Systema Naturae

Systema Naturae (originally in Latin written Systema Naturæ with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers, Gaspard and Johann, 200 years earlier,[2] Linnaeus was first to use it consistently throughout his book. The first edition was published in 1735. The full title of the 10th edition (1758), which was the most important one, was Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places".

The tenth edition of this book (1758) is considered the starting point of zoological nomenclature.[3] In 1766–1768 Linnaeus published the much enhanced 12th edition, the last under his authorship. Another again enhanced work in the same style and entitled "Systema Naturae" was published by Johann Friedrich Gmelin between 1788 and 1793. Since at least the early 1900s zoologists commonly recognized this as the last edition belonging to this series.[4][5] It was also officially regarded by the ICZN in Opinion 296 (26 Oct 1954) as the 13th edition of Systema Naturae.[6]

Systema Naturæ
Linnaeus1758-title-page
Title page of the 1758 edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturæ.[1]
AuthorCarl Linnaeus
(Carl von Linné)
CountrySweden
SubjectTaxonomy
GenreBiological classification
Publication date
1735
LC ClassQH43 .S21

Overview

Linnaeus (later known as "Carl von Linné", after his ennoblement in 1761)[7] published the first edition of Systema Naturae in the year 1735, during his stay in the Netherlands. As was customary for the scientific literature of its day, the book was published in Latin. In it, he outlined his ideas for the hierarchical classification of the natural world, dividing it into the animal kingdom (regnum animale), the plant kingdom (regnum vegetabile), and the "mineral kingdom" (regnum lapideum).

Linnaeus's Systema Naturae lists only about 10,000 species of organisms, of which about 6,000 are plants and 4,236 are animals.[8] According to the historian of botany William T. Stearn, "Even in 1753 he believed that the number of species of plants in the whole world would hardly reach 10,000; in his whole career he named about 7,700 species of flowering plants."[8]

Linnaeus developed his classification of the plant kingdom in an attempt to describe and understand the natural world as a reflection of the logic of God's creation.[9] His sexual system, where species with the same number of stamens were treated in the same group, was convenient but in his view artificial.[9] Linnaeus believed in God's creation, and that there were no deeper relationships to be expressed. He is frequently quoted to have said: "God created, Linnaeus organized" (Latin: Deus creavit, Linnaeus disposuit).[10] The classification of animals was more natural. For instance, humans were for the first time placed together with other primates, as Anthropomorpha.

As a result of the popularity of the work, and the number of new specimens sent to him from around the world, Linnaeus kept publishing new and ever-expanding editions of his work.[11] It grew from eleven very large pages in the first edition (1735) to 2,400 pages in the 12th edition (1766–1768).[12] Also, as the work progressed, he made changes: in the first edition, whales were classified as fishes, following the work of Linnaeus' friend and "father of ichthyology" Peter Artedi; in the 10th edition, published in 1758, whales were moved into the mammal class. In this same edition, he introduced two-part names (see binomen) for animal species, something that he had done for plant species (see binary name) in the 1753 publication of Species Plantarum. The system eventually developed into modern Linnaean taxonomy, a hierarchically organized biological classification.

After Linnaeus' health declined in the early 1770s, publication of editions of Systema Naturae went in two directions. Another Swedish scientist, Johan Andreas Murray issued the Regnum Vegetabile section separately in 1774 as the Systema Vegetabilium, rather confusingly labelled the 13th edition.[13] Meanwhile, a 13th edition of the entire Systema appeared in parts between 1788 and 1793. It was as the Systema Vegetabilium that Linnaeus' work became widely known in England following translation from the Latin by the Lichfield Botanical Society, as A System of Vegetables (1783–1785).[14]

Taxonomy

In his Imperium Naturæ, Linnaeus established three kingdoms, namely Regnum Animale, Regnum Vegetabile and Regnum Lapideum. This approach, the Animal, Vegetable and Mineral Kingdoms, survives until today in the popular mind, notably in the form of parlour games: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral?". The classification was based on five levels: kingdom, class, order, genus, and species. While species and genus was seen as God-given (or "natural"), the three higher levels were seen by Linnaeus as constructs. The concept behind the set ranks being applied to all groups was to make a system that was easy to remember and navigate, a task which most say he succeeded in.

Linnaeus - Regnum Animale (1735)
The 1735 classification of animals

Linnaeus's work had a huge impact on science; it was indispensable as a foundation for biological nomenclature, now regulated by the Nomenclature Codes. Two of his works, the first edition of the Species Plantarum (1753) for plants and the 10th edition of the Systema Naturæ (1758), are accepted among the starting points of nomenclature. Most of his names for species and genera were published at very early dates, thus take priority over those of other, later works. In zoology there is one exception, which is a monograph on Swedish spiders, Svenska Spindlar,[15] published by Carl Clerck in 1757, so the names established there take priority over the Linnean names.[16] However, his impact on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy. His talent for attracting skillful young students and sending them abroad to collect made his work far more influential than that of his contemporaries.[17] At the close of the 18th century, his system had effectively become the standard system for biological classification.

Animal Kingdom

Only in the Animal Kingdom is the higher taxonomy of Linnaeus still more or less recognizable and some of these names are still in use, but usually not quite for the same groups as used by Linnaeus. He divided the Animal Kingdom into six classes; in the tenth edition (1758), these were:

  1. Mammalia comprised the mammals. In the first edition, whales and the West Indian manatee were classified among the fishes.
  2. Aves comprised the birds. Linnaeus was the first to remove bats from the birds and classify them under mammals.
  3. Amphibia comprised amphibians, reptiles, and assorted fishes that are not of Osteichthyes.
  4. Pisces comprised the bony fishes. These included the spiny-finned fishes (Perciformes) as a separate order.
  5. Insecta comprised all arthropods. Crustaceans, arachnids and myriapods were included as the order "Aptera".
  6. Vermes comprised the remaining invertebrates, roughly divided into "worms", molluscs, and hard-shelled organisms like echinoderms.

Plant Kingdom

The orders and classes of plants, according to his Systema Sexuale, were never intended to represent natural groups (as opposed to his ordines naturales in his Philosophia Botanica) but only for use in identification. They were used in that sense well into the 19th century.

SN-p837
Key to the Sexual System from the 10th (1758) edition of Systema Naturæ

The Linnaean classes for plants, in the Sexual System, were:

  • Classis 1. Monandria
  • Classis 2. Diandria
  • Classis 3. Triandria
  • Classis 4. Tetrandria
  • Classis 5. Pentandria
  • Classis 6. Hexandria
  • Classis 7. Heptandria
  • Classis 8. Octandria
  • Classis 9. Enneandria
  • Classis 10. Decandria
  • Classis 11. Dodecandria
  • Classis 12. Icosandria
  • Classis 13. Polyandra
  • Classis 14. Didynamia
  • Classis 15. Tetradynamia
  • Classis 16. Monadelphia
  • Classis 17. Diadelphia
  • Classis 18. Polyadelphia
  • Classis 19. Syngenesia
  • Classis 20. Gynandria
  • Classis 21. Monoecia
  • Classis 22. Dioecia
  • Classis 23. Polygamia
  • Classis 24. Cryptogamia

Mineral Kingdoms

Linnaeus's taxonomy of minerals has long since fallen out of use. In the 10th edition, 1758, of the Systema Naturæ, the Linnaean classes were:

Editions

The Gmelin thirteenth (decima tertia) edition of 1788–1793, is likely to be confused with another thirteenth edition prepared by Johan Andreas Murray in 1774, and then subsequently in further editions, all under a revised name of Systema Vegetabilium.[13]

Edition Location Year Complete bibliographical citation Links to online versions
1 Leiden 1735 Linnæus, C. 1735. Systema naturæ, sive regna tria naturæ systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, & species. – pp. [1–12]. Lugduni Batavorum. (Haak) Missouri Botanical Garden
2 Stockholm 1740 Linnæus, C. 1740. Systema naturæ in quo naturæ regna tria, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponuntur. Editio secunda, auctior. – pp. [1–2], 1–80. Stockholmiæ. (Kiesewetter) Google Books
3 Halle 1740 Lange, J. J. 1740. Caroli Linnaei systema natvrae, sive Regna tria natvrae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera et species. Caroli Linnaei Natur-Systema, oder die in ordentlichem Zusammenhange vorgetragene drey Reiche der Natur nach ihren Classen, Ordnungen, Geschlechtern und Arten, in die deutsche Sprache übersetzet und mit einer Vorrede herausgegeben von Johann Joachim Langen. – pp. [1–8], 1–70, [1]. Halle. (Gebauer) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
4 Paris 1744 Linnæus, C. 1744. Systema naturæ in quo proponuntur naturæ regna tria secundum classes, ordines, genera & species. Editio quarta ab auctore emendata & aucta. Accesserunt nomina Gallica. – pp. i–xxvi, [1], 1–108. Parisiis. (David.) Google Books
CSIC Madrid
5 Halle 1747 Agnethler, M. G. 1747. Caroli Linnæi systema natvræ in qvo natvræ regna tria, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponvntvr. Recvsvm et societatis, qvæ impensas contvlit, vsvi accommodatvm. Editio altera avctior et emendatior. – pp. 1–88. Halæ Magdebvrgicæ. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
6 Stockholm 1748 Linnæus, C. 1748. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata. Editio sexta, emendata et aucta. – pp. [1–3], 1–224, [1–18], Tab. I–VIII. Stockholmiæ. (Kiesewetter) SUB Göttingen
7 Leipzig 1748 Linnæus, C. 1748. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata. Secundum sextam Stockholmiensem emendatam & auctam editionem. – pp. [A], [1–5], 1–224, [1–22], Tab. I–VIII. Lipsiae. (Kiesewetter) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
8 Stockholm 1753 Haartman, J. J. 1753. Caroli Linnæi Indelning i Ö̈rt-Riket, efter Systema Naturae, på Swenska öfwersatt af Johan J. Haartman. – pp. [1–12], 1–136, [1–8]. Stockholm. (Salvius) Umeå UB
9 Leiden 1756 Linnæus, C. 1756. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta, tabulisque æneis illustrata. Accedunt vocabula gallica. Editio multo auctior & emendatior. – pp. [1–7], 1–227, [1–19], Tab. I–VIII. Lugduni Batavorum. (Haak) New York Botanical Garden
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
10,
Vol. 1
Stockholm 1758 Linnæus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 1–824. Holmiæ. (Salvius) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
SUB Göttingen
Missouri Botanical Garden
10,
Vol. 2
Stockholm 1759 Linnæus, C. 1759. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus II. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 825–1384. Holmiæ. (Salvius) Missouri Botanical Garden
11,
Vol. 1
Halle 1760 Linnaeus, C. 1760. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species, cvm characteribvs, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomvs I. Praefactvs est Ioannes Ioachimvs Langivs. Ad editionem decimam reformatam Holmiensem. – pp. [1–8], 1–824. Halae Magdebvrgicae. (Curt). (Linnæus 1758: p. 5 recorded probably this edition as from Leipzig 1762, "nil additum" = nothing added) New York Botanical Garden
(pp. [1–8], 1–338)
New York Botanical Garden
(pp. 339–824)
12,
Vol. 1,
part 1
Stockholm 1766 Linné, C. a 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. – pp. 1–532. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
12,
Vol. 1,
part 2
Stockholm 1767 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ, Tom. I. Pars II. Editio duodecima reformata. – pp. 533–1327, [1–37]. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
12,
Vol. 2
Stockholm 1767 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus II. – pp. 1–735, [1–16], 1–142, [1–2]. Holmiæ. (Salvius)
12,
Vol. 3
Stockholm 1768 Linné, C. a 1768. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus III. – pp. 1–236, [1–20], Tab. I–III. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen
12a ("13"),
Vol. 1,
part. 1
Vienna 1767 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, ad editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. – pp. 1–532. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries
Missouri Botanical Garden
Google Books
12a ("13"),
Vol. 1,
part 2
Vienna 1767 Linné, C. a [1767]. Systema naturæ. Tom. I. Pars II. – pp. [1–2], 1–1327, [1–37]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries
Missouri Botanical Garden
Google Books
12a ("13"),
Vol. 2
Vienna 1770 Linné, C. a 1770. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species cvm characteribvs, et differentiis. Tomvs II. Editio decima tertia, ad editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. – 1–736, [1–6]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries
Missouri Botanical Garden
New York Botanical Garden
Google Books
12a ("13"),
Vol. 3
Vienna 1770 Linnaeus, C. 1770. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species cvm characteribvs, et differentiis. Tomvs III. – 1–236, [1–19]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries
Missouri Botanical Garden
Google Books
12b,
Vol. 1
Göttingen 1772 Beckmann, J. 1772. Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accommodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Tomus I. Regnum Animale. – pp. [1–5], 1–240, [1–10]. Gottingae. (Vandenhoeck) NCSU Libraries
12b,
Vol. 2
Göttingen 1772 Beckmann, J. 1772. Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accommodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Tomus II. Regnum Vegetabile. – pp. 1–356, [1–32]. Gottingae. (Vandenhoeck) NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 1
Leipzig 1788 Gmelin, J. F. 1788. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. [1–12], 1–500. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 2
Leipzig [1789] Gmelin, J. F. [1789]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars II. – pp. 501–1032. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 3
Leipzig [1789] Gmelin, J. F. [1789]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars III. – pp. 1033–1516. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 4
Leipzig [1790] Gmelin, J. F. [1790]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars IV. – pp. 1517–2224. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 5
Leipzig [1790] Gmelin, J. F. [1790]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars V. – pp. 2225–3020. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 6
Leipzig [1791] Gmelin, J. F. [1791]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars VI. – pp. 3021–3910. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 7
Leipzig [1792] Gmelin, J. F. [1792]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars VII. – pp. [1], 3911–4120. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
13,
Vol. 2,
part 1
Leipzig 1791 Gmelin, J. F. 1791. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus et differentiis. Tomus II. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. [1], I–XL, 1–884. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
13,
Vol. 2,
part 2
Leipzig [1791]? Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. II. Pars II. – pp. [1], 885–1661, [1]. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
13,
Vol. 3
Leipzig 1793 Gmelin, J. F. 1793. Caroli a Linné (...) systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus et differentiis. Tomus III. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. 1–476. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

The dates of publication for Gmelin's edition were the following:[19]

  • Part 1: pp. [1–12], 1–500 (25 July 1788)
  • Part 2: pp. 501–1032 (20 April 1789)
  • Part 3: pp. 1033–1516 (20 November 1789)
  • Part 4: pp. 1517–2224 (21 May 1790)
  • Part 5: pp. 2225–3020 (6 December 1790)
  • Part 6: pp. 3021–3910 (14 May 1791)
  • Part 7: pp. 3911–4120 (2 July 1792)

See also

References

  1. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin) (10th ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius.
  2. ^ Windelspecht (2002), p. 28.
  3. ^ Gordh, Gordon; Beardsley, John W. (1999). "Taxonomy and biological control". In Bellows, T. S.; Fisher, T. W. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications of Biological Control. Academic Press. pp. 45–55. ISBN 978-0-12-257305-7.
  4. ^ "Sherborn, C. D. 1902". Index Animalium.
  5. ^ "Neave, S. A. 1939–1940, updated". Nomenclator Zoologicus.
  6. ^ Opinions and Declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 8: 167–178, also p. 318 in ICZN 1987. Archived 2010-06-25 at the Wayback Machine. Official lists and indexes of names and works in zoology. – pp. 1–366. London. (The International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature).
  7. ^ Stearn, W. T. (1957). "An introduction to the Species Plantarum and cognate botanical works of Linnaeus". Species Plantarum (1957 Ray Society facsimile ed.). p. 14.
  8. ^ a b Stearn, William T. (1959). "The background of Linnaeus's contributions to the nomenclature and methods of systematic biology" (PDF). Systematic Zoology. 8 (1): 4–22. JSTOR 2411603. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-28.
  9. ^ a b Quammen, David (June 2007). "A Passion for Order". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  10. ^ Warne, K. (May 2007). "Organization Man". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  11. ^ Everts, Sarah (2016). "Information Overload". Distillations. 2 (2): 26–33. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  12. ^ Schiebinger, Londa (1993). "Why mammals are called mammals: gender politics in eighteenth-century natural history" (PDF). The American Historical Review. 98 (2): 382–411. JSTOR 2166840. PMID 11623150. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-02.
  13. ^ a b Linné 1774.
  14. ^ Linné 1785.
  15. ^ Clerck, C. (1757). Svenska Spindlar / Aranei Svecici. Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. pp. [1–8], 1–154, pl. 1–6.
  16. ^ ICZN Code Art. 3.1
  17. ^ Sörlin, Sverker; Fagerstedt, Otto (2004). Linné och hans apostlar [Linnaeus and his apostles] (in Swedish). Örebro, Sweden: Natur & Kultur/Fakta. ISBN 978-91-27-35590-3.
  18. ^ "Linnaeus as a mineralogist". Linné on line. Uppsala University. 2008.
  19. ^ Hopkinson, John (1907). "Dates of Publication of the Separate Parts of Gmelin's Edition (13th) of the 'Systema Naturae' of Linnæus". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 77 (4): 1035–1037. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1907.tb06965.x.

Bibliography

External links

10th edition of Systema Naturae

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum.

12th edition of Systema Naturae

The 12th edition of Systema Naturae was the last edition of Systema Naturae to be overseen by its author, Carl Linnaeus. It was published in three volumes, with parts appearing from 1766 to 1768. It contains many species not covered in the previous edition, the 10th edition which was the starting point for zoological nomenclature.

Amphibia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Amphibia as:

Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenatious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter.

Linnaean characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, dark red blood

Lungs: breathes uncertainly

Jaw: incumbent

Penis: (frequently) double

Eggs: (usually) membranaceous

Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, ears

Covering: a naked skin

Supports: various, in some none. Creeps in warm places and hissesLinnaeus often regarded reptiles within the amphibian class because living in Sweden, he often noticed that the local reptiles (examples include the common adder and grass snake) would hunt and be active in the water.

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Linnaeus included several species of fishes (that do not belong the superclass Osteichthyes) into the amphibian class. It was not until later on that he would merge them into the Fish class and give them their own new order "Chondropterygious", defining them as species with cartilaginous gills.

Linnaeus divided the amphibians based upon the limb structures and the way they breathed.

Animalia Paradoxa

Animalia Paradoxa (Latin for "contradictory animals"; cf. paradox) are the mythical, magical or otherwise suspect animals mentioned in editions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 of Carl Linnaeus's seminal work Systema Naturae under the header "Paradoxa". It lists fantastic creatures found in medieval bestiaries as well as those reported by explorers from abroad and gives explanations to why they are excluded from Systema Naturae. According to Swedish historian Gunnar Broberg, it was to offer a natural explanation and demystify the world of superstition. Paradoxa was dropped from Linnaeus' classification system as of the 6th edition (1748).

Aptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Wingless arthropods were brought together under the name Aptera.

Aves in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae published in 1758, the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus described 554 species of bird and gave each a binomial name.

Linnaeus first included birds in the 6th edition of his Systema Naturae which was published in 1748. In it he listed 260 species arranged into 51 genera and six orders. The entries for each species were very brief; he did not include a description but instead provided a citation to an earlier publication, often to his own Fauna suecica which was published in 1746. Linnaeus generally followed the classification scheme introduced by the English parson and naturalist John Ray which grouped species based on the characteristics of their bill and feet.The 10th edition appeared in 1758 and was the first in which Linnaeus consistently used his binomial system of nomenclature. He increased the number of birds to 554 species which filled 116 pages compared with only 17 in the 6th edition. For each species he included both a brief description and also citations to earlier publications. He maintained 6 orders as in the 6th edition but renamed Scolopaces to Grallae. He rearranged some of the genera, dropping several and adding others to bring the total to 63.The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, and asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date. In 2016 the list of birds of the world maintained by Frank Gill and David Donsker on behalf of the International Ornithologists' Union included 448 species for which Linnaeus's description in the 10th edition is cited as the authority. Of the species 101 have been retained in their original genus and 347 have been moved to a different genus. In addition, there are five species on Linnaeus's 1758 list that are now considered as subspecies. Of Linnaeus's 63 genera, only Tantalus and Colymbus are not now used.In the 12th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1766, Linnaeus described many additional birds that had not been included in the 10th edition. The 12th edition included 931 bird species divided into 6 orders and 78 genera. The 12th edition is cited as the authority for 257 modern species of which only 25 have been retained in their original genus. There are now believed to be around 10,000 extant species.Linnaeus described the class Aves as:

A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down; protracted and naked jaws (the beak), two wings formed for flight, and two feet. They are aereal, vocal, swift and light, and destitute of external ears, lips, teeth, scrotum, womb, bladder, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, and diaphragm.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, dark red blood

Lungs: respires alternately

Jaw: incombent, naked, extended, without teeth

Eggs: covered with a calcareous shell

Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, and ears without auricles

Covering: incumbent, imbricate feathers

Supports: 2 feet, 2 wings; and a heart-shaped rump. Flies in the Air & SingsIn the list below, the binomial name is that used by Linnaeus.

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈkɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] (listen)), was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné).

Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, while publishing several volumes. He was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death.

Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth." Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist". Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum (Prince of Botanists) and "The Pliny of the North". He is also considered as one of the founders of modern ecology.In botany, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus' remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself.

Carl Linnaeus bibliography

The bibliography of Carl Linnaeus includes academic works about botany, zoology, nomenclature and taxonomy written by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). Linnaeus laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature and is known as the father of modern taxonomy. His most famous works is Systema Naturae which is considered as the starting point for zoological nomenclature together with Species Plantarum which is internationally accepted as the beginning of modern botanical nomenclature.

Coleoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with hardened wing covers (beetles, earwigs and orthopteroid insects) were brought together under the name Coleoptera.

Diptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with simply two wings (true flies) were brought together under the name Diptera.

Hemiptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". True bugs and thrips were brought together under the name Hemiptera.

Hymenoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with membranous wings, including bees, wasps and ants were brought together under the name Hymenoptera.

Insecta in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". He described the Insecta as:

A very numerous and various class consisting of small animals, breathing through lateral spiracles, armed on all sides with a bony skin, or covered with hair; furnished with many feet, and moveable antennae (or horns), which project from the head, and are the probable instruments of sensation.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood.

Spiracles: lateral pores

Jaw: lateral

Penis: penetrates

Organs of Sense: tongue, eyes, antennae on head, no brain, no ears, no nostrils

Covering: a bony coat of mail

Supports: feet, and in some, wings. Skips on dry ground and buzzes

Lepidoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Butterflies and moths were brought together under the name Lepidoptera. Linnaeus divided the group into three genera – Papilio, Sphinx and Phalaena. The first two, together with the seven subdivisions of the third, are now used as the basis for nine superfamily names: Papilionoidea, Sphingoidea, Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, Torticoidea, Pyraloidea, Tineoidea and Alucitoidea.

Mammalia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae (published 1758–1759), Carl Linnaeus described the Mammalia as one of the six classes of animals, characterized by being:

Animals that suckle their young by means of lactiferous teats. In external and internal structure they resemble man: most of them are quadrupeds; and with man, their natural enemy, inhabit the surface of the Earth. The largest, though fewest in number, inhabit the ocean.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, dark red blood

Lungs: respires alternately

Jaw: incombent, covered. Teeth usually within

Teats: lactiferous

Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, ears, & papillae of the skin

Covering: hair, which is scanty in warm climates, hardly any on aquatics

Supports: 4 feet, except in aquatics; and in most a tail. Walks on the Earth & SpeaksLinnaeus divided the mammals based upon the number, situation, and structure of their teeth.

Neuroptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with net-veined wings were brought together under the name Neuroptera.

Pisces in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Pisces as:

Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites. They breathe by means of gills, which are generally united by a bony arch; swim by means of radiate fins, and are mostly covered over with cartilaginous scales. Besides the parts they have in common with other animals, they are furnished with a nictitant membrane, and most of them with a swim-bladder, by the contraction or dilatation of which, they can raise or sink themselves in their element at pleasure.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, dark red blood

Gills: external

Jaw: incumbent

Penis: (usually) none

Eggs: without whites

Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils?, eyes, ears

Covering: imbricate scales

Supports: fins. Swims in the Water & Smacks.

Spitz

Spitz (also pluralized spitzes or, borrowing from German, Spitzen) are a type of domestic dog characterized by long, thick, and often white fur, and pointed ears and muzzles. The tail often curls over the dog's back or droops.

The exact origins of spitz dogs are not known, though most of the spitz seen today originate from the Arctic region or Siberia. The type was described as Canis pomeranus by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in his revision of Systema Naturae in 1788 (printed in English in 1792).

Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In 1758, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the Swedish scientist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus described the class "Vermes" as:

Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenatious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places. Many of them are without a distinct head, and most of them without feet. They are principally distinguished by their tentacles (or feelers). By the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfect animals, as being destitute of ears, nose, head, eyes and legs; and are therefore totally distinct from Insects.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood.

Spiracles: obscure

Jaw: various

Penis: frequently hermaphrodites

Organs of Sense: tentacles (generally), eyes, no brain, no ears, no nostrils

Covering: calcareous or none, except spines

Supports: no feet, no fins. Crawls in moist places & are muteThe class Vermes, as Linnaeus conceived it, was a rather diverse and mismatched grouping of animals; basically it served as a wastebasket taxon for any invertebrate species that was not an arthropod. With the advent of the scientific understanding of evolution, it became clear that many of the animals in these groups were not in fact closely related, and so the class Vermes was dropped for several (at least 30) phyla.

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