Tây Vu Vương

Tây Vu Vương (Chinese: 西于王),[1] or "king of Tây Vu" (fl. 111 BC), is the title attributed by some Vietnamese historians to the leader of a popular revolt of the people of Giao Chỉ and Cửu Chân commanderies against the First Chinese domination from Western Han.[2]

Tây Vu Vương is the captain of Tây Vu autonomous area (autonomous in Nam Viet) of which the center is Cổ Loa. Some historians consider that this king was probably a descendant of An Dương Vương.[3] Historian Trần Quốc Vượng saw the king as having established a fief or government at Cổ Loa.[4][5] At the end of Han-Nam Viet War, he was killed by his assistant Hoàng Đồng (黄同).[6][7]

Bản đồ khu tự trị Tây Vu và nước Nam Việt.
Map showing the location of Tay Vu autonomous area (its center is Co Loa).

See also

References

  1. ^ Han Shu, Vol. 95, Story of Xi Nan Yi Liang Yue Zhao Xian, wrote: "故甌駱將左黃同斬西于王,封爲下鄜侯"
  2. ^ Từ điển bách khoa quân sự Việt Nam, 2004, p564 "KHỞI NGHĨA TÂY VU VƯƠNG (lll TCN), khởi nghĩa của người Việt ở Giao Chỉ chống ách đô hộ của nhà Triệu (TQ). Khoảng cuối lll TCN, nhân lúc nhà Triệu suy yếu, bị nhà Tây Hán (TQ) thôn tính, một thủ lĩnh người Việt (gọi là Tây Vu Vương, "
  3. ^ Lịch sử Việt Nam từ nguồn gốc đến năm 1884, Phan Quang Nguyễn, Xuân Đàn Võ - 2000, p56 "Chớp thời cơ đó, trên đất đai Âu Lạc cũ, Tây Vu Vương (có lẽ thuộc dòng dõi An Dương Vương) lãnh đạo dân chúng nổi dậy chống quan chức nhà Triệu. Khởi nghĩa Tây Vu Vương là cuộc nổi dậy chống chính quyền đô hộ phương Bắc đầu ..."
  4. ^ Viet Nam Social Sciences vol.1-6, p91, 2003 "In 111 B.C. there prevailed a historical personage of the name of Tay Vu Vuong who took advantage of troubles circumstances in the early period of Chinese domination to raise his power, and finally was killed by his general assistant, Hoang Dong. Professor Tran Quoc Vuong saw in him the Tay Vu chief having in hands tens of thousands of households, governing thousands miles of land and establishing his center in Co Loa area (59.239). Tay Vu and Tay Au is in fact the same."
  5. ^ Bruce M. Lockhart, William J. Duiker The A to Z of Vietnam 2010, p357 "Tây Vu, Administrative and territorial term for an ancient district in Vietnam. Located in the lower Red River Delta around the city of Co Loa, not far from present-day Hanoi, Tây Vu became an administrative district during the Au Lac and Nam Viet..."
  6. ^ Hanshu 漢書 (Book of Han) "Hạ Phu hầu Tả tướng Hoàng Đồng làm Tả tướng của Âu Lạc ngày trước chém Tây Vu Vương, có công phong tước Hầu, thực ấp bảy trăm hộ. Ngày Đinh Dậu tháng Tư [năm Nguyên Phong đầu tiên thời Vũ Đế (năm 110 TCN)] phong."
  7. ^ Shiji 史記 (Scribe's records) "Hạ Li hầu vì làm Tả tướng của nước Âu Lạc chém Tây Vu Vương có công được phong Hầu".
An Dương Vương

An Dương Vương (Vietnamese: [ʔaːn jɨəŋ vɨəŋ]) is the title of Thục Phán, who ruled over the kingdom of Âu Lạc (now Vietnam) from 257 to 207 BC. As the leader of the Âu Việt tribes, he defeated and seized the throne from the last Hùng king of the state of Văn Lang and united its people–known as the Lạc Việt—with the Âu Việt. In 208 BC, the capital Cổ Loa was attacked and the imperial citadel ransacked. An Dương Vương fled and committed suicide.

Cổ Loa Citadel

Cổ Loa Citadel (Vietnamese: Thành Cổ Loa) is an important fortified settlement and archaeological site in present-day Hanoi's Dong Anh district, about 16 kilometers (10 mi) northeast of Hanoi city center. Various relics of the Bronze Age Phung Nguyen culture and Dong Son culture have been found in Cổ Loa, although it was later established as the capital of Âu Lạc Kingdom during the 3rd century BC (about 257 BCE). Further construction was added during the later dynasties. Cổ Loa remained an important political center of the Vietnamese people until the 10th century. The name "Cổ Loa" is derived from the Sino-Vietnamese 古螺, meaning "old spiral", reflecting its multi-layered structure of earthworks, moats and ditches.

Nanyue

Nanyue or Nam Viet (南越, Chinese pinyin: Nányuè, Vietnamese: Nam Việt, Zhuang: Namzyied) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan. Nanyue was established in 204 BC at the collapse of the Qin dynasty by Zhao Tuo, then Commander of Nanhai. At first, it consisted of the commanderies Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang.

In 196 BC, Zhao Tuo paid obeisance to the Emperor Gaozu of Han, and Nanyue was referred to by Han leaders as a "foreign servant", synecdoche for a vassal state. Around 183 BC, relations between the Nanyue and the Han dynasty soured, and Zhao Tuo began to refer to himself as an emperor, suggesting Nanyue's sovereignty. In 179 BC, relations between the Han and Nanyue improved, and Zhao Tuo once again made submission, this time to Emperor Wen of Han as a subject state. The submission was somewhat superficial, as Nanyue retained autonomy from the Han, and Zhao Tuo was referred to as "Emperor" throughout Nanyue until his death. In 113 BC, fourth-generation leader Zhao Xing sought to have Nanyue formally included as part of the Han Empire. His prime minister Lü Jia objected vehemently and subsequently killed Zhao Xing, installing his elder brother Zhao Jiande on the throne and forcing a confrontation with the Han dynasty. The next year, Emperor Wu of Han sent 100,000 troops to war against Nanyue. By the year's end, the army had destroyed Nanyue and established Han rule. The kingdom lasted 93 years and had five generations of kings.

The Kingdom of Nanyue's founding preserved the order of the Lingnan region during the chaos surrounding the collapse of the Qin dynasty. It allowed the southern region to avoid much of the hardship experienced by the northern, predominantly Han Chinese regions. The kingdom was founded by leaders originally from the Chinese heartland, and was responsible for bringing Chinese bureaucracy and more advanced agriculture and handicraft techniques to the inhabitants of the southern regions, as well as knowledge of the Chinese language and writing system. Nanyue leaders promoted a policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue Tribes" (Chinese: 和集百越), and encouraged fellow Han Chinese to immigrate from their Yellow River homeland to the south. They supported mutual assimilation of the two cultures and peoples, and promulgated Han culture and the Chinese language throughout the region, though many elements of original Yue culture were preserved.In Vietnam, the rulers of Nanyue are referred to as the Triệu dynasty. The name "Vietnam" is derived from Nam Việt, the Vietnamese pronunciation of Nanyue.

Timeline of Vietnamese history

This is a timeline of Vietnamese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Vietnam and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Vietnam.

Triệu dynasty

The Triệu dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Triệu; 家趙) ruled the kingdom of Nányuè / Nam Việt ("South Yuè") (Chinese: 南越), which consisted of parts of southern China as well as northern Vietnam. Its capital was Panyu, in modern Guangzhou. The founder of the dynasty, called Triệu Đà or Zhao Tuo, was a military governor for the Qin Empire. He asserted his independence in 207 BC when the Qin collapsed. The ruling elite included both ethnic Chinese and native Yue, with intermarriage and assimilation encouraged. Triệu Đà conquered the Vietnamese state of Âu Lạc and led a coalition of Yuè states in a war against the Han Empire, which had been expanding southward. Subsequent rulers were less successful in asserting their independence and the Han conquered the kingdom in 111 BC.

Zhao Jiande

Zhao Jiande (Chinese: 趙建德; pinyin: Zhào Jiàndé; Jyutping: Zīu6 Gīn3dek1, Vietnamese: Triệu Kiến Đức, ?–111 BC) was the last king of Nanyue. His rule began in 112 BC and ended in the next year.

Âu Lạc

Âu Lạc (甌雒/甌駱) was the name of the Vietnamese state from 257 BCE to 179 BCE. It merged the lands of the former states of Nam Cương and Văn Lang until it was annexed into the state of Nam Việt (Nanyue). The capital was Cổ Loa, located in present-day Hanoi's Dong Anh district.The country was created by Thục Phán, who served as its only monarch, ruling under the royal title of An Dương Vương and creating the Thục dynasty by uniting the mountainous Âu Việt region (comprising what is today northernmost Vietnam and parts of southern China) with the more southerly Lạc Việt (located in the Red River Delta of what is today northern Vietnam). According to old Vietnamese historical records Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư("大越史記全書") and Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục ("欽定越史通鑑綱目"), An Dương Vương (Thục Phán) was a prince of the state of Shu (蜀, pronounced Thục in Vietnamese) in modern Sichuan Province, China. He was sent by his father first to explore what are now the southern Chinese provinces of Guangxi and Yunnan and second to move their people to modern-day northern Vietnam during the invasion of the Qin state. Some modern Vietnamese believe that Thục Phán came upon the Âu Việt territory (modern-day northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi, with its capital in what is today Cao Bằng Province). After assembling an army, he defeated King Hùng Vương XVIII, the last ruler of the Hồng Bàng dynasty, around 257 BC. He proclaimed himself An Dương Vương ("King An Dương"). He then renamed Văn Lang as Âu Lạc, combining the names of the conquering and conquered peoples, and established a new fortress and capital at Co Loa on a rise overlooking the Red River about 16 km (10 mi) northeast of central Hanoi. Around 180 to 179 BC, Âu Lạc was conquered by Nam Việt, a kingdom that had its capital city, Panyu, around modern Guangzhou. Nam Việt rule lasted until 111 BC. In Vietnamese history, the rule of the Nam Việt kings is referred to as the Triệu dynasty.

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