Tagged Image File Format, abbreviated TIFF or TIF, is a computer file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry,[1] and photographers. TIFF is widely supported by scanning, faxing, word processing, optical character recognition, image manipulation, desktop publishing, and page-layout applications.[2] The format was created by Aldus Corporation for use in desktop publishing. It published the latest version 6.0 in 1992, subsequently updated with an Adobe Systems copyright after the latter acquired Aldus in 1994. Several Aldus or Adobe technical notes have been published with minor extensions to the format, and several specifications have been based on TIFF 6.0, including TIFF/EP (ISO 12234-2), TIFF/IT (ISO 12639),[3][4][5] TIFF-F (RFC 2306) and TIFF-FX (RFC 3949).[6]

Filename extensions.tiff, .tif
Internet media type
  • image/tiff
  • image/tiff-fx
Type codeTIFF
Uniform Type Identifier (UTI)public.tiff
Developed byAldus, now Adobe Systems
Initial release1986
Latest release
TIFF 6.0
(3 June 1992
TIFF Supplement 2 / 22 March 2002)
Type of formatImage file format
Extended fromtiff
Extended toExif, DCF, TIFF/EP, TIFF/IT, TIFF-FX, GeoTIFF


TIFF was created as an attempt to get desktop scanner vendors of the mid-1980s to agree on a common scanned image file format, in place of a multitude of proprietary formats. In the beginning, TIFF was only a binary image format (only two possible values for each pixel), because that was all that desktop scanners could handle. As scanners became more powerful, and as desktop computer disk space became more plentiful, TIFF grew to accommodate grayscale images, then color images. Today, TIFF, along with JPEG and PNG, is a popular format for deep-color images.

The first version of the TIFF specification was published by Aldus Corporation in the autumn of 1986 after two major earlier draft releases. It can be labeled as Revision 3.0. It was published after a series of meetings with various scanner manufacturers and software developers. In April 1987 Revision 4.0 was released and it contained mostly minor enhancements. In October 1988 Revision 5.0 was released and it added support for palette color images and LZW compression.[7]

Features and options

TIFF is a flexible, adaptable file format for handling images and data within a single file, by including the header tags (size, definition, image-data arrangement, applied image compression) defining the image's geometry. A TIFF file, for example, can be a container holding JPEG (lossy) and PackBits (lossless) compressed images. A TIFF file also can include a vector-based clipping path (outlines, croppings, image frames). The ability to store image data in a lossless format makes a TIFF file a useful image archive, because, unlike standard JPEG files, a TIFF file using lossless compression (or none) may be edited and re-saved without losing image quality. This is not the case when using the TIFF as a container holding compressed JPEG. Other TIFF options are layers and pages.

TIFF offers the option of using LZW compression, a lossless data-compression technique for reducing a file's size. Use of this option was limited by patents on the LZW technique until their expiration in 2004.

The TIFF 6.0 specification consists of the following parts:[7]

  • Introduction (contains information about TIFF Administration, usage of Private fields and values, etc.)
  • Part 1: Baseline TIFF
  • Part 2: TIFF Extensions
  • Part 3: Appendices

Part 1: Baseline TIFF

When TIFF was introduced, its extensibility provoked compatibility problems. The flexibility in encoding gave rise to the joke that TIFF stands for Thousands of Incompatible File Formats.[8] To avoid these problems, every TIFF reader was required to read Baseline TIFF. Among other things, Baseline TIFF does not include layers, or compressed JPEG or LZW images. Baseline TIFF is formally known as TIFF 6.0, Part 1: Baseline TIFF.

The following is an incomplete list of required Baseline TIFF features:[7]

Multiple subfiles

TIFF readers must be prepared for multiple/multi-page images (subfiles) per TIFF file, although they are not required to actually do anything with images after the first one.

There may be more than one Image File Directory (IFD) in a TIFF file. Each IFD defines a subfile. One use of subfiles is to describe related images, such as the pages of a facsimile document. A Baseline TIFF reader is not required to read any IFD beyond the first one.[7]


A baseline TIFF image is composed of one or more strips. A strip (or band) is a subsection of the image composed of one or more rows (horizontal rows of pixels). Each strip may be compressed independently of the entire image, and each begins on a byte boundary. If the image height is not evenly divisible by the number of rows in the strip, the last strip may contain fewer rows. If strip definition tags are omitted, the image is assumed to contain a single strip.


Baseline TIFF readers must handle the following three compression schemes:[7]

Image types

Baseline TIFF image types are: bilevel, grayscale, palette-color, and RGB full-color images.[7]

Byte order

Every TIFF file begins with a two-byte indicator of byte order: "II" for little-endian (a.k.a. "Intel byte ordering", circa 1980)[9] or "MM" for big-endian (a.k.a. "Motorola byte ordering", circa 1980)[9] byte ordering. The next two-byte word contains the format version number, which has always been 42 for every version of TIFF (e.g., TIFF v5.0 and TIFF v6.0).[10] All words, double words, etc., in the TIFF file are assumed to be in the indicated byte order. The TIFF 6.0 specification states that compliant TIFF readers must support both byte orders (II and MM); writers may use either.[11]

Other TIFF fields

TIFF readers must be prepared to encounter and ignore private fields not described in the TIFF specification. TIFF readers must not refuse to read a TIFF file if some optional fields do not exist.[7]

Part 2: TIFF Extensions

Many TIFF readers support tags additional to those in Baseline TIFF, but not every reader supports every extension.[12][13][14][15] As a consequence, Baseline TIFF features became the lowest common denominator for TIFF. Baseline TIFF features are extended in TIFF Extensions (defined in the TIFF 6.0 Part 2 specification) but extensions can also be defined in private tags.

The TIFF Extensions are formally known as TIFF 6.0, Part 2: TIFF Extensions. Here are some examples of TIFF extensions defined in TIFF 6.0 specification:[7]


Image types

Image Trees

A baseline TIFF file can contain a sequence of images (IFD). Typically, all the images are related but represent different data, such as the pages of a document. In order to explicitly support multiple views of the same data, the SubIFD tag was introduced.[16] This allows the images to be defined along a tree structure. Each image can have a sequence of children, each child being itself an image. The typical usage is to provide thumbnails or several versions of an image in different colour spaces.

A TIFF image may also be composed of a number of tiles. All tiles in the same image have the same dimensions and may be compressed independently of the entire image, similar to strips (see above). Tiled images are part of TIFF 6.0, Part 2: TIFF Extensions, so the support for tiled images is not required in Baseline TIFF readers.

Other extensions

According to TIFF 6.0 specification (Introduction), all TIFF files using proposed TIFF extensions that are not approved by Adobe as part of Baseline TIFF (typically for specialized uses of TIFF that do not fall within the domain of publishing or general graphics or picture interchange) should be either not called TIFF files or should be marked some way so that they will not be confused with mainstream TIFF files.

Private tags

Developers can apply for a block of "private tags" to enable them to include their own proprietary information inside a TIFF file without causing problems for file interchange. TIFF readers are required to ignore tags that they do not recognize, and a registered developer's private tags are guaranteed not to clash with anyone else's tags or with the standard set of tags defined in the specification. Private tags are numbered in the range 32,768 and higher.

Private tags are reserved for information meaningful only for some organization, or for experiments with a new compression scheme within TIFF. Upon request, the TIFF administrator (currently Adobe) will allocate and register one or more private tags for an organization, to avoid possible conflicts with other organizations. Organizations and developers are discouraged from choosing their own tag numbers arbitrarily, because doing so could cause serious compatibility problems. However, if there is little or no chance that TIFF files will escape a private environment, organizations and developers are encouraged to consider using TIFF tags in the "reusable" 65,000-65,535 range. There is no need to contact Adobe when using numbers in this range.[7]

Internet Media Type

The MIME type image/tiff (defined in RFC 3302) without an application parameter is used for Baseline TIFF 6.0 files or to indicate that it is not necessary to identify a specific subset of TIFF or TIFF extensions. The optional "application" parameter (Example: Content-type: image/tiff; application=foo) is defined for image/tiff to identify a particular subset of TIFF and TIFF extensions for the encoded image data, if it is known. According to RFC 3302, specific TIFF subsets or TIFF extensions used in the application parameter must be published as an RFC.[17]

MIME type image/tiff-fx (defined in RFC 3949 and RFC 3950) is based on TIFF 6.0 with TIFF Technical Notes TTN1 (Trees) and TTN2 (Replacement TIFF/JPEG specification). It is used for Internet fax compatible with the ITU-T Recommendations for Group 3 black-and-white, grayscale and color fax.

TIFF Compression Tag

The TIFF Tag 259 (010316) stores the information about the Compression method. The default value is 1 = no compression.

Most TIFF writers and TIFF readers support only some TIFF compression schemes. Here are some examples of used TIFF compression schemes:

TIFF Compression Tag[13][15][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]
Tag value Compression scheme Lossy/lossless Specification Description Image types Usage and support
000116 None Lossless TIFF 6.0 Baseline TIFF All Common
000216 CCITT Group 3 1-Dimensional Modified Huffman run-length encoding (a.k.a. MH or CCITT 1D) Lossless TIFF 6.0 Baseline TIFF; compression based on ITU-T T.4 Black and white Common
000316 CCITT T.4 bi-level encoding as specified in section 4, Coding, of ITU-T Recommendation T.4 (a.k.a. CCITT Group 3 fax encoding or CCITT Group 3 2D) Lossless TIFF 6.0 TIFF 6.0 Extensions; compression based on ITU-T T.4 Black and white Common
000416 CCITT T.6 bi-level encoding as specified in section 2 of ITU-T Recommendation T.6 (a.k.a. CCITT Group 4 fax encoding) Lossless TIFF 6.0 TIFF 6.0 extensions; compression based on ITU-T T.6 Black and white Common
000516 Lempel–Ziv–Welch Lossless TIFF 6.0 TIFF 6.0 Extensions; first defined in TIFF 5 (1988); a patented compression algorithm, but the patents expired in 2003 and 2004 All Common[26]
000616 JPEG (obsolete 'old-style' JPEG, later superseded in Technote2) Lossy TIFF 6.0 TIFF 6.0 Extensions; first defined in TIFF 6 (1992); obsolete, should never be written. Continuous-tone Rare
000716 JPEG ('new-style' JPEG) Lossy TIFF 6 Technote2 (1995) Technote2 supersedes old-style JPEG compression; it is a TIFF 6.0 extension. Continuous-tone Uncommon
000816 Deflate, Adobe variant (official) Lossless TIFF Specification Supplement 2 (2002) Adobe Photoshop TIFF Technical Notes; it is a TIFF 6.0 extension. All Uncommon[26]
000916 JBIG, per ITU-T T.85 Lossless TIFF-FX RFC 2301 (1998), RFC 3949 (2005) Black and white Rare
000A16 JBIG, per ITU-T T.43 Lossless TIFF-FX RFC 2301 (1998), RFC 3949 (2005) Black and white Rare
7FFE16 NeXT RLE 2-bit greyscale encoding Proprietary Rare
800516 PackBits (a.k.a. Macintosh RLE) Lossless TIFF 6.0 Baseline TIFF All Rare[26]
802916 ThunderScan RLE 4-bit encoding Proprietary Black and white Rare
807F16 RasterPadding in continuous tone (CT) or monochrome picture (MP) Lossless TIFF/IT (1998, 2004) ISO 12639 Rare
808016 RLE for line work (LW) Lossless TIFF/IT (1998, 2004) ISO 12639 Rare
808116 RLE for high-resolution continuous-tone (HC) Lossless TIFF/IT (1998, 2004) ISO 12639 Rare
808216 RLE for binary line work (BL) Lossless TIFF/IT (1998, 2004) ISO 12639 Rare
80B216 Deflate, PKZIP variant (obsolete) Lossless Proprietary According to TIFF Specification Supplement 2 it should be considered obsolete but reading is recommended All Uncommon
80B316 Kodak DCS Proprietary Rare
876516 JBIG LibTiff Black and white Rare
879816 JPEG2000 Proprietary Includes a complete JP2 file inside a TIFF file, not recommended. Introduced by Leadtools.[27] Uncommon
879916 Nikon NEF Compressed Proprietary Rare
879B16 JBIG2 Lossless, lossy TIFF-FX Extension Set 1.0 Abandoned IETF draft from 2001[28] Rare


The TIFF file formats use 32-bit offsets, which limits file size to around 4 GiB. Some implementations even use a signed 32-bit offset, running into issues around 2 GiB already. BigTIFF is a TIFF variant file format which uses 64-bit offsets and supports much larger files.[29] The BigTIFF file format specification was implemented in 2007 in development releases of LibTIFF version 4.0, which was finally released as stable in December 2011. Support for BigTIFF file formats by applications is limited.

Digital preservation

Adobe holds the copyright on the TIFF specification (aka TIFF 6.0) along with the two supplements that have been published. These documents can be found on the Adobe TIFF Resources page.[30] The Fax standard in RFC 3949 is based on these TIFF specifications.[31]

TIFF files that strictly use the basic "tag sets" as defined in TIFF 6.0 along with restricting the compression technology to the methods identified in TIFF 6.0 and are adequately tested and verified by multiple sources for all documents being created can be used for storing documents. Commonly seen issues encountered in the content and document management industry associated with the use of TIFF files arise when the structures contain proprietary headers, are not properly documented, and/or contain "wrappers" or other containers around the TIFF datasets, and/or include improper compression technologies, or those compression technologies are not properly implemented.

Variants of TIFF can be used within document imaging and content/document management systems using CCITT Group IV 2D compression which supports black-and-white (bitonal, monochrome) images, among other compression technologies that support color. When storage capacity and network bandwidth was a greater issue than commonly seen in today's server environments, high-volume storage scanning, documents were scanned in black and white (not in color or in grayscale) to conserve storage capacity.

The inclusion of the SampleFormat tag in TIFF 6.0 allows TIFF files to handle advanced pixel data types, including integer images with more than 8 bits per channel and floating point images. This tag made TIFF 6.0 a viable format for scientific image processing where extended precision is required. An example would be the use of TIFF to store images acquired using scientific CCD cameras that provide up to 16 bits per photosite of intensity resolution. Storing a sequence of images in a single TIFF file is also possible, and is allowed under TIFF 6.0, provided the rules for multi-page images are followed.


Filename extension.fp, .ct, .lw, .hc, .mp, .bp, .bl, .sd[17]
Internet media typenot defined[17]
Developed byANSI, ISO
Initial release1993
Latest release
Type of formatImage file format
Extended fromTIFF 6.0
StandardISO 12639[3][32][33]

TIFF/IT is used to send data for print-ready pages that have been designed on high-end prepress systems.[34] The TIFF/IT specification (ISO 12639) describes a multiple-file format, which can describe a single page per file set.[35] TIFF/IT files are not interchangeable with common TIFF files.[36][37][38]

The goals in developing TIFF/IT were to carry forward the original IT8 magnetic-tape formats into a medium-independent version. TIFF/IT is based on Adobe TIFF 6.0 specification and both extends TIFF 6, by adding additional tags, and restricts, it by limiting some tags and the values within tags. Not all valid TIFF/IT images are valid TIFF 6.0 images.[39]

TIFF/IT defines image-file formats for encoding colour continuous-tone picture images, colour line art images, high-resolution continuous-tone images, monochrome continuous-tone images, binary picture images, binary line-art images, screened data, and images of composite final pages.[4]

There is no MIME type defined for TIFF/IT. The MIME type image/tiff should not be used for TIFF/IT files, because TIFF/IT does not conform to Baseline TIFF 6.0 and the widely deployed TIFF 6.0 readers cannot read TIFF/IT. The MIME type image/tiff (defined in RFC 3302) without an application parameter is used for Baseline TIFF 6.0 files or to indicate that it is not necessary to identify a specific subset of TIFF or TIFF extensions. The application parameter should be used with image/tiff to distinguish TIFF extensions or TIFF subsets. According to RFC 3302, specific TIFF subsets or TIFF extensions must be published as an RFC. There is no such RFC for TIFF/IT. There is also no plan by the ISO committee that oversees TIFF/IT standard to register TIFF/IT with either a parameter to image/tiff or as new separate MIME type.[17]

TIFF/IT files

TIFF/IT consists of a number of different files and it cannot be created or opened by common desktop applications.[17][36][40] TIFF/IT-P1 file sets usually consist of the following files:[4][5][41]

  • Final Page (FP)
  • Continuous Tone image (CT)
  • Line Work image (LW)
  • High resolution Continuous-tone files (HC - optional)

TIFF/IT also defines the following files:[4]

  • Monochrome continuous-tone Picture images (MP)
  • Binary Picture images (BP)
  • Binary Line-art images (BL)
  • Screened Data (SD)

Some of these data types are partly compatible with the corresponding definitions in the TIFF 6.0 specification. The Final Page (FP) allows the various files needed to define a complete page to be grouped together: it provides a mechanism for creating a package that includes separate image layers (of types CT, LW, etc.) to be combined to create the final printed image. Its use is recommended but not required. There must be at least one subfile in an FP file, but no more than one of each type. It typically contains a CT subfile and an LW subfile.[4][39][42]

The primary color space for this standard is CMYK, but also other color spaces and the use of ICC Profiles are supported.[4]

TIFF/IT compression

TIFF/IT makes no provision for compression within the file structure itself, but there are no restrictions.[39] (For example, it is allowed to compress the whole file structure in a ZIP archive.)

LW files use a specific compression scheme known as Run-length encoding for LW (Compression tag value is 808016). HC files also use a specific Run-length encoding for HC (Compression tag value is 808116). The TIFF/IT P1 specs do not allow use of compression within the CT file.

The following is a list of defined TIFF/IT compression schemes:[33]

TIFF/IT compression schemes
File type TIFF/IT conformance TIFF/IT-P1 conformance TIFF/IT-P2 conformance
Final Page (FP) 0th IFD field Uncompressed (000116), Deflate (000816) or PackBits (800516)
Continuous Tone (CT) Uncompressed (000116), JPEG (000716), Deflate (000816) or RasterPadding in CT or MP (807F16) Uncompressed (000116) Uncompressed (000116), JPEG (000716), Deflate (000816)
Line Work (LW) RLE for LW (808016)
High resolution Continuous tone (HC) RLE for HC (808116)
Monochrome continuous-tone Picture (MP) Uncompressed (000116), JPEG (000716), Deflate (000816) or RasterPadding in CT or MP (807F16) Uncompressed (000116) Uncompressed (000116), JPEG (000716), Deflate (000816)
Binary Picture images (BP) Uncompressed (000116), CCITT T.6 bi-level encoding (000416), Deflate (000816) Uncompressed (000116) Uncompressed (000116), CCITT T.6 bi-level encoding (000416), Deflate (000816)
Binary Line art (BL) RLE for BL (808216)
Screened Data (SD) Uncompressed (000116), CCITT T.6 bi-level encoding (000416), Deflate (000816) Uncompressed (000116), CCITT T.6 bi-level encoding (000416), Deflate (000816)


The ISO 12639:1998 introduced TIFF/IT-P1 (Profile 1) - a direct subset of the full TIFF/IT standard (previously defined in ANSI IT8.8–1993). This subset was developed on the ground of the mutual realization by both the standards and the software development communities that an implementation of the full TIFF/IT standard by any one vendor was both unlikely (because of its complexity), and unnecessary (because Profile 1 would cover most applications for digital ad delivery). Almost all TIFF/IT files in digital advertising were distributed as TIFF/IT-P1 file sets in 2001.[43][44] When people talk about TIFF/IT, they usually mean the P1 standard.[5]

Here are some of the restrictions on TIFF/IT-P1 (compared to TIFF/IT):[42]

  • Uses CMYK only (when appropriate)
  • It is pixel interleaved (when appropriate)
  • Has a single choice of image orientation
  • Has a single choice of dot range
  • Restricted compression methods

TIFF/IT-P1 is a simplified conformance level of TIFF/IT and it maximizes the compatibility between Color Electronic Prepress Systems (CEPS) and Desk Top Publishing (DTP) worlds.[39][45] It provides a clean interface for the proprietary CEPS formats such as the Scitex CT/LW format.


Because TIFF/IT P1 had a number of limitations, an extended format was developed. The ISO 12639:2004 introduced a new extended conformance level - TIFF/IT-P2 (Profile 2). TIFF/IT-P2 added a number of functions to TIFF/IT-P1 like:[5]

  • CMYK spot colours only (when appropriate)
  • Support for the compression of CT and BP data (JPEG and Deflate)
  • Support for multiple LW and CT files in a single file
  • Support for copydot files through a new file type called SD (Screened Data)
  • There was some effort to create a possibility to concatenate FP, LW, and CT files into a single file called the GF (Group Final) file, but this was not defined in a draft version of ISO 12639:2004.[33]

This format was not widely used.

Private tags

The TIFF/IT specification preserved the TIFF possibility for developers to utilize private tags. The TIFF/IT specification is very precise regarding how these private tags should be treated - they should be parsed, but ignored.[46]

Private tags in the TIFF/IT-P1 specification were originally intended to provide developers with ways to add specific functionality for specific applications. Private tags can be used by developers (e.g., Scitex) to preserve specific printing values or other functionality. Private tags are typically labelled with tag numbers greater than or equal to 32768.

All private tags must be requested from Adobe (the TIFF administrator) and registered.

In 1992, the DDAP (Digital Distribution of Advertising for Publication, later Digital Directions in Applications for Production) developed their requirement statement for digital ad delivery. This was presented to ANSI-accredited CGATS (Committee for Graphic Arts Technology Standards) for development of an accredited file format standard for the delivery of digital ads. CGATS reviewed their alternatives for this purpose and TIFF seemed like the ideal candidate, except for the fact that it could not handle certain required functionalities. CGATS asked Aldus (the TIFF administrator) for a block of their own TIFF private tags in order to implement what eventually became TIFF/IT. For example, the ability to identify the sequence of the colors is handled by tag 34017 - the Color Sequence Tag.[46]

TIFF/IT was created to satisfy the need for a transport-independent method of encoding raster data in the IT8.1, IT8.2 and IT8.5 standards.


TIFF/IT was defined in ANSI IT8.8–1993 standard in 1993 and later revised in the International Standard ISO 12639:1998 - Prepress digital data exchange – Tag image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT).[3] The ISO standard replaces ANSI IT8.8–1993. It specifies a media-independent means for prepress electronic data exchange.[47]

The ISO 12639:2004 (Second edition) standard for TIFF/IT superseded the ISO 12639:1998. It was also later extended in ISO 12639:2004 / Amd. 1:2007 - Use of JBIG2-Amd2 compression in TIFF/IT.

See also


  1. ^ Murray, James D.; vanRyper, William (April 1996). "Encyclopedia of Graphics File Formats" (Second ed.). O'Reilly. ISBN 1-56592-161-5. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
  2. ^ TIFF was chosen as the native format for raster graphics in the NeXTstep operating system; this TIFF support carried over into Mac OS X.
  3. ^ a b c "TIFF/IT ISO/IEC 12639". ISO. 1998.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "TIFF/IT for Image Technology". The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program at the Library of Congress. 2006-10-03.
  5. ^ a b c d "The TIFF/IT file format". Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  6. ^ "File Format for Internet Fax". 2005. Retrieved 2011-02-19. This file format specification is commonly known as TIFF for Fax eXtended (TIFF-FX).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i TIFF Revision 6.0 Final — June 3, 1992, Retrieved on 2009-07-10
  8. ^ Trauth, Martin H. (2006). MATLAB Recipes For Earth Sciences. Springer. p. 198. ISBN 3-540-27983-0.
  9. ^ a b David Beecher, author of dozens of image processing engines over the last 30 years. Any TIFF file can be viewed with a HEX editor to confirm this.
  10. ^ Aldus/Microsoft (1988-08-08). "1) Structure". TIFF. Revision 5.0. Aldus Corporation and Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2009-06-29. The number 42 was chosen for its deep philosophical significance.
  11. ^ Adobe Developers Association (1992-06-03). "Section 7: Additional baseline TIFF Requirements". TIFF (PDF). Revision 6.0. Adobe Systems Incorporated. p. 26. Retrieved 2018-12-25. ‘MM’ and ‘II’ byte order. TIFF readers must be able to handle both byte orders. TIFF writers can do whichever is most convenient or efficient.
  12. ^ Microsoft. "You cannot preview scanned TIFF file in Windows Picture and Fax Viewer". Retrieved 2011-02-28.
  13. ^ a b Microsoft. "You Cannot View TIFF Images Using Windows Picture and Fax Viewer". Retrieved 2011-02-28.
  14. ^ Microsoft. "Handling Microsoft Office Document Scanning TNEF and TIFFs in Linux". Archived from the original on 2013-04-30. Retrieved 2011-02-28.
  15. ^ a b "About Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)". Retrieved 2011-03-04.
  16. ^ TIFF Specification Supplement 1, Retrieved 2013-08-04
  17. ^ a b c d e CIP4 (2008). "JDF Specification - Appendix H MimeType and MimeTypeVersion Attributes". Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  18. ^ "Baseline TIFF Tag Compression". Retrieved 2011-02-26.
  19. ^ "LibTIFF - TIFF 6.0 Specification Coverage". Retrieved 2011-02-28.
  20. ^ "JSTOR/Harvard Object Validation Environment - TIFF Compression Schemes". Archived from the original on January 30, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-26.
  21. ^ "JSTOR/Harvard Object Validation Environment - JHOVE TIFF-hul Module". Archived from the original on December 10, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-26.
  22. ^ "TIFF Fields". Retrieved 2011-02-27.
  23. ^ Library of Congress Collections. "Tags for TIFF and Related Specifications". Retrieved 2011-02-27.
  24. ^ "GIMP Documentation - Saving as TIFF". Retrieved 2011-02-27.
  25. ^ "IrfanView - History of changes". Retrieved 2011-02-27.
  26. ^ a b c Succeed project (2014). Recommendations for metadata and data formats for online availability and long-term preservation (PDF). p. 68. If files are actively managed in a digital repository, it is possible to consider using either LZW or ZIP lossless compression for the TIFF files. JPEG compression should not be used within [...] TIFF. [...] Most of the respondents use uncompressed images (64%), if compression is used then LZW is mostly used.
  27. ^ "LEADTOOLS TIFF SDK". Retrieved 2011-07-04.
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ "Extending LibTiff library with support for the new format called BigTIFF".
  30. ^ "Adobe TIFF Resources page". Retrieved 2018-08-10.
  31. ^ "TIFF, Revision 6.0". Digital Preservation. Library of Congress. 2014-01-08. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
  32. ^ "ISO 12639:2004 - Graphic technology - Prepress digital data exchange - Tag image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT)". Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  33. ^ a b c ISO (2002), DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 12639 - Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT) - Revision of first edition (ISO 12639:1998) (PDF), retrieved 2011-03-07
  34. ^ "Glossary of Printing Terms - TIFF/IT". Retrieved 2011-03-01.
  35. ^ CIP3 application note (PDF), retrieved 2011-03-01
  36. ^ a b Tiff/It Questions and Answers (PDF), retrieved 2011-03-01
  37. ^ Introduction to PDF/X, retrieved 2011-03-01
  38. ^ "Tiff/It P1 Specifications". Retrieved 2011-03-03. Note: TIFF/IT-P1 is not equivalent to a Photoshop® Tiff!
  39. ^ a b c d DDAP, TIFF/IT-P1, PDF-X/1 (PDF), 1998, archived from the original (PDF) on February 15, 2006, retrieved 2011-03-01
  40. ^ DDAP Association (2003). "TIFF/IT Implementers". Archived from the original on April 25, 2005. Retrieved 2011-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  41. ^ Harlequin RIP - manual for a commercial TIFF/IT plugin (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on February 20, 2011, retrieved 2011-03-02
  42. ^ a b A software manual with information about TIFF/IT (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2011
  43. ^ DDAP Position Statement - TIFF/IT as a File Format for Delivery of Digital Advertising - October, 2001, October 2001, archived from the original on 2004-01-11, retrieved 2011-03-03
  44. ^ DDAP Position Statement - TIFF/IT as a File Format for Delivery of Digital Advertising - October, 2001 (PDF), October 2001, Archived from the original on March 21, 2003, retrieved 2011-03-03CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  45. ^ "TIFF/IT-P1". Retrieved 2011-03-01.
  46. ^ a b DDAP Association (2002). "TIFF/IT Private Tags". Archived from the original on April 28, 2003. Retrieved 2011-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  47. ^ "Glossary of Printing Terms - TIFF/IT-P1". Retrieved 2011-03-01.

External links

2009 Toronto International Film Festival

The 34th annual Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between September 10 and September 19, 2009. The opening night gala presented the Charles Darwin biography Creation. The Young Victoria, based on the early years of Queen Victoria, closed the festival on September 19.

2010 Toronto International Film Festival

The 35th annual Toronto International Film Festival, (TIFF) was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between September 9 and September 19, 2010. The opening night gala presented Score: A Hockey Musical, a Canadian comedy-drama musical film. Last Night closed the festival on September 19.

2010 TIFF included 258 feature films, down from 264 in 2009. However, the number of short films at the 2010 festival increased to 81 (compared to 70 in 2009), making the total number of films 339, five more than in 2009.Of the feature films, TIFF claims that 112 are world premieres, 24 are international premieres (i.e. the first screening outside the film's home country), and 98 are North American premieres. (In fact, some of the so-called premieres screened at the Telluride Film Festival before TIFF.)

2012 Toronto International Film Festival

The 37th annual Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between September 6 and September 16, 2012. TIFF announced the films that were accepted on August 21, 2012. On its 37th edition the TIFF included a 289 feature films and 83 short films.[1] Directed by Rian Johnson, Looper was selected as the opening film.

2013 Toronto International Film Festival

The 38th annual Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) took place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between September 5 and 15, 2013. The Fifth Estate was selected as the opening film and Life of Crime was the closing film. 75 films were added to the festival line-up in August. A total of 366 films from 70 different countries were screened, including 146 world premieres.

2014 Toronto International Film Festival

The 39th annual Toronto International Film Festival was held in Canada from 4–14 September 2014. David Dobkin's film The Judge, starring Robert Downey Jr. and Robert Duvall was the opening night film. A Little Chaos, a British period drama directed by Alan Rickman and starring Kate Winslet closed the festival. More films for each section were announced on 12 August, with the line-up completed on 19 August. A total of 393 films were shown, including 143 world premieres. The first Friday was dubbed "Bill Murray Day", as festival organisers dedicated a day to the actor by screening a select number of his films for free.

2015 Toronto International Film Festival

The 40th annual Toronto International Film Festival was held from 10 to 20 September 2015. On 28 July 2015 the first wave of films to be screened at the Festival was announced. Jean-Marc Vallée's Demolition starring Jake Gyllenhaal and Naomi Watts was the opening night film; Mr. Right by Paco Cabezas was the closing night film.The year's edition included two new sections called Platform and Primetime. At Platform, twelve films will be screened in front of a jury, with the best film of the program winning the C$25,000 Platform Prize. Film directors Claire Denis, Jia Zhangke, and Agnieszka Holland were selected as the jurors for this section. At Primetime, six high-quality television programs will be presented at public screenings with Question and Answer sessions with show creators. The lineups for the TIFF Docs, Vanguard, Midnight Madness, and Masters sections were announced on 11 August 2015. More than 100 films were added to the festival's programme on 18 August. The new program titled In Conversation replaced the Maverick section.The Festival reported that TIFF 2015 had a record high industry attendance, with 5,450 delegates from 80 countries, a 7% increase over 2014.

2016 Toronto International Film Festival

The 41st annual Toronto International Film Festival was held from 8 to 18 September 2016. The first announcement of films to be screened at the festival took place on 26 July. Almost 400 films were shown.

2017 Toronto International Film Festival

The 42nd annual Toronto International Film Festival was held from 7 to 17 September 2017. There were fourteen programmes, with the Vanguard and City to City programmes both being retired from previous years, with the total number of films down by 20% from the 2016 edition. Borg/McEnroe directed by Janus Metz Pedersen opened the festival.According to a "fact sheet" released by the Festival before it began, this edition included 255 feature-length films and 84 short films. Of the feature films, 147 are claimed to be world premieres. The number of Canadian films at the Festival (including co-productions) is listed as 28 features and 29 shorts.

2018 Toronto International Film Festival

The 43rd annual Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) took place from September 6 to 16, 2018. In June 2018, the TIFF organizers announced a program to ensure that at least 20 percent of all film critics and journalists given press accreditation to the festival are members of underrepresented groups, such as women and people of color. The People's Choice Award was won by Green Book, directed by Peter Farrelly.

Bonding (TV series)

Bonding, also stylized as BONDiNG, is an American dark comedy web television series that premiered on Netflix on April 24, 2019. The series stars Zoe Levin, Brendan Scannell, Micah Stock, Theo Stockman, D'Arcy Carden and Eric Berryman.

Comparison of graphics file formats

This is a comparison of image file formats.

Fifth Gear

Fifth Gear is a British motoring television magazine series. It was originally broadcast on Channel 5 from 2002 to 2011, afterwards moving to Discovery Channel in 2012, and then in 2015 to History, with repeats on ITV4. Since its return in 2018, it has been broadcast on Quest. The show is currently presented by Tiff Needell, Vicki Butler-Henderson, Jonny Smith and Jason Plato.Fifth Gear was first broadcast on 8 April 2002 as 5th Gear, and as a continuation of the original incarnation of the BBC show Top Gear, which was cancelled in 2001. Top Gear was relaunched later that year; Channel 5 originally wanted to carry on using the Top Gear name, but the BBC refused as it still operated the Top Gear magazine. Several of Top Gear's ex-presenters, including Quentin Willson, Tiff Needell, and Vicki Butler-Henderson, were hired by Channel 5 to present the series. The show's name was restyled as Fifth Gear in 2005. Needell announced the show's second cancellation on 24 May 2016. On 14 June 2018, Needell announced on his official Twitter account that he had been doing some filming work for a new series of Fifth Gear which would air in September on Quest.Repeats of Fifth Gear also started being broadcast on UKTV channel Dave in April 2008 and later on Discovery Turbo.

Image file formats

Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images. Image files are composed of digital data in one of these formats that can be rasterized for use on a computer display or printer. An image file format may store data in uncompressed, compressed, or vector formats. Once rasterized, an image becomes a grid of pixels, each of which has a number of bits to designate its color equal to the color depth of the device displaying it.


Tag Image File Format/Electronic Photography (TIFF/EP) is a digital image file format standard – ISO 12234-2, titled "Electronic still-picture imaging – Removable memory – Part 2: TIFF/EP image data format". This is different from the Tagged Image File Format, which is a standard administered by Adobe currently called "TIFF, Revision 6.0 Final – June 3, 1992".

The TIFF/EP standard is based on a subset of the Adobe TIFF standard, and a subset of the JEITA Exif standard, with some differences and extensions.

One of the uses of TIFF/EP is as a raw image format. A characteristic of most digital cameras (but excluding those using the Foveon X3 sensor or similar, hence especially Sigma cameras) is that they use a color filter array (CFA). Software processing a raw image format for such a camera needs information about the configuration of the color filter array, so that the raw image can identify separate data from the individual sites of the sensor. Ideally this information is held within the raw image file itself, and TIFF/EP uses the tags that begin "CFA", CFARepeatPatternDim and CFAPattern, which are only relevant for raw images.

This standard has not been adopted by most camera manufacturers – Exif/DCF is the current industry standard file organisation system which uses the Exchangeable image file format. However, TIFF/EP provided a basis for the raw image formats of a number of cameras. One example is Nikon's NEF raw file format, which uses the tag TIFF/EPStandardID (with value Adobe's DNG (Digital Negative) raw file format was based on TIFF/EP, and the DNG specification states "DNG... is compatible with the TIFF-EP standard". Several cameras use DNG as their raw file format, so in that limited sense they use TIFF/EP too.

TIFF Bell Lightbox

TIFF Bell Lightbox is a cultural centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located in the first five floors of the Bell Lightbox and Festival Tower on the north west corner of King Street and John Street. It is the headquarters for the Toronto International Film Festival.

Tiff Needell

Timothy "Tiff" Needell (born 29 October 1951 in Havant, Hampshire) is a British racing driver and television presenter. He is a former co-presenter of Top Gear and of Fifth Gear.

Tokyo International Film Festival

The Tokyo International Film Festival (東京国際映画祭, Tōkyōkokusaieigasai) (TIFF) is a film festival established in 1985. The event was held biennially from 1985 to 1991 and annually thereafter. Along with the Shanghai International Film Festival, it is one of Asia's competitive film festivals, and the only Japanese festival accredited by the FIAPF.The awards handed out during the festival have changed throughout its existence, but the Tokyo Grand Prix, handed to the best film, has stayed as the top award. Other awards that have been given regularly include the Special Jury Award and awards for best actor, best actress and best director.

In recent years, the festival's main events have been held over one week in late October, at the Roppongi Hills development. Events include open-air screenings, voice-over screenings, and appearances by actors, as well as seminars and symposiums related to the film market.

Toronto International Film Festival

The Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF, often stylized as tiff.) is one of the largest publicly attended film festivals in the world, attracting over 480,000 people annually. Since its founding in 1976, TIFF has grown to become a permanent destination for film culture operating out of the TIFF Bell Lightbox, located in downtown Toronto.

Year-round, the TIFF Bell Lightbox offers screenings, lectures, discussions, festivals, workshops, industry support, and the chance to meet filmmakers from Canada and around the world. TIFF Bell Lightbox is located on the north west corner of King Street and John Street in downtown Toronto.

In 2016, 397 films from 83 countries were screened at 28 screens in downtown Toronto venues, welcoming an estimated 480,000 attendees, over 5,000 of whom were industry professionals. TIFF starts the Thursday night after Labour Day (the first Monday in September in Canada) and lasts for eleven days.

Founded in 1976, TIFF is now one of the largest and most prestigious events of its kind in the world. In 1998, Variety magazine acknowledged that TIFF "is second only to Cannes in terms of high-profile pics, stars, and market activity". In 2007, Time noted that TIFF had "grown from its place as the most influential fall film festival to the most influential film festival, period". This is partially the result of the festival's ability and reputation for generating "Oscar buzz".The festival's People's Choice Award—which is based on audience balloting—has emerged as an indicator of success during awards season, especially at the Academy Awards. Past recipients of this award include Oscar-winning films, such as Life Is Beautiful (1998), American Beauty (1999), Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000), Slumdog Millionaire (2008), The King's Speech (2010), 12 Years a Slave (2013), The Imitation Game (2014), Room (2015), La La Land (2016), Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri (2017), and Green Book (2018).

The festival's current executive director and co-head is Joana Vicente. The festival's artistic director and co-head is Cameron Bailey.


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