The Tōkai region (東海地方 Tōkai-chihō) is a subregion of the Chūbu region and Kansai region in Japan that runs along the Pacific Ocean. The name comes from the Tōkaidō, one of the Edo Five Routes. Because Tōkai is a sub-region and is not officially classified, there is some disagreement about where exactly the region begins and ends, however Japanese maps widely conclude that the region includes Shizuoka, Aichi, Gifu and Mie prefectures.
The largest major city in the region is Nagoya and the Chūkyō Metropolitan Area (Nagoya Metropolitan Area) makes up a large portion of the region and has Japan's third strongest economy. The business influence of this urban area sometimes extends out into the outlying areas of the three prefectures centered on Nagoya which are Aichi, Gifu, and Mie; this area is sometimes referred to as the Chūkyō region.
Tōkai is a heavy manufacturing area and is one of the most industrial regions in Japan. Its coast is lined with densely populated cities with economies that thrive on factories.
The Tōkai region has experienced a number of large earthquakes in the past, including the two great earthquakes in 1944 (also known as the "Tonankai earthquake") and 1945 (also known as the "Mikawa earthquake"). Following the work of Kiyoo Mogi, it is predicted that there is a possibility that the area will be subject to a shallow magnitude 8.0 earthquake in the near future. Nagoya, Shizuoka, and other large cities would be greatly damaged, with potential casualties in the tens of thousands. The Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction designated the region as an Area of Specific Observation in 1970, and upgraded it to an Area of Intensified Observation in 1974.
Map of Japan with the Tōkai region highlighted
|Prefectures||Shizuoka, Aichi, Gifu, Mie|
|• Total||29,316.53 km2 (11,319.18 sq mi)|
(March 1, 2010)
|• Density||520/km2 (1,300/sq mi)|
Central Japan Railway Company, an arm of the former national railway Japan Railways Group, operates in an area roughly coextensive with the Tōkai region. In fact, JR Central's legal Japanese name is Tōkai Railway Company, abbreviated to JR-Tōkai ("JR Central" is the English name). JR Central operates the Tōkaidō Main Line between Atami and Maibara stations, as well as the Tōkaidō Shinkansen high speed line between Tokyo and Shin-Ōsaka, and many conventional lines joining with the Tōkaidō Main Line.
The Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant is located within the Tōkai region.
The 1944 Tōnankai earthquake occurred at 13:35 local time (04:35 UTC) on 7 December. It had an estimated magnitude of 8.1 on the moment magnitude scale (making it the strongest known earthquake of 1944) and a maximum felt intensity of greater than 5 shindo (about VIII (Severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale). It triggered a large tsunami that caused serious damage along the coast of Wakayama Prefecture and the Tōkai region. Together the earthquake and tsunami caused 3,358 casualties.Aichi Kōgen Quasi-National Park
Aichi-Kōgen Quasi-National Park (愛知高原国定公園, Aichi-Kōgen Kokutei Kōen) is a 21,705-hectare (53,630-acre) quasi-national park in the Tōkai region of Honshū in Japan. It is rated a protected landscape (category III) according to the IUCN. As with neighboring Hida-Kisogawa Quasi-National Park and Tenryū-Okumikawa Quasi-National Park the park includes mountainous landscapes with gorges and dense forests. The part is on the border between Shizuoka and Aichi Prefecture, but is entirely within Aichi. It also includes a portion of the Tōkai Nature Trail. It encompasses the area around Yahagi Dam and the Kourankei scenic areas. The area was designated a quasi-national park on December 28, 1970.
Like all Quasi-National Parks in Japan, the park is managed by the local prefectural governments.Aichi Prefecture
Aichi Prefecture (愛知県, Aichi-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region. The region of Aichi is also known as the Tōkai region. The capital is Nagoya. It is the focus of the Chūkyō metropolitan area.Ansei great earthquakes
The Ansei great earthquakes (安政の大地震, Ansei no Dai Jishin) were a series of three major earthquakes that struck Japan during the Ansei era (1854–1860).
The Ansei Tōkai quake (安政東海地震, Ansei Tōkai Jishin) was an 8.4 magnitude earthquake which struck on December 23, 1854. The epicenter ranged from Suruga Bay to the deep ocean, and struck primarily in the Tōkai region, but destroyed houses as far away as in Edo. The accompanying tsunami caused damage along the entire coast from the Bōsō Peninsula in modern-day Chiba prefecture to Tosa province (modern-day Kōchi Prefecture)
The Ansei Nankai quake (安政南海地震, Ansei Nankai Jishin) was an 8.4 magnitude earthquake which struck on December 24, 1854. Over 10,000 people from the Tōkai region down to Kyushu were killed.
The Ansei Edo quake (安政江戸地震, Ansei Edo Jishin) was a 6.9 magnitude earthquake which struck Edo (modern-day Tokyo) on November 11, 1855. One hundred and twenty earthquakes and tremors in total were felt in Edo in 1854-55. The great earthquake struck after 10 o'clock in the evening; roughly 30 aftershocks continued until dawn. The epicenter was near the mouth of the Arakawa River. Records from the time indicate 6,641 deaths inside the city, and 2,759 injuries; much of the city was destroyed by fire, leading many people to stay in rural inns. Aftershocks continued for twenty days. This quake was a particularly destructive deep thrust quake caused by a giant slab of rock stuck between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Pacific Plate.The earthquake was blamed on a giant catfish (Namazu) thrashing about. Ukiyo-e prints depicting namazu became very popular around this time.
Other notable quakes to strike in the Ansei period include one in the Iga area, one which registered 7.4 on the Richter scale and struck Kyushu and Shikoku .
The 1858 Hietsu earthquake struck the Hietsu area on April 9, 1858.Chūkyō metropolitan area
Chūkyō (中京圏, Chūkyō-ken), or the Chūkyō region (中京地方, Chūkyō-chihō), is a major metropolitan area in Japan that is centered on the city of Nagoya (the "Chūkyō", i.e., the "capital in the middle") in Aichi Prefecture. The area makes up the most-urban part of the Tōkai region. The population of 10,240,000 over an area of 7,072 square kilometers. (Demographia World Urban Areas 2019)［http://demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf]
Nevertheless, like most of Japan's major metro areas, the core of it lies on a fertile alluvial plain, in this case the Nōbi Plain.
It is among the 50 most-populous metropolitan areas in the world and is the third-most-populous metropolitan area in Japan (after Greater Tokyo and Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto), containing roughly 7% of Japan's population. Historically, this region has taken a back seat to the other two power centers, both politically and economically; however, the agglomeration of Nagoya is the 22nd-largest metro area economy, in terms of gross metropolitan product at purchasing power parity in 2014, according to a study by the Brookings Institution. The GDP in Greater Nagoya, Nagoya Metropolitan Employment Area, is US$256.3 billion in 2010.Higashi-Meihan Expressway
The Higashi-Meihan Expressway (東名阪自動車道, Higashimeihan Jidōshadō) is a four lane national expressway in the Tōkai region of Japan. It is owned and operated by Central Nippon Expressway Company.Isewangan Expressway
The Isewangan Expressway (伊勢湾岸自動車道, Isewangan Jidōshadō) is a national expressway in the Tōkai region of Japan. It is owned and operated by Central Nippon Expressway Company.Kuda-gitsune
Kuda-gitsune or Kanko (管狐, "pipe fox") is a type of spirit possession in Japanese legends. Starting in Nagano Prefecture, it is told about in the Chūbu region and also in parts of the Tōkai region, southern Kantō region, Tōhoku region, and so on. There are no legends of kudagitsune in Kantō besides the Chiba Prefecture and Kanagawa Prefecture, and this is said to be because Kantō is the domain of the osaki.Just like its name says, there are various legends about how they are the size small enough to fit into a bamboo pipe or a size about as big as a match box and would multiply until there were 75 of them, and so on.Another name for them is "izuna" (飯綱, meaning least weasel), and psychics in Niigata, the Chūbu region, and the Kantō region and "izuna-tsukai" (飯綱使い, "izuna-users") in Shinshū have these and use them to gain supernatural powers and make divinations. It is believed that izuna-tsukai (izuna-users) make use of izuna for beneficial religious uses such as foretelling prophecies, and at the same time also for evil purposes such as to fulfill requests to make the izuna go possess and give illness to someone the requester hates.
Sometimes it is told to be a type of kitsune-tsuki and depending on the region, families that have kudagitsune could sometimes be called "kuda-mochi" ("kuda"-haver), "kuda-ya" ("kuda"-proprietor), "kuda-tsukai" ("kuda"-user), and "kuda-shō" and be detested. In many legends, kudagitsune do not possess an individual, but instead a family, and it is thought that one particular trait that they have is that unlike the osaki that would do things on its own even if its master did not will it, the kudagitsune is to be "used" by its master and does as its master wills it to do. It is said that the kudagitsune, following the master's will, would procure goods from other families, so a family that keeps and raises a kudagitsune would gradually grow wealthy, but it is also said that although the family does grow wealthy at first, the kudagitsune would multiply until there were 75 of them, and so they would eventually eat away at the family's wealth making them decline.Kuda-gitsune or Kanko (管狐, "pipe fox") is a creature supposedly employed by Japanese kitsune-tsukai, those who use foxes as spirit familiars. Its use is described in various books, as follows:
In the Sōzan Chomon Kishū (想山著聞奇集) the kuda-gitsune is described as a rat-sized fox which can be kept in a pipe.Kōshin'etsu region
Kōshin'etsu (甲信越) is a subregion of the Chūbu region in Japan consisting of Yamanashi, Nagano, and Niigata prefectures.The name Kōshin'etsu is a composite formed from the names of old provinces which are adjacent to each other — Kai (now Yamanashi), Shinano (now Nagano) and Echigo (now Niigata). The region is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to its north west, Hokuriku region to its west, Tōkai region to its south west, Kantō region to its south east, and Tōhoku region to its north east. The name for this geographic area is usually combined with Kantō region (as in "Kantō-Kōshin'etsu"); and it is sometimes combined with Hokuriku region (as in "Kantō-Kōshin'etsu-Hokuriku" or "Hokuriku-Kōshin'etsu").Kōta, Aichi
Kōta (幸田町, Kōta-chō) is a town located in Nukata District, Aichi Prefecture, in the Tōkai region of Japan. As of May 2015, the town had an estimated population of 39,776 and population density of 701 persons per km². The total area was 56.72 square kilometres (21.90 sq mi).
Part of the town was called Kōda until 1954. It should not be confused with a district in the nearby city of Tahara, in the same prefecture, also called Koda (Koda-chō)Meitetsu
Nagoya Railroad Co.,Ltd. (名古屋鉄道株式会社, Nagoya Tetsudō Kabushiki Kaisha), referred to as Meitetsu (名鉄), is a private railway company operating around Aichi Prefecture and Gifu Prefecture of Japan. TYO: 9048
Some of the more famous trains operated by Meitetsu include the Panorama Car and the Panorama Car Super, both of which offer views through their wide front windows. While the Panorama Super train is used extensively for the railroad's limited express service, the older and more energy-consuming Panorama Car train has been retired, the last run being on 27 December 2008.
In the Tōkai region around Nagoya, it is a central firm of the Meitetsu Group, which is involved in the transportation industry, the retail trade, the service industry, and the real estate industry, etc.
Meiji Mura is the corporate museum of Meitetsu.
As of March 31, 2010, Meitetsu operated 444.2 kilometres (276.0 mi) of track, 275 stations, and 1,090 train cars.Minobu Line
The Minobu Line (身延線, Minobu-sen) is a railway line in the Tōkai region of Japan operated by the Central Japan Railway Company (JR Central). It connects Fuji Station in Fuji, Shizuoka to Kōfu Station in Kōfu, Yamanashi, and the Tōkaidō Main Line with the Chūō Main Line trunk railroads.Tenryū-Okumikawa Quasi-National Park
Tenryū-Okumikawa Quasi-National Park (天竜奥三河国定公園, Tenryū-Okumikawa Kokutei Kōen) is a quasi-national park in the Tōkai region of Honshū in Japan. It is rated a protected landscape (category V) according to the IUCN. The park includes the Tenryū-kyō gorges of the upper Tenryū River, Sakuma Dam and its surrounding forests, Atera Seven Falls, Chausu Mountains and Mount Horaiji. It straddles the border between Shizuoka, Aichi and Nagano Prefectures. The area was designated a quasi-national park on October 1, 1969.
Like all Quasi-National Parks in Japan, the park is managed by the local prefectural governments.Tobishima, Aichi
Tobishima (飛島村, Tobishima-mura) is a village located in Ama District, Aichi Prefecture, in the Tōkai region of Japan. As of May 2015, the town had an estimated population of 4,446 and population density of 198 persons per km². The total area was 22.42 square kilometres (8.66 sq mi).
The village contains the place "Aichi-ken Ama-gun Tobishima-mura Ooaza-tobishima Shinden-aza Take-no-gou Yotare Minami-no-wari", which has a claim on having the longest name in Japan.Tokai
Tōkai (東海, literally East Sea) in Japanese may refer to:
Tōkai region, a subregion of Chūbu
Tōkai, Ibaraki, a village, also known as "Tokaimura" (Tokai-village)
Tōkai, Aichi, a city
Tōkai University, a private university in Tokyo
Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant, Ibaraki
2478 Tokai, a main belt asteroid
Tōkai (train), a train service between Tokyo Station and Shizuoka Station
Tōkai Gakki or Tokai Guitars, a Japanese guitar company
Kyūshū Q1W Tōkai, an anti-submarine bomber of Imperial Navy
Tokai Tokyo Financial Holdings, a Japanese financial services company
Tōkai earthquakes, major earthquakes occurring regularly with an interval of 100 to 150 years
Tokaimura nuclear accident, a fatal criticality accident in Tōkai, Ibaraki on 30 September 1999Tokai may refer to:
Tokai, Cape Town, a large residential suburb of Cape Town, South Africa
Tokai (cartoon character), of Bangladesh, a creation of Rafiqun Nabi
Tokai lighter, a disposable butane lighterTokai Collegiate American Football Association
The Tokai American Football Association (東海学生アメリカンフットボール連盟) (sometimes stylized as the "ToKai") is an American college football league made up of colleges and universities in the Tōkai region of Japan.Tōkai-Kanjō Expressway
The Tōkai-Kanjō Expressway (東海環状自動車道, Tōkaikanjō Jidōsha-dō) (lit. Tōkai Ring Expressway) is a toll road in the Tōkai region of Japan. It is owned and managed by Central Nippon Expressway Company.Tōkai Adult Soccer League
Tōkai Adult Soccer League (東海社会人サッカーリーグ) is a Japanese football league covering most of the Tōkai region, the prefectures of Aichi, Shizuoka, Gifu and Mie.Tōkai earthquakes
The Tōkai earthquakes are major earthquakes that have occurred regularly with a return period of 100 to 150 years in the Tōkai region of Japan. The Tōkai segment has been struck by earthquakes in 1498, 1605, 1707 and 1854. Given the historic regularity of these earthquakes, Kiyoo Mogi in 1969 pointed out that another great shallow earthquake was possible in the "near future" (i.e., in the next few decades).Given the magnitude of the last two earthquakes, the next is expected to have at least a magnitude scale of 8.0 Mw, with large areas shaken at the highest level in the Japanese intensity scale, 7. Emergency planners are anticipating and preparing for potential scenarios after such an earthquake, including the possibility of thousands of deaths and hundreds of thousands of injuries, millions of damaged buildings, and cities that include Nagoya and Shizuoka devastated. Concern has been expressed over the presence of the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant, close to the expected epicentre of a Tōkai earthquake. The Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant was severely damaged after a large earthquake followed by a tsunami in 2011, causing a nuclear event of level 7, the highest on the scale.
Shortly after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, new reports were released which indicated the significant likelihood of another magnitude 9 earthquake occurring elsewhere in Japan, this time on the Nankai Trough. The reports stated that if a 9.0 earthquake occurred on the Nankai Trough, the effects would be very serious. The quake itself would likely kill thousands, and a series of 34-meter (112-foot) tall tsunamis would impact areas from the Kantō region to Kyūshū, adding thousands to the death toll, and destroying Shizuoka, Shikoku, and other areas with large populations.