Tabanomorpha

The Brachyceran infraorder Tabanomorpha is a small group that consists primarily of two large families, the Tabanidae (horse and deer flies) and Rhagionidae (snipe flies), and an assortment of very small affiliated families, most of which have been (or could be, or sometimes are) included within the Rhagionidae. The Tabanomorpha is one of the two Brachyceran groups outside the Hippoboscoidea that contain blood-feeding (hematophagous) species, though they are not important disease vectors.

The larvae of tabanomorphs are primarily found in aquatic or semi-aquatic habitats, and are predatory. They often have "warts" or other body projections that may resemble the prolegs of caterpillars.

Tabanomorpha
Tabanus sudeticus02
Tabanus sudeticus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Suborder: Brachycera
Infraorder: Tabanomorpha
Families

Classification

The infraorder Vermileonomorpha is often included within the Tabanomorpha, though the most recent classifications place them as its sister taxon. There are also some classifications that place the Nemestrinoidea within the Tabanomorpha, though this is not widely accepted. There are two superfamily-level lineages currently recognized within Tabanomorpha; the Tabanoidea and the Rhagionoidea (the latter comprising Austroleptidae, Bolbomyiidae, and Rhagionidae).[1]

References

  1. ^ Kerr, P.H. 2010: Phylogeny and classification of Rhagionidae, with implications for Tabanomorpha (Diptera: Brachycera). Zootaxa, 2592: 1–133.
Alloleptis

Alloleptis is a genus of snipe fly of the family Rhagionidae. It is a small fly of about 4 mm and only known from Celebes. It currently contains only one species, Alloleptis tersus.

Asilomorpha

The Brachyceran infraorder Asilomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the nonmuscoid Brachycera. The larvae of asilomorphs are extremely diverse in habits, as well.

Austroleptis

Austroleptis is a genus of snipe flies, and the sole genus in the family Austroleptidae; until 2010, it was placed in the family Rhagionidae. They are small to moderately sized flies of around 3 to 7.7 mm.

The family Austroleptidae was originally created by Nagatomi (1982) as "Austroleptinae", a subfamily of Rhagionidae. It was later proposed that it be raised to family rank by Stuckenburg (2001).

Bolbomyia

Bolbomyia is a genus of snipe flies, and the sole genus in the family Bolbomyiidae; until 2010, it was placed in the family Rhagionidae. They are a small 2 to 3.5 mm, brown or black in color, with lightly infuscate (darkened) wings. They are restricted to the north temperate region of North America and Russian Far East (Kamchatka).

Brachycera

The Brachycera are a suborder of the order Diptera. It is a major suborder consisting of around 120 families. Their most distinguishing characteristic is reduced antenna segmentation. A summary of the main physiological characteristics is:

Antenna size (with eight or fewer flagellomeres) is reduced.

The maxillary palp (an elongated appendage near the mouth) has two segments or fewer.

The back portions of the larval head capsule extend into the prothorax (the anterior part of the thorax, which bears the first pair of legs).

Two distinct parts make up of the larval mandible (lower jaw).

The epandrium and hypandrium of the genitalia are separated in males.

No premandible is present on the lower surface of the labrum (the roof of the mouth).

The configuration of the CuA2 and A1 wing veins is distinct.Brachyceran flies can also be distinguished through behavior. Many of the species are predators or scavengers.

Chrysopsinae

Chrysopsinae is a subfamily of deer flies in the family Tabanidae. There are about 33 genera and 600 described species in Chrysopsinae.

Coenura

For Coenura Gaede, 1931, see Coenyra, a butterfly genus from the subfamily Satyrinae.

Coenura is a genus of snipe flies, insects in the family Rhagionidae.

Diachlorus

Diachlorus is a genus of biting horseflies of the family Tabanidae. D. ferrugatus ranges from the southeastern United States to Costa Rica. There are 27 species with a neotropical distribution, with the greatest diversity in Brazil, while 3 are found in Central America.

Haematopota

Haematopota is a genus of flies in the horse-fly family, Tabanidae. Among the horse-flies, they are most commonly known as clegs. Many species have colorful, patterned eyes in life, a character that fades after death. The genus is named from the Ancient Greek for blood-drinker: αἷμα, haîma, blood; πότης, pótës, drinker.The genus contains the following species:

Haematopota americana Osten Sacken, 1875

Haematopota bigoti Gobert, 1880 – big-spotted cleg

Haematopota champlaini (Philip, 1953)

Haematopota crassicornis Wahlberg, 1848 – black-horned cleg

Haematopota grandis Meigen, 1820 – long-horned cleg

Haematopota italica Meigen, 1804 – Italian cleg

Haematopota pluvialis (Linnaeus, 1758) – notch-horned cleg

Haematopota pseudolusitanica

Haematopota punctulata Macquart, 1838

Haematopota rara Johnson, 1912

Haematopota subcylindrica Pandellé, 1883 – Levels cleg

Haematopota willistoni (Philip, 1953)

Hamatabanus

Hamatabanus is a genus of horse flies in the family Tabanidae. There are at least four described species in Hamatabanus.

Hybomitra

Hybomitra is a genus of horse flies in the family Tabanidae. There are at least 240 described species in Hybomitra.

Leucotabanus

Leucotabanus is a genus of horse flies in the family Tabanidae. There are at least 2 described species in Leucotabanus.

Nemestrinoidea

The Nemestrinoidea are a small, monophyletic superfamily of flies, whose relationship to the remaining Brachycera is uncertain; they are sometimes grouped with the Tabanomorpha rather than the Asilomorpha. They are presently considered to be the sister taxon to the Asiloidea. The group contains two recent very small families, the Acroceridae and Nemestrinidae, both of which occur worldwide but contain only small numbers of rare species. One extinct family, Rhagionemestriidae, is also included in Nemestrinoidea.These insects are parasitoids, with Acroceridae attacking spiders, and Nemestrinidae typically attacking Orthoptera. Both families have unusual and distinctive wing venation by which they can be easily recognized, in addition to other features.

Rhagio

Rhagio is a worldwide genus of predatory snipe flies. Several species in this genus are referred to as downlooker or down-looker flies because they sometimes perch on trees trunks in a head-down position. There are approximately 170 species. They can be distinguished from other rhagionids by the open anal cell on the wings and the lack of a kidney-shaped arista.

Rhagionidae

Rhagionidae or snipe flies are a small family of flies.

Spania (fly)

Spania is a genus of snipe flies of the family Rhagionidae. Some authorities place this genus in the family Spaniidae Nagatomi, 1975, this move has not however yet gained much widespread acceptance.Spania are small - 2 to 3.0 mm, dark brown to black in colour.

Stenotabanus

Stenotabanus is a genus of horse flies in the family Tabanidae. There are at least 100 described species in Stenotabanus.

Symphoromyia

Symphoromyia (meaning bane/blight fly in Greek) is a genus of predatory snipe flies. Unusually for Rhagionids, some species of Symphoromyia are known to feed on mammal blood, including human blood. Symphoromyia species are stout bodied flies from 4.5 to 9 mm and with a black, grey or gold thorax, and the abdomen is coloured grey, black, or both black and yellow, black terminating with yellow, to completely yellow. The wings are hyaline or lightly infuscate.

Tabanoidea

Superfamily Tabanoidea are insects in the order Diptera.

Extant Diptera families

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