T. Christian Miller

T. Christian Miller is an investigative reporter, author, and war correspondent for ProPublica.[1] He has focused on how multinational corporations operate in foreign countries, documenting human rights and environmental abuses. Miller has covered four wars — Kosovo, Colombia, Israel and the West Bank, and Iraq. He also covered the 2000 presidential campaign.[2] He is also known for his work in the field of computer-assisted reporting and was awarded a Knight Fellowship at Stanford University in 2012 to study innovation in journalism.[3] In 2016, Miller was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism with Ken Armstrong of The Marshall Project.[4]

T. Christian Miller
T. Christian Miller Mug
T. Christian Miller
NationalityUnited States
EducationUniversity of California, Berkeley
OccupationJournalist, author
Known forInvestigative journalism
Spouse(s)Leslie L. Miller

Career and biography

Miller grew up in Charleston, S.C. His mother, Linda Miller, was a member of the local school board who focused on integration issues.[5] His father, Donald H. Miller, was a research biochemist at the Medical University of South Carolina.[6] Miller graduated from Bishop England High School.

Miller began his career in journalism at the University of California at Berkeley. He majored in English and minored in French while becoming the University Editor of the Daily Californian, an independent campus newspaper.[7] After college, he worked for the St. Petersburg Times, now the Tampa Bay Times.[8]

In 1997, he went to work for the Los Angeles Times. While at that paper, he covered local, national and international news, opening the newspaper's first bureau in Bogota, Colombia. Miller was briefly held prisoner by the leftist Colombian guerrilla group known as the FARC, or Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia,[9] an episode later documented in a short animated news feature.[10] Two of his reporters were later held captive by a second Colombian leftist group, the ELN, or Ejército de Liberación Nacional.[11]

Miller's investigative reporting in Colombia uncovered that a contractor for an American oil company, Occidental Petroleum, had helped to coordinate the bombing of civilians by the Colombian Air Force of a small town in northeastern Colombia which left 17 dead.[12] His coverage of the Santo Domingo bombing led to the U.S. suspending military aid to the Colombian Air Force[13] and to a judgement by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights condemning the Colombian government.[14]

Miller became a national correspondent for the Los Angeles Times based in Washington, D.C. While there, Miller served as the only journalist in the U.S. dedicated exclusively to covering the Iraqi reconstruction.[15] Miller published a book on the subject, Blood Money: Wasted Billions, Lost Lives and Corporate Greed in Iraq.[16]

In 2008, Miller was one of the founding employees of ProPublica, an independent, non-profit start-up dedicated to investigative reporting. While at ProPublica, Miller has published investigative projects with various news organizations, including the Los Angeles Times,[17] The New York Times,[18] The Washington Post,[19] Newsweek,[20] Salon,[21] National Public Radio,[22] This American Life,[23] ABC News 20/20[24] and PBS' Frontline.[25]

Miller is a leading figure in innovation in journalism, especially in transparency, trust and data-driven journalism.[26] He delivered the U.S. Army Creekmore Lecture in 2007, and has taught at the University of Southern California, Columbia University, Stanford University,[27] the University of California at Berkeley and the College of Charleston. He spent a year at Stanford University as a Knight Fellow, studying transparency and new models of journalism.[28]

Currently, Miller works for ProPublica and is a board member of Investigative Reporters and Editors,[29] or the IRE, the nation's largest organization of investigative journalists.

Honors and awards

Miller has won numerous local, national and international awards. In 1999, he won the John B. Oakes Award for Environmental Journalism for his coverage of runaway growth in the Santa Monica Mountains. In 2004, he was awarded the Livingston Award for international reporting, one of the most competitive and prestigious reporting prizes in American journalism, for his coverage of children and war. In 2005, he won an Overseas Press Club award. In 2009, he won an Investigative Reporters and Editors award. In 2010, he won a George Polk award with Daniel Zwerdling of National Public radio for his work covering traumatic brain injuries in the U.S. military. In that same year, he was also given the Selden Ring Award for investigative reporting on private contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan.[30] In 2015, Miller, Marcela Gaviria, and colleagues from ProPublica and Frontline were awarded two News & Documentary Emmy Awards,[31] the Robert F. Kennedy Center For Justice and Human Rights award for their work documenting the support given by the Firestone Company to Charles Taylor, Liberia's former president and a convicted war criminal, during that country's civil war.[32] In 2016, Miller, along with Ken Armstrong (journalist) of The Marshall Project, won the Pulitzer Prize in Explanatory Reporting for "An Unbelievable Story of Rape." [33]


  1. ^ "ProPublica". Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  2. ^ Miller, T. Christian (28 February 2000). "Los Angeles Times".
  3. ^ "Stanford University". Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  4. ^ "The 2016 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Explanatory Reporting". Pulitzer Prize Board. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  5. ^ "The Post and Courier (Charleston, SC)". Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  6. ^ Janech, Michael. "American Journal of Physiology". American Physiological Society. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  7. ^ "Daily Californian". Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  8. ^ "John S. Knight Fellowship".
  9. ^ Miller, T. Christian (2 March 2002). "A Captive at Mercy of Colombian Rebels". Los Angeles Times.
  10. ^ Ching, Carrie. "I was Kidnapped by a Colombian Guerrilla Army". Vice Magazine.
  11. ^ Miller, T. Christian (24 January 2003). "San Francisco Chronicle". San Francisco Chronicle.
  12. ^ Miller, T. Christian (17 March 2002). "Los Angeles Times".
  13. ^ "Common Dreams". Archived from the original on 2006-03-21.
  14. ^ "Colombia Reports".
  15. ^ "Amazon Authors".
  16. ^ Miller, Thomas (2006). Blood Money: Wasted Billions, Lost Lives and Corporate Greed in Iraq. Little, Brown. ISBN 0316166286.
  17. ^ "Injured War Zone Contractors Fight to Get Care From AIG and Other Insurers". Los Angeles Times. 16 April 2009.
  18. ^ Schubert, Siri; Miller, T. Christian (20 December 2008). "At Siemens, Bribery Was Just a Line Item". The New York Times.
  19. ^ Miller, T. Christian (16 August 2009). "Sometimes It's Not Your War, But You Sacrifice Anyway". The Washington Post.
  20. ^ "$6 Billion Later, Afghan Cops Aren't Ready to Serve". Newsweek. 20 March 2010.
  21. ^ "Injured abroad, neglected at home". Salon. 17 December 2009.
  22. ^ "With Traumatic Brain Injuries, Soldiers Face Battle For Care". National Public Radio. 9 June 2010.
  23. ^ "Use Only As Directed". This American Life. 20 September 2013.
  24. ^ "Bailed-Out AIG Pampers Execs While Denying, Delaying Claims of Contractors Injured in Iraq". ABC 20/20. 17 April 2008.
  25. ^ "Black Money". PBS Frontline.
  26. ^ "Re-Engineering Journalism". Stanford University.
  27. ^ "Stanford University". Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  28. ^ "Re-Engineering Journalism". Stanford University.
  29. ^ "IRE Board". Investigative Reporters and Editors.
  30. ^ "USC Annenberg". Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  31. ^ "36th Annual News & Documentary Emmy Awards". Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  32. ^ "RFK Center".t
  33. ^ "Pulitzer".
Council on Hemispheric Affairs

The Council on Hemispheric Affairs (COHA) is a leftist Washington, D.C.-based non-governmental organization (NGO) founded in 1975.

Dale Stoffel

Dale C. Stoffel (1961 – December 8, 2004) was an American businessman and arms dealer who was involved with the American reconstruction efforts following the Iraq War. After alerting the Pentagon of corruption and payment irregularities involving U.S. personnel in the Coalition Provisional Authority and with the Iraqi government, he was killed in an ambush in Taji, Iraq.

Economy of Liberia

Liberia is one of the poorest countries in the world, and its economy is extremely underdeveloped, largely due to the First Liberian Civil War in 1989-96. The civil war destroyed much of Liberia's economy, especially the infrastructure in and around Monrovia. The war also caused a brain drain and the loss of capital, as the civil war involved overthrowing the Americo-Liberian minority that ruled the country. Some returned during 1997, but many have not.

Richly endowed with water, mineral resources, forests, and a climate favorable to agriculture, but poor in human capital, infrastructure, and stability, Liberia has a fairly typical profile for Sub-Saharan African economies – the majority of the population is reliant on subsistence agriculture, while exports are dominated by raw commodities such as rubber and iron ore. Local manufacturing, such as it exists, is mainly foreign-owned.

The democratically elected government, installed in August 1997, inherited massive international debts and currently relies on revenues from its maritime registry to provide the bulk of its foreign exchange earnings. The restoration of the infrastructure and the raising of incomes in this ravaged economy depend on the implementation of sound macro- and microeconomic policies of the new government, including the encouragement of foreign investment.

George Polk Awards

Not to be confused with the George Polk Award that was presented (1948–1973) by the Overseas Press Club of America.The George Polk Awards in Journalism are a series of prestigious American journalism awards presented annually by Long Island University in New York in the United States. A writer for Idea Lab, a group blog hosted on the website of PBS, described the award as "one of only a couple of journalism prizes that means anything".The awards were established in 1949 in memory of George Polk, a CBS correspondent who was murdered in 1948 while covering the Greek Civil War (1946–49). In 2009, former New York Times editor John Darnton was named curator of the George Polk Awards.See list of George Polk Award winners for award recipients.

Josh Marshall's blog, Talking Points Memo, was the first blog to receive the Polk Award in 2008 for their reporting on the 2006 U.S. Attorneys scandal.

Iraq War

The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict. The U.S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition; the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush following the September 11 terrorist attacks.

In October 2002, President Bush obtained congressional approval from a Democrat-led Senate and Republican-led House authorizing war-making powers. The Iraq war began on 19 March 2003, when the U.S., joined by the U.K. and several coalition allies, launched a "shock and awe" bombing campaign. Iraqi forces were quickly overwhelmed as U.S. forces swept through the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba'athist government; Saddam was captured during Operation Red Dawn in December of that same year and executed by a military court three years later. However, the power vacuum following Saddam's demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis, as well as a lengthy insurgency against U.S. and coalition forces. Many violent insurgent groups were supported by Iran and al-Qaeda in Iraq. The United States responded with a troop surge in 2007, a build up of 170,000 troops. The surge in troops gave greater security to Iraq’s government and military, and was largely a success. The winding down of U.S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama. The U.S. formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011. However, with no stay-behind agreement or advisers left in Iraq, a new power vacuum was created and led to the rise of ISIS. Nine months after President Trump was elected, U.S.-backed forces captured Raqqa, which had served as the ISIS capital.The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq, which had been viewed by the U.S. as a rogue state since the 1990–1991 Gulf War, possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and that there was concern about an active WMD program, and that the Iraqi government posed a threat to the United States and its coalition allies. Select U.S. officials accused Saddam of harbouring and supporting al-Qaeda, while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship and bring democracy to the people of Iraq. Hundreds of chemical weapons were found in Iraq, which were determined to be produced before the 1991 Gulf War, and intelligence officials determined they were "so old they couldn't be used as designed." From 2004 to 2011, US troops and American-trained Iraqi troops repeatedly encountered, and on six reported occasions were wounded by, chemical weapons from years earlier in Saddam Hussein's rule. Roughly 5,000 chemical warheads, shells or aviation bombs were discovered. The rationale of U.S. pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism both domestically and internationally. From 2009 to 2011, the UK conducted a broad inquiry into its decision to go to war chaired by Sir John Chilcot. The Chilcot Report, published in 2016, concluded military action may have been necessary but was not the last resort at the time and that the consequences of invasion were underestimated.In the aftermath of the invasion, Iraq held multi-party elections in 2005. Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister in 2006 and remained in office until 2014. The al-Maliki government enacted policies that were widely seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions. In the summer of 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies. The Iraq War caused over a hundred thousand civilian deaths and tens of thousands of military deaths (see estimates below). The majority of deaths occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007.

Jenks, Oklahoma

Jenks is a city in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, United States, and a suburb of Tulsa, in the northeastern part of the state. It is situated between the Arkansas River and U.S. Route 75. Jenks is one of the fastest growing cities in Oklahoma. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 9,557, but by 2010, the population was 16,924, an increase of 77.1 percent.

Joseph E. Schmitz

Joseph Edward Schmitz (born August 28, 1956) is an American lawyer, former inspector general of the United States Department of Defense and a former executive with Blackwater Worldwide. After working as a watchdog at the Pentagon for three and a half years, Schmitz resigned to return to the private sector. Although allegations questioning his stewardship of the inspector general's office surfaced nine months after his resignation, a high-level review board, the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency, cleared him of all wrongdoing in 2006. He was named one of Donald Trump's foreign policy advisors for his 2016 presidential campaign.

List of federal political scandals in the United States

This article provides a list of political scandals that involve officials from the government of the United States, sorted from most recent date to least recent.

Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times (sometimes abbreviated as LA Times or L.A. Times) is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, and is the largest U.S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues particularly salient to the U.S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters. It has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of these and other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, and the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine.In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910. The paper's profile grew substantially in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, and other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, and in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.


Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen and APAP, is a medication used to treat pain and fever. It is typically used for mild to moderate pain relief. There is mixed evidence for its use to relieve fever in children. It is often sold in combination with other medications, such as in many cold medications. Paracetamol is also used for severe pain, such as cancer pain and pain after surgery, in combination with opioid pain medication. It is typically used either by mouth or rectally, but is also available by injection into a vein. Effects last between 2 to 4 hours.Paracetamol is generally safe at recommended doses. The recommended maximum daily dose for an adult is 3 or 4 grams. Higher doses may lead to toxicity, including liver failure. Serious skin rashes may rarely occur. It appears to be safe during pregnancy and when breastfeeding. In those with liver disease, it may still be used, but in lower doses. It is classified as a mild analgesic. It does not have significant anti-inflammatory activity. How it works is not entirely clear.Paracetamol was first made in 1877. It is the most commonly used medication for pain and fever in both the United States and Europe. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, which lists the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Paracetamol is available as a generic medication with trade names including Tylenol and Panadol, among others. The wholesale price in the developing world is less than US$ 0.01 per dose. In the United States, it costs about US$0.04 per dose. In 2016, it was the 17th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 29 million prescriptions.


ProPublica is an American nonprofit organization based in New York City. It is a nonprofit newsroom that aims to produce investigative journalism in the public interest. In 2010, it became the first online news source to win a Pulitzer Prize, for a piece written by one of its journalists and published in The New York Times Magazine as well as on ProPublica.org. ProPublica states that its investigations are conducted by its staff of full-time investigative reporters, and the resulting stories are distributed to news partners for publication or broadcast. In some cases, reporters from both ProPublica and its partners work together on a story. ProPublica has partnered with more than 90 different news organizations, and it has won four Pulitzer Prizes.

Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting

The Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting has been presented since 1998, for a distinguished example of explanatory reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing and clear presentation. From 1985 to 1997, it was known as the Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism.

The Pulitzer Prize Board announced the new category in November 1984, citing a series of explanatory articles that seven months earlier had won the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing. The series, "Making It Fly" by Peter Rinearson of The Seattle Times, was a 29,000-word account of the development of the Boeing 757 jetliner. It had been entered in the National Reporting category, but judges moved it to Feature Writing to award it a prize. In the aftermath, the Pulitzer Prize Board said it was creating the new category in part because of the ambiguity about where explanatory accounts such as "Making It Fly" should be recognized. The Pulitzer Committee issues an official citation explaining the reasons for the award.

The Daily Californian

The Daily Californian (Daily Cal) is an independent, student-run newspaper that serves the University of California, Berkeley campus and its surrounding community. It publishes a print edition four days a week on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday during the academic year, and twice a week during the summer. Established in 1871, The Daily Californian is one of the oldest newspapers on the West Coast, and one of the oldest college newspapers in the United States. Current circulation is about 10,000 for a campus of roughly 35,000 students.

The Intelligence Summit

The Intelligence Summit is a powerful, secret organization of top intelligence officers from around the world.

The Intelligence Summit yearly conference is held in Washington, DC.

Several former CIA directors, former Mossad chiefs, former MI6 heads, former US Air Force Generals and other top intelligence officials are part of the leadership of the Intelligence Summit.

The Chairman of the Intelligence Summit, is a top secret person, whose identity is never revealed and his name withheld for security reasons.

Its annual conference run principally by former top Justice Department official John Loftus is funded by the Intelligence and Homeland Security Educational Center (IHEC).[7].

The stated purpose of these regular meetings is "to provide an opportunity for the international intelligence community to share secret intelligence, listen to and learn from each other, and to share ideas in the common war against terrorism."

Theodore S. Westhusing

Colonel Theodore S. Westhusing (November 17, 1960 – June 5, 2005), a West Point professor of English and Philosophy, volunteered to serve in Iraq in late 2004 and died in Baghdad in June 2005 from an allegedly self-inflicted gunshot wound. At the time he was the highest-ranked American to die violently in Iraq since the start of the March 2003 United States-led invasion. He was 44 years old, married with three young children.

Timeline of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The following items form a partial timeline of the War in Afghanistan. For events prior to October 7, 2001, see 2001 in Afghanistan

Tylenol (brand)

Tylenol is a brand of drugs advertised for reducing pain, reducing fever, and relieving the symptoms of allergies, cold, cough headache, and influenza. The active ingredient of its original flagship product is acetaminophen (known in most Commonwealth nations as paracetamol), an analgesic and antipyretic. Like the words acetaminophen and paracetamol, the brand name Tylenol is derived from a chemical name for the compound, N-aceTYL-para-aminophENOL (APAP). The brand name is owned by McNeil Consumer Healthcare, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson.As of 2017, the "Tylenol" brand was used in Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, Lebanon, Myanmar, Oman, the Philippines, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, the United States, and Vietnam.

Unbelievable (miniseries)

Unbelievable is an upcoming American drama miniseries created by director Susannah Grant. The series is executive produced by Grant, Michael Chabon, Ayelet Waldman, Sarah Timberman, Carl Beverly, and Katie Couric. On January 22, 2018, it was announced that Netflix had finalized a deal for the eight episode limited series.

War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan), code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–14) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present), followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of 7 October 2001. The U.S. was initially supported by the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia and later by a coalition of over 40 countries, including all NATO members. The war's public aims were to dismantle al-Qaeda and to deny it a safe base of operations in Afghanistan by removing the Taliban from power. Since the initial objectives were completed at the end of 2001, the war mostly involves U.S. and allied Afghan government troops battling Taliban insurgents. The War in Afghanistan is the longest war in U.S. history.Following the September 11 attacks in 2001 on the U.S., which President George W. Bush blamed on Osama bin Laden who was living or hiding in Afghanistan and had already been wanted since 1998, President Bush demanded that the Taliban, who were de facto ruling the country, hand over bin Laden. The Taliban declined to extradite him unless they were provided clear evidence of his involvement in the attacks, which the U.S. dismissed as a delaying tactic and then on 7 October 2001 launched Operation Enduring Freedom with the United Kingdom. The two were later joined by other forces, including the Northern Alliance - the Afghan opposition which had been fighting the Taliban in the ongoing civil war since 1996. By December 2001, the Taliban and their al-Qaeda allies were mostly defeated in the country, and at the Bonn Conference new Afghan interim authorities (mostly from the Northern Alliance) elected Hamid Karzai to head the Afghan Interim Administration. The United Nations Security Council established the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist the new authority with securing Kabul, which after a 2002 loya jirga (grand assembly) became the Afghan Transitional Administration. A nationwide rebuilding effort was also made following the end of the totalitarian Taliban regime. In the popular elections of 2004, Karzai was elected president of the country, now named the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. NATO became involved in ISAF in August 2003, and later that year assumed leadership of it. At this stage, ISAF included troops from 43 countries with NATO members providing the majority of the force. One portion of U.S. forces in Afghanistan operated under NATO command; the rest remained under direct U.S. command.

Following defeat in the initial invasion, the Taliban was reorganized by its leader Mullah Omar, and launched an insurgency against the Afghan government and ISAF in 2003. Though outgunned and outnumbered, insurgents from the Taliban (and its ally Haqqani Network) - and to a lesser extent Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin and other groups - waged asymmetric warfare with guerrilla raids and ambushes in the countryside, suicide attacks against urban targets, and turncoat killings against coalition forces. The Taliban exploited weaknesses in the Afghan government to reassert influence across rural areas of southern and eastern Afghanistan. From 2006 the Taliban made significant gains and showed an increased willingness to commit atrocities against civilians - ISAF responded by increasing troops for counter-insurgency operations to "clear and hold" villages. Violence sharply escalated from 2007 to 2009. Troop numbers began to surge in 2009 and continued to increase through 2011 when roughly 140,000 foreign troops operated under ISAF and U.S. command in Afghanistan. Of these 100,000 were from the U.S. On 1 May 2011, United States Navy SEALs killed Osama bin Laden in Abbotabad, Pakistan. NATO leaders in 2012 commended an exit strategy for withdrawing their forces, and later the United States announced that its major combat operations would end in December 2014, leaving a residual force in the country. In October 2014, British forces handed over the last bases in Helmand to the Afghan military, officially ending their combat operations in the war. On December 28, 2014, NATO formally ended ISAF combat operations in Afghanistan and officially transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government. The NATO-led Operation Resolute Support was formed the same day as a successor to ISAF. As of May 2017, over 13,000 foreign troops remain in Afghanistan without any formal plans to withdraw, and continue their fight against the Taliban, which remains by far the largest single group fighting against the Afghan government and foreign troops.Tens of thousands of people have been killed in the war. Over 4,000 ISAF soldiers and civilian contractors, over 62,000 Afghan national security forces were killed, as well as over 31,000 civilians and even more Taliban.

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