Syriac Catholic Church

The Syriac Catholic Church (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ‎, romanized: ʿĪṯo Suryayṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo), also known as Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch, is an Eastern Catholic Christian Church in the Levant that uses the West Syriac Rite liturgy and has many practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. Being one of the twenty-three Eastern Catholic Churches, the Syriac Catholic Church has full autonomy and is a self-governed sui iuris Church while it is in full communion with the Holy See of Rome. The Syriac Catholic Church traces its history to the earliest days of Christianity. After the Calcedonian Schism the Church of Antioch became part of Oriental Orthodoxy, and was known as the Syriac Orthodox Church, while a new Antiochian Patriarchate was established to fill its place by the churches which accepted the Council of Calcedon. The Syriac Orthodox Church came into full communion with the Holy See and the modern Syriac Orthodox Church is a result of those that did not want to join the Catholic Church. Therefore the Syriac Catholic Church is the continuation of the original Church of Antioch.

The Church is headed by Mor Ignatius Joseph III Younan, who has been the Patriarch since 2009. Its Patriarch of Antioch has the title of Patriarch of Antioch and all the East of the Syriacs.[3] and resides in Beirut, Lebanon.

Jesuit and Capuchin missionaries began to work among the Syriac Orthodox in Aleppo in 1626. So many of them were received into communion with Rome in 1662, when the Patriarchate had fallen vacant, and the Catholic party was able to elect one of its own, Andrew Akijan, as Patriarch of the Syriac Church. This provoked a split in the community, and after Akijan’s death in 1677 two opposing patriarchs were elected, one being the uncle of the other, representing the two parties (one pro-Catholic, the other anti-Catholic). But when the Catholic Patriarch died in 1702, this very brief line of Catholic Patriarchs upon the Syriac Church's See of Antioch died out with him.

Later, in 1782, the Syriac Orthodox Holy Synod elected Metropolitan Michael Jarweh of Aleppo as Patriarch. Shortly after he was enthroned, he declared himself Catholic and in unity with the Pope of Rome. Since Jarweh there has been an unbroken succession of Syriac Catholic Patriarchs.


Syriac Catholic Church
Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ
Syriac Catholic Church, Damascus 01
ClassificationEastern Catholic
OrientationSyriac
PolityEpiscopal
PopeFrancis
PrimatePatriarch Ignatius Joseph III Yonan
RegionNear-East;
Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Turkey
with communities in United States, Canada, France, Sweden, Venezuela, Brazil and Australia
LanguageSyriac, Aramaic[1]
LiturgyWest Syriac Rite
HeadquartersBeirut, Lebanon
FounderTraces ultimate origins to Apostle St. Peter. Patriarchs Ignatius Andrew Akijan (1662) and Ignatius Michael III Jarweh (1782)
Members205,440[2]
Official websitesyr-cath.org (in Arabic)

Name

The Syriac Catholic Church (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ‎, romanized: ʿĪṯo Suryayṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo) is sometimes also called the Syrian Catholic Church. Furthermore, it is sometimes referred by its patriarchate, the Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch. See also: Syriac Catholic Patriarchs of Antioch.

History

Pre-Crusades period

Syriac Catholic Church, Damascus 01
Seat of the Syriac Catholic Church, the Syriac Catholic cathedral, in Damascus

The Syriac Catholic Church was established by Saint Peter prior to his departure to Rome, and extends it roots back to the origins of Christianity in the Orient; in the Acts of the Apostles we are told that it is in Antioch where the followers of Jesus for the first time were called "Christians" (Acts 11:26).

In the time of the first Ecumenical Councils, the Patriarch of Antioch held the ecclesiastical authority over the Diocese of the Orient, which was to be extended from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Its scholarly mission in both languages: the Greek and Syriac was to provide the world and the Universal Church with eminent saints, scholars, hermits, martyrs and pastors. Among these great people are Saint Ephrem (373), Doctor of the Church, and Saint Jacob of Sarug (521).

During the Crusades

During the Crusades there were many examples of warm relations between Catholic and Syriac Orthodox bishops. Some of these bishops favored union with Rome, but there was no push to unify until a decree of union between the Syriac Orthodox and Rome was signed at the Council of Florence September 30, 1444- but the effects of this decree were rapidly annulled by opponents of it in the Syriac Church's hierarchy.

Split with the Syriac Orthodox Church

Jesuit and Capuchin missionaries evangelizing in Aleppo caused some local Syriac Orthodox faithful to form a pro-catholic movement within the Syriac Orthodox Church. In 1667, Andrew Akijan, a supporter of union with the Catholic Church, was elected as Patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church.[4] This provoked a split in the community, and after Akijan’s death in 1677, two opposing patriarchs were elected, with the Pro-Catholic one being the uncle of Andrew Akijan. However, when the Catholic Patriarch died in 1702, the Ottoman government supported the Syriac Orthodoxy's agitation against the Syriac Catholics, and throughout the 18th century the Syriac Catholics underwent suffering and much persecution. Due to this, there were long periods when no Syriac Catholic bishops were functioning, so a Patriarch could not be elected, and the community was forced to go entirely underground. However, in 1782, the Syriac Orthodox Holy Synod elected Metropolitan Michael Jarweh of Aleppo as Patriarch. Shortly after he was enthroned, he declared himself Catholic and in unity with the Pope of Rome. After this declaration Jarweh took refuge in Lebanon and built the still-extant monastery of Our Lady at Sharfeh, and by that act became the Patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church. Since Jarweh there has been an unbroken succession of Syriac Catholic Patriarchs, which is known as the Ignatius Line.

After the split up until modern times

In 1829 the Ottoman government granted legal recognition to the Armenian Catholic Church, and in 1845 the Syriac Catholic Church was also granted its own civil emancipation. Meanwhile, the residence of the Patriarch was shifted to Aleppo in 1831. However, after the Massacre of Aleppo in 1850, the Patriarchal See was shifted to Mardin in 1854.

After becoming officially recognized by the Ottoman Government in 1845 the Syriac Catholic Church expanded rapidly. However, The expansion was ended by the persecutions and massacres that took place during the Assyrian genocide of World War I. After that, the Syriac Catholic Patriarchal See was moved to Beirut away from Mardin, to which many Ottoman Christians had fled the Genocide. In addition to its see in Beirut, The patriarchal seminary and printing house are located at Sharfeh Monastery in Sharfeh, Lebanon.

Organization

Leadership

As of 2013, the Patriarch of Antioch (an Ancient major see, where several Catholic and Orthodox Patriarchates nominally reside) was Moran Mor Ignatius Joseph III Younan, resident in Beirut, Lebanon. The Syriac Catholic Patriarch always takes the name "Ignatius" in addition to another name.

In modern history the leaders of the Syriac Catholic Church have been: Patriarch Michael III Jarweh, Archbishop Clemens Daoud, Patriarch Ephrem Rahmani, Vicomte de Tarrazi, Monsignor Ishac Armaleh, Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni, Chorbishop Gabriel Khoury-Sarkis, Ignatius Antony II Hayyek, Ignatius Moses I Daoud, Ignatius Peter VIII Abdalahad, and Ignatius Joseph III Yonan. Eminent Syriac saints, scholars, hermits, martyrs and pastors since 1100 also include Dionysius Bar Salibi (1171), Gregorius X Bar Hebraeus (1286) and more recently Bishop Mor Flavianus Michael Malke.

The Syriac Church leadership has produced a variety of scholarly writings in a variety of topics. For example, Patriarch Ephrem Rahmani was widely praised for his work in Syriac and is responsible for Pope Benedict XV recognising Saint Ephrem as a Doctor of the Catholic Church.[5] Likewise Patriarch Ignatius Behnam II Beni is known for imploring eastern theology to defend the Primacy of Rome.[6]

The Patriarch of Antioch and all the East of the Syriacs presides upon the Patriarchal Eparchy of Beirut and leads spiritually all the Syriac Catholic Community around the world.

The community includes two archdioceses in Iraq, four in Syria, one in Egypt and Sudan, a Patriarchal Vicariate in Israel, a Patriarchal Vicariate in Turkey and the Eparchy of Our Lady of Deliverance in the United States and Canada.

Current jurisdictions

The Syriac Catholic Church was formally united with the Holy See of Rome in 1781.

Middle East diocesan jurisdictions
Old World missionary jurisdictions
Overseas diaspora

Former jurisdictions

Titular sees

Other suppressed jurisdictions

Current hierarchy

  • Moran Mor Ignatius Joseph III Younan (Patriarch of Antioch)
  • Jihad Mtanos Battah (Curial Bishop of Antioch and Titular Bishop of Phaena)
  • Basile Georges Casmoussa (Archbishop {personal title} and Curial Bishop of Antioch)
  • Flavien Joseph Melki (Curial Bishop of Antioch and Titular Archbishop of Dara dei Siri)
  • Jules Mikhael Al-Jamil (Auxiliary Bishop of Antioch and Titular Archbishop of Tagritum)
  • Gregorios Elias Tabé (Archbishop of Damascus)
  • Théophile Georges Kassab (Archbishop of Homs; deceased)
  • Denys Antoine Chahda (Archbishop of Aleppo)
  • Jacques Behnan Hindo (Archbishop of Hassaké-Nisibi)
  • Youhanna Boutros Moshe (Archbishop of Mossul)
  • Ephrem Yousif Abba Mansoor (Archbishop of Baghdad)
  • Athanase Matti Shaba Matoka (Archbishop Emeritus of Baghdad)
  • Clément-Joseph Hannouche (Bishop of Cairo and Protosyncellus of Sudan and South Sudan)
  • Yousif Benham Habash (Bishop of Our Lady of Deliverance of Newark)
  • Timoteo Hikmat Beylouni (Apostolic Exarch of Venezuela and Titular Bishop of Sabrata)
  • Iwannis Louis Awad (Apostolic Exarch Emeritus of Venezuela and Titular Bishop of Zeugma in Syria)
  • Michael Berbari (Patriarchal Vicar of Australia and New Zealand)

As of 2010 the Church was estimated to have 159,000 faithful, 10 bishoprics, 85 parishes, 106 secular priests, 12 religious-order priests, 102 men and women in religious orders, 11 permanent deacons and 31 seminarians.[7]

Liturgy

The West Syriac Rite is rooted in the old tradition of both the churches of Jerusalem and Antioch and has ties with the ancient Jewish Berakah and is usually called the Western Syriac Rite.

The Syriac Catholic Church follows a similar tradition to other Eastern Catholic Churches who use the West Syriac Rite, such as the Maronites and Syro-Malankara Christians. This rite is clearly distinct from the Greek Byzantine rite of Antioch of the Melkite Catholics and their Orthodox counterparts. Syriac Catholic priests were traditionally bound to celibacy by the Syriac Catholic local Synod of Sharfeh in 1888, but there are now a number of married priests.

The Liturgy of the Syriac Catholic church is very similar to their Orthodox Counterparts

Distinction between the Anaphora and the Liturgy

Often when compared with the Latin Church the meaning of Anaphora and Liturgy can be mixed up. However, there is a clear distinction in the Syriac Church. The Liturgy of St James the Just is the skeleton of the whole Qurbono Qadisho with all the prayers before the Anaphora being exactly the same no-matter which anaphora used. The Liturgy of St James the Just comprises:

  1. The First Service
    1. Prosthesis
  2. The Second Service
    1. Reading from the Holy Books
      1. The Trisagion
      2. Antiphon before the Pauline Epistle (Galatians 1:8-9)
      3. The Epistle of Saint Paul
  3. The Third Service
    1. The Husoyo (Liturgy of Absolution)
      1. The Proemion
      2. The Sedro (Main Prayer)
      3. The Etro (Fragrance/incense prayer)
  4. The Anaphora
    1. The Kiss of peace
    2. Veiling and placing of the hands prayer
    3. The Dialogue
    4. Preface
    5. Sanctus (Qadish)
    6. Words of Institution
    7. Anamnesis
    8. Epiclesis
    9. Petitions
    10. Fracturing
    11. Liturgy of Repentance
      1. Lord's Prayer (Abun dbashmayo)
    12. Invitation to Holy Communion
    13. The Procession of the Holy Mysteries
    14. Prayer of Thanksgiving
    15. The Dismissal of the Faithful

In the books of the Patriarchal Sharfet seminary, this order is clearly strict, with the Deacon and Congregation prayer being the same no matter which Anaphora is used. The only prayer that changes when a different Anaphora is used is that of the priest.

Liturgical Paraphernalia

Fans

The Syriac Catholic Church uses fans with bells on them and engraved with seraphim during the Qurbono. Usually someone in the minor orders would shake these fans behind a Bishop to symbolise the Seraphim. They are also used during the consecration where two men would shake them over the altar during moments in the epliclesis and words of institution when the priest says "he took and broke" and "this is my body/blood".

Ripidion 20060314
The Syriac Catholic Fans look similar to this but with bells on the edges

Thurible

The thurible of the Syriac Catholic Church consists of 9 bells, representing the 9 levels of angels.

Liturgical Symbols

Liturgical symbols are used when a bishop is not present and used at similar times to when the fans are used.

Liturgy of the Hours

The Liturgy of the Hours is exactly the same as in the Syriac Orthodox. There are two versions of this the Phenqitho and the Shhimo. The former is the more complicated 7 volume version. While the latter is the simple version.

Liturgical ranking

Likewise the ranking of clerics in the Syriac Church is extremely similar to that of the Syriac Orthodox Church. The most notable differences are:

  • Not all celibate Priests take on monastic vows. In the Syriac Orthodox Church all celibate priests are monks.
  • There is a solid distinction between the major orders and minor orders in the Syriac Catholic Church:
  • A man is tonsured as soon as he receives his first minor order of Mzamrono (Cantor).

Major Orders

Minor Orders

Languages

The liturgical language of the Syriac Catholic Church, Syriac, is a dialect of Aramaic. The Qurbono Qadisho (literally: Holy Mass or Holy Offering/Sacrifice) of the Syriac Church uses a variety of Anaphoras, with the Anaphora of the 12 Apostles being the one mostly in use with the Liturgy of St James the Just.

Their ancient semitic language is known as Aramaic (or "Syriac" after the time of Christ since the majority of people who spoke this language belonged to the province of "Syria"). It is the language spoken by Jesus, Mary and the Apostles. Many of the ancient hymns of the Church are still maintained in this native tongue although several have been translated into Arabic, English, French and other languages.

Syriac is still spoken in some few communities in eastern Syria and northern Iraq, but for most Arabic is the vernacular language.[1]

Martyrs

Throughout the History of the Syriac Church there have been many martyrs. A recent example is Flavianus Michael Malke during the 1915 Assyrian Genocide.

Syriac Catholics in Iraq

On 31 October 2010, 58 Iraqi Syriac Catholics were killed by Muslim extremists while attending Sunday Mass, 78 others were wounded. The attack by Islamic State of Iraq on the congregation of Our Lady of Deliverance Syriac Catholic Church was the bloodiest single attack on an Iraqi Christian church in recent history.[8]

Two priests, Fathers Saad Abdallah Tha'ir and Waseem Tabeeh, were killed.[9] Another, Father Qatin, was seriously wounded but recovered.[10][11]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Kjeilen, Tore. "Syrian Catholic Church - LookLex Encyclopaedia". Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  2. ^ http://www.cnewa.org/source-images/Roberson-eastcath-statistics/eastcatholic-stat16.pdf
  3. ^ The title of Patriarch of Antioch is also used/claimed by four other churches, two Orthodox and two other Eastern Catholic; in 1964 the Latin titular payriarchate was abolished.
  4. ^ lexicorient.com/e.o/syr_cath.htm
  5. ^ "Principi Apostolorum Petro (October 5, 1920) - BENEDICT XV". Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  6. ^ Benni, Cyril Benham; Gagliardi, Joseph (1 January 1871). "The tradition of the Syriac Church of Antioch : concerning the primacy and the prerogatives of St. Peter and of his successors the Roman pontiffs". London : Burns, Oates. Retrieved 5 September 2016 – via Internet Archive.
  7. ^ Ronald Roberson (source: Annuario Pontificio) (August 22, 2010). "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2010" (PDF). Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 2, 2012.
  8. ^ "Muslim Terrorists Murder 58 Iraqi Christians in Church". Retrieved 2010-11-14.
  9. ^ article at undergroundfr.org, 2010-11-03 (in French), Retrieved on 2010-11-04. "Trois prêtres (Saad Abdallah Tha'ir, Waseem Tabeeh et Raphael Qatin) et des dizaines de chrétiens ont été tués."
  10. ^ "erratum: le père Raphael Qatin n’est pas décédé" Archived 2010-11-07 at the Wayback Machine aed-france.org 2010-11-05 (in French). Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  11. ^ "Iraqi Christians Hold Mass In Assaulted Church" NPR.org, 2010-11-07. Retrieved 8 November 2010.

Bibliography

Sources and external links

Syriac religious relations and the Catholic Church

Eparchies, churches and monasteries

Abdul Ahad

Abdul Ahad (Arabic: عبد الاحد‎) is an Arabic male given name. It is built from the Arabic words Abd, al- and Ahad. The name means "servant of the only One", Al-Ahad being one of the names of God for Arabic-speaking, but not Christians, only Muslims with their belief in Allah. It is listed in the Qur'an, which give rise to the Muslim theophoric names.The letter a of the al- is unstressed, and can be transliterated by almost any vowel, often by u. So the first part can appear as Abdel, Abdul or Abd-al. The whole name is subject to variable spacing and hyphenation.

It may refer to:

Abd ul-Aḥad Dāwūd, name adopted by David Benjamin Keldani (1867–c.1940), Persian Catholic priest who converted to Islam

Abdul-Ahad Dawood Tappouni, birth name of Ignatius Gabriel I Tappuni (1879–1968), patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church

Abdul Ahad Wardak (c.1880–1949), Afghan politician

Abdul Ahad Azad (1903–1948), Kashmiri poet

Abdul Ahad (music director) (1918–1996), Bangladeshi lyricist and music director

Abdul Ahad Karzai, (1922–1999), Afghan politician

Ignatius Peter VIII Abdalahad (born 1930), patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church

Abdul'ahat Abdulrixit (born 1942), chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China

Abdul Ahad Momand (born 1959), Afghan-German cosmonaut

Ghaith Abdul-Ahad (born 1975), Iraqi journalist

Abdulahad Malik (born 1986), Indian cricketer

Shah Abdul Ahad Afzali, Afghan politician

Abdel Ahad Gamal El Din, Egyptian politician

Abdul Ahad Shaikh (Born 1984)Director of CUBE PLACEMENT

Aramean-Syriac flag

The Aramean flag, or Syriac-Aramean flag, is the ethnic flag designated for the Arameans, adopted in 1980 by the Aramean journal Bahro Suryoyo (Aramean light) of the Syriac federation in Sweden (Swedish: Syrianska Riksförbundet). Intended to represent their nation and homeland as well as the Assyrian diaspora, the flag was design based on the Winged Sun symbol, replacing the sun by a torch symbolising the Holy Spirit in Christianity.

The design is specifically based on a relief depicting Gilgamesh between two bull-men supporting a winged sun disk, excavated by the French semitologist André Dupont-Sommer (1900-1983) at Tell Halaf in the former Aramean city-state of Bit Bahiani, today located in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria. The red background was chosen to represent the blood that was spilled in the Aramean genocide. The yellow represents hope.

It is intended to represent "the Aramean (Syriac) nation in the Aramean homeland and in the Aramean diaspora". The Aramean flag is advocated by a number of Syriac Christians, most notably members of the Syriac Orthodox Church and Syriac Catholic Church.

Assyrians in Lebanon

Assyrians in Lebanon include migrants of Assyrian origin residing in Lebanon, as well as their descendants. Most of the Assyrians in Lebanon came as refugees from northern Iraq, one of the four locations of the indigenous Assyrian homeland areas which are part of today's northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and, more recently, northeastern Syria. There are an estimated 40,000 to 80,000 Iraqi Assyrian refugees in Lebanon. The vast majority of them are undocumented, with a large number having been deported or put in prison. They belong to various denominations, including the Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, and Syriac Catholic Church. Three Assyrian/Syriac/Aramean parties are established in Lebanon, Shuraya party (with Assyrian identity), Syriac Union Party (with Syriac identity), and Aramean Democratic Organization (with Aramean identity).

Diocese of Martyropolis

Martyropolis is a historical episcopal see of early Christianity, in what was the Roman province of Mesopotamia, now located in modern Turkey. It is now a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.

Dioceses of the Syriac Catholic Church

The Syriac Catholic Church, established in the second half of the 17th century as a Eastern Catholic offshoot of the Syriac Orthodox Church, had around a dozen dioceses in the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th and 19th centuries. Three of these dioceses were ruined during the First World War in the Assyrian and Armenian massacres, and the 20th century also saw the growth of an important Syriac Catholic diaspora in America, Europe and Australasia.As of 2012 the Syriac Catholic Church has fifteen dioceses, mostly in the Middle East, and four patriarchal vicariates for the diaspora communities.

Holy Trinity, Brook Green

Holy Trinity Roman Catholic Church is a Roman Catholic church in Hammersmith, London W6. Its building is Grade II* listed

Ignatius Andrew Akijan

Mar Ignatius Andrew 'Abdul-Ghal Akijan (or Akhidjan, Akidjian, 1622–1677) was the Patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church from 1662 to 1677. His election as Patriarch marked the first separation of the hierarchy between the Syriac Catholic Church and the Syriac Orthodox Church.

Ignatius Antony I Samheri

Mar Ignatius Antony I Samheri (or Antun Semhiri , Samhery, 1801–1864), a converted bishop from the Syriac Orthodox Church, was Patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church from 1853 to 1864.

Ignatius Peter VIII Abdalahad

Ignatius Peter VIII Abdalahad (born Peter Gregory Abdalahad; 30 June 1930 – 4 April 2018) was patriarch of Antioch and all the East of the Syriac Catholic Church. He served as patriarch from 2001 to 2008, when he resigned and retired.

Ignatius Peter VII Jarweh

Mar Ignatius Peter VII Jarweh (or Butrus Javré, Jaroueh, Garweh, Djarweh, Giarvé, 1777–1851) was Patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church from 1820 to 1851.

Mar Assia al-Hakim Church

Mar Assia al-Hakim Church (Arabic: كنيسة مار آسيا الحكيم‎) is a Syriac Catholic Church in Al-Jdayde quarter of Aleppo, Syria. The church belongs to the Archeparchy of Aleppo of the Syrian Catholic Church. It was completed in 1500 and is active up to now.

Mar Behnam Monastery

Monastery of the Martyrs Mar Behnam and Marth Sarah (Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܕܡܪܝ ܒܗܢܡ ܘܡܪܬ ܣܪܐ‎, Arabic: دير مار بهنام‎, Mar Behnam Monastery), was a Syriac Catholic monastery in northern Iraq in the village Khidr Ilyas close to the town of Beth Khdeda. The tomb of Mar Benham was heavily damaged on March 19, 2015 by the Islamic State, and the exterior murals were desecrated in all of the monastery's buildings. Repair work restoring the monastery and the tomb of Mar Behnam to its pre-ISIS condition was completed by early December 2018.

Monastery of Saint Moses the Abyssinian

Deir Mar Musa al-Habashi (Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܪܡܪܝ ܡܘܫܐ ܟܘܫܝܐ‎ deiro d-mor mūše kūšoyo; Arabic: دير مار موسى الحبشي‎, ALA-LC: dayr mār Mūsá al-Ḥabashī), literally the Monastery of Saint Moses the Abyssinian, is a monastic community of the Syriac Catholic Church located near the town of Nabk, approximately 80 km (50 mi) north of Damascus, on the eastern slopes of the Anti-Lebanon. The main church of the monastic compound hosts precious frescoes dating to the 11th and 12th century.

An ancient building, stone circles, lines and tombs were recently discovered near the monastery in 2009 by archaeologist Robert Mason of the Royal Ontario Museum. Mason suggested that the ruins may date back 10,000 years and were likely constructed in Neolithic period (such as the Heavy Neolithic Qaraoun culture of the Anti-Lebanon). Further excavation and research, into this discovery, has been halted due to the threat of violence caused by the Syrian civil war.

Syriac

Syriac may refer to:

Syriac language, a dialect of Middle Aramaic

Syriac alphabet

Syriac (Unicode block)

Syriac Supplement

Neo-Aramaic languages also known as Syriac in most native vernaculars

Syriac Christianity, the churches using Syriac as their liturgical language

West Syriac Rite, liturgical rite of the Syriac Orthodox Church, and the Syriac Catholic Church

East Syriac Rite, liturgical rite of the Assyrian Church of the East, and the Chaldean Catholic Church

Assyrian people (Syriacs)

Suriyani Malayalam, dialect of Malayalam influenced by Syriac

Syriac Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Canada

The Syriac Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Canada (informally Canada of the Syriacs) is an Apostolic exarchate (Eastern Catholic missionary pre-diocesan jurisdiction) of the Syriac Catholic Church sui iuris (West Syriac Rite in Syriac language) covering Canada.

It is exempt, i.e. directly subject to the Holy See (notably the Roman Congregation for the Oriental Churches), not part of any ecclesiastical province.

Syriac Catholic Eparchy of Cairo

The Syriac Catholic Eparchy of Cairo (informally Cairo of the Syriacs) is an eparchy (Eastern Catholic diocese) of the Syriac Catholic Church sui iuris (Antiochian Rite in Syriac language) covering Egypt.

It is immediately dependent on the Syriac Catholic Patriarch of Antioch, not part of his or any other ecclesiastical province.

Its cathedral episcopal see is the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Rosary in the Egyptian national capital city of Cairo.

Syriac Catholic Patriarchal Exarchate of Jerusalem

The Syriac Catholic Patriarchal Exarchate of Jerusalem (informally Jerusalem of the Syriacs) is a Patriarchal exarchate (missionary Eastern Catholic pre-diocesan jurisdiction) of the Syriac Catholic Church (Antiochian Rite in Syriac language and Arameic) for Palestine and Jordan.

It is directly dependent on the Syriac Catholic Patriarch of Antioch (with see in Beirut), but not part of his or any other ecclesiastical province, and depends in Rome on the Congregation for the Oriental Churches.

Its cathedral episcopal see is the World Heritage Site Church of Saint Thomas, Jerusalem, Holy Land (Israel/Palestine).

Syriac Catholic cathedral

Syriac Catholic cathedral is the cathedral of the Syriac Catholic Church, located in Damascus, Syria.

Syrian Catholic

Syrian Catholic may refer to:

The Catholic Church in Syria, part of the worldwide Catholic Church in the country of Syria

The Syriac Catholic Church, one of 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, that uses the West Syriac liturgy and has many practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church.

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