pertain to media bias and negative coverage of rumors about Jackson and his personal life, similar to previous songs recorded by Jackson. "Tabloid Junkie" is the seventh song on HIStory to be aimed at the media.

Tabloid television

Tabloid television, also known as teletabloid, is a form of tabloid journalism. Tabloid television newscasts usually incorporate flashy graphics and sensationalized stories. Often, there is a heavy emphasis on crime, stories with good video, and celebrity news. It is a form of infotainment.

The United States is not the only television market with this genre of broadcasting. Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom and France all have tabloid television programming that reflects this same down-market, sensationalist style of journalism and entertainment.

The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum (film)

The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum, or: How violence develops and where it can lead (German original title: Die Verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum oder: Wie Gewalt entstehen und wohin sie führen kann) is a 1975 film adaptation of the novel of the same name by Heinrich Böll, written for the screen by Volker Schlöndorff and Margarethe von Trotta. Schlöndorff and von Trotta wrote the script with an emphasis on the vindictive and harsh treatment of an innocent woman by the public, the police and the media.

The film stars Angela Winkler as Blum, Mario Adorf as Kommissar Beizmenne, Dieter Laser as Tötges, and Jürgen Prochnow as Ludwig.

The Man Inside (1990 film)

The Man Inside is a 1990 American drama film directed by Bobby Roth. It stars Jürgen Prochnow and Peter Coyote. It was nominated for a Mystfest award in 1990.

The Net (1975 film)

The Net (German: Das Netz) is a 1975 West German drama film directed by Manfred Purzer and starring Mel Ferrer.

The Public Eye (film)

The Public Eye is a 1992 neo-noir film produced by Sue Baden-Powell and written and directed by Howard Franklin, starring Joe Pesci and Barbara Hershey. Stanley Tucci and Richard Schiff appear in supporting roles.

The film is loosely based on New York Daily News photographer Arthur "Weegee" Fellig, and some of the photos in the film were taken by Fellig.

Yellow journalism

Yellow journalism and the yellow press are American terms for journalism and associated newspapers that present little or no legitimate well-researched news while instead using eye-catching headlines for increased sales. Techniques may include exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering, or sensationalism. By extension, the term yellow journalism is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion.In English, the term is chiefly used in the US. In the UK, a roughly equivalent term is tabloid journalism, meaning journalism characteristic of tabloid newspapers, even if found elsewhere. Other languages, e.g. Russian (Жёлтая пресса), sometimes have terms derived from the American term. A common source of such writing is called checkbook journalism, which is the controversial practice of news reporters paying sources for their information without verifying its truth or accuracy. In the U.S. it is generally considered unethical, with most mainstream newspapers and news shows having a policy forbidding it. In contrast, tabloid newspapers and tabloid television shows, which rely more on sensationalism, regularly engage in the practice.

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