The Synecdemus or Synekdemos (Greek: Συνέκδημος) is a geographic text, attributed to Hierocles, which contains a table of administrative divisions of the Byzantine Empire and lists of their cities. The work is dated to the reign of Justinian but prior to 535, as it divides the 912 listed cities in the Empire among 64 Eparchies. The Synecdemus, along with the work of Stephanus of Byzantium were the principal sources of Constantine VII's work on the Themes (De Thematibus).

The Synecdemus was published in various editions beginning in 1735, notably by Gustav Parthey (Hieroclis Synecdemus; Berlin, 1866) and slightly later in a corrected text by A. Burckhardt in the Teubner series.[1] The most recent major publication was by E. Honigmann (Le Synekdèmos d'Hiéroklès et l'opuscule géographique de Georges de Chypre; Brussels, 1939).


  1. ^ Hierocles (Grammarian.); Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (Emperor of the East); Burckhardt, August (1893). Hieroclis Synecdemus: accedunt fragmenta apud Constantinum Porphyrogennetum servata et nomina urbium mutata. in aedibus B.G. Teubneri.


Achaea (Roman province)

Achaea or Achaia (Greek: Ἀχαΐα, Akhaia; Latin: Achaia), was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the Peloponnese, Attica, Boeotia, Euboea, the Cyclades and parts of Phthiotis, Aetolia-Acarnania and Phocis. In the north, it bordered on the provinces of Epirus vetus and Macedonia. The region was annexed by the Roman Republic in 146 BC following the sack of Corinth by the Roman general Lucius Mummius, who was awarded the cognomen "Achaicus" ("conqueror of Achaea"). It became part of the Roman province of Macedonia, which included the whole of mainland Greece.

Achaea was a senatorial province, thus free from military men and legions, and one of the most prestigious and sought-after provinces for senators to govern. Athens was the primary center of education for the imperial elite, rivaled only by Alexandria, and one of the most important cities in the Empire. Achaea was among the most prosperous and peaceful parts of the Roman world until Late Antiquity, when it first suffered from barbarian invasions. The province remained prosperous and highly urbanized however, as attested in the 6th-century Synecdemus.

The Slavic invasions of the 7th century led to widespread destruction, with much of the population fleeing to fortified cities, the Aegean islands and Italy, while some Slavic tribes settled the interior. The territories of Achaea remaining in Byzantine hands were grouped into the theme of Hellas.

Apollonos Hieron

Apollonos Hieron (Greek: Ἀπόλλωνος ἱερόν, "Temple of Apollo") was an ancient city of Lydia.

Carallia (Pamphylia)

Carallia (Ancient Greek: Καραλλία) was a city of the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is mentioned in the acts of the Council of Ephesus (431). The same form of the name is given in the acts of the Council of Chalcedon (451).The 6th-century Synecdemus gives the name of this Pamphylian city as Καράλια (Caralia).William Smith took the Pamphylian Carallia to be identical with the town of Carallis (Κάραλλις, Καράλλεια) in Isauria, which he identified with a place in Turkey called Kereli. The site of the Pamphylian town is supposed to be at Uskeles.Modern scholars place Carallia near Güney Kalesi in Asiatic Turkey.

Dalisandus (Isauria)

Dalisandus or Dalisandos (Greek: Δαλισανδός) was a city in Isauria, near the river Cydnus. It is considered to have been near Sınabiç, 6 km north of Claudiopolis (present-day Mut, Mersin), Turkey.


Erymna (Ancient Greek: Ἐρυμνή) or Orymna (Ancient Greek: Ὄρυμνα) was a town in ancient Pamphylia or Lycia. The form "Orymna" is that given in the Synecdemus and the Notitiae Episcopatuum. and in the ecumenical councils, but inscriptions found on the site show that the inhabitants used the form with "E". Stephanus of Byzantium stated that the form used in the Lyciaca of Alexander Polyhistor was Erymnae (Ancient Greek: Ἐρυμναί, plural of Ἐρυμνή). The modern name of the site is Ormana, reflecting the ancient name.

Eudocia (Cappadocia)

Although William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) said that the Synecdemus of Hierocles mentions four towns in Asia Minor called Eudocia (Ancient Greek: Εὐδοκία), including one in Cappadocia, the text of the Synecdemus as edited by Gustav Parthey in 1866 mentions no town of that name or of any similar name among the Cappadocian towns.Smith also said that the town had formerly belonged to the Anatolian Theme but Leo VI incorporated it into Cappadocia. The Synecdemus was composed, under Justinian (527–565), before 535, three and a half centuries before the time of Leo VI, who reigned from 886 to 912.

Eudocia (Lycia)

Eudocia (Ancient Greek: Εὐδοκία) was a town in ancient Lycia.

Although William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) said that the Synecdemus of Hierocles mentions four towns in Asia Minor called Eudocia (Εὐδοκία), including one in Lycia, other scholars report the Synecdemus as calling one or more of them Eudocias or Eudoxias. and the name of the Lycian town as it appears in the text of the Synecdemus as edited by Parthey in 1866 is clearly Eudocias (Εὐδοκιάς), while noting that in some Notitiae Episcopatuum the name is given as Eudoxias (Εὐδοξιάς).Lequien, who mentions no town in Lycia called Eudocia, says that the Synecdemus called a town in Lycia Eudocias and one in Pamphylia Eudoxias, but that other sources speak of the Pamphylian town also as Eudocias. He sees in the presence in the Synecdemus both of a Lycian Telmessus and a Lycian Eudocias and also of a Pamphylian Termessus and a Pamphylian Eudoxias or Eudocias proof that they were all distinct cities. It is curious then that, although, when speaking of Telmessus, he says that it was the Pamphylian Termessus and the Pamphylian Eudocias that for long had the same bishop, when he speaks of the Lycian Eudocias, he attributes to that see the same bishops that he attributes elsewhere to the Pamphylian Eudocias, calling the two most ancient one either bishops of Telmessus and Eudocias (when speaking of Lycia) or bishops of Termessus and Eudocias (when speaking of Pamphylia). The bishops that he mentions for both towns that he calls Eudocias are Timotheus (at the 431 Council of Ephesus), Zenodotus (at the 451 Council of Ephesus), and Photius or Photinus (at the 787 Second Council of Nicaea).The more recent study by Gams makes no mention of any bishopric in Lycia called either Eudocias or Eudocia, but mentions both the Lycian Telmessus and the Pamphylian Termessus and Eudocias.The Annuario Pontificio speaks of a no longer residential, and therefore now titular, episcopal see in the Roman province of Lycia as called Eudocia. It was a suffragan of Myra, the metropolitan see and capital of that province. The Annuario Pontificio states that the town that it calls Eudocia was near Makri, the name that at least by the 9th century was given to the city previously called Telmessus, which is now Fethiye, Muğla Province, Turkey.

Eudocia (Phrygia)

Eudocia (Ancient Greek: Εὐδοκία), or possibly Eudocias (Ancient Greek: Εὐδοκιάς), was an ancient town in Phrygia Pacatiana. Its current location is unknown.

The Synecdemus of Hierocles mentions four towns in Asia Minor called Eudocia, including one in Phrygia Pacatiana.

Eudocias (Pamphylia)

Eudocias (Ancient Greek: Εὐδοκιάς) or Eudocia (Ancient Greek: Εὐδοκία) was an ancient town in the Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda, in the neighbourhood of Termessus.

According to William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), the Synecdemus of Hierocles mentions four towns in Asia Minor, including one in Pamphylia, called Eudocia (Εὐδοκία), but other scholars report the Synecdemus as calling the Pamphylian town Eudocias. Lequien says the Synecdemus spoke of the Pamphylian town as Eudoxias but himself, in line with other sources, uses the form "Eudocias". Parthey's 1866 edition of the Synecdemus gives the name of the Pamphylian town as Eudocia, but notes that the earlier editions of Wesseling (1735) and Bekker (1840) gave the name as Eudocias.In recent studies, "Eudocias" is the form of the name given by George E. Bean, and by Hülya Yalçınsoy and Süleyman Atalay.The original name of the town seems to have been Anydros. It was rebuilt in the 5th century and renamed Eudocias in honour of Empress Aelia Eudocia, the wife of Theodosius II, and under this name is mentioned in the Synecdemus. Bishop Timotheus of Termessus and Eudocias took part in the Council of Ephesus in 431 and Bishop Sabinianus of Termessus, Eudocias and Iobia in a synod held in Constantinople in 448. But in 458, the suffragans of the metropolitan see of Perge (the capital of Pamphylia Secunda) who signed a joint letter to the Byzantine Emperor regarding the murder of Proterius of Alexandria included both Auxentius of Termessus and Innocentius of Eudocias, showing that Eudocias had by then become a distinct episcopal see. From then on Eudocias and Termessus appear as separate sees in the Notitiae Episcopatuum even as late as the 10th century.Other sources too give the names of these bishops of Eudocias, adding to them Callistus (or Calixtus), who took part in the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.No longer a residential bishopric, Eudocias is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.Its site is tentatively located near Evdirhan in Asiatic Turkey.

Hierocles (author of Synecdemus)

Hierocles (Greek: Ἱεροκλῆς Hierokles) was a Byzantine geographer of the sixth century and the attributed author of the Synecdemus or Synekdemos, which contains a table of administrative divisions of the Byzantine Empire and lists of the cities of each. The work is dated to the reign of Justinian but prior to 535, as it divides the 912 listed cities in the Empire among 64 Eparchies. The Synecdemus is thus one of the most invaluable monuments which we have to study the political geography of the sixth century East. The work of Hierocles along with that of Stephanus of Byzantium were the principal sources of Constantine VII's work on the Themes (De Thematibus). Hierocles was published by Parthey (Hieroclis Synecdemus; Berlin, 1866) then in a corrected text, by A. Burckhardt in the Teubner series (Hieroclis Synecdemus; Leipzig, 1893). The most recent major publication was by E. Honigmann (Le Synekdèmos d'Hiéroklès et l'opuscule géographique de Georges de Chypre; Brussels, 1939).

The Synecdemus of Hierocles should not be confused with a Greek Orthodox prayer book by the same name.

List of Graeco-Roman geographers

Pre-Hellenistic Classical Greece



Hecataeus of Miletus

Massaliote Periplus (?)

Scylax of Caryanda (6th century BC)

HerodotusHellenistic periodPytheas (died c. 310 BC)

Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax (4th or 3rd century BC)

Megasthenes (died c. 290 BC)

Autolycus of Pitane (died c. 290 BC)

Dicaearchus (died c. 285 BC)

Deimakos (3rd century BC)

Timosthenes (fl. 270s BC)

Eratosthenes (c. 276-194 BC)

Scymnus (fl. 180s BC)

Hipparchus (c. 190-120 BC)

Agatharchides (2nd century BC)

Posidonius (c. 135-51 BC)

Pseudo-Scymnus (c. 90 BC)

Diodorus Siculus (c. 90-30 BC)

Alexander Polyhistor (1st century BC)Roman Empire period

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

Strabo (64 BC - 24 AD)

Pomponius Mela (fl. 40s AD)

Isidore of Charax (1st century AD)

Mucianus (1st century AD)

Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD), Natural History

Marinus of Tyre (c. 70-130)

Ptolemy (90-168), Geography

Pausanias (2nd century)

Agathedaemon of Alexandria (2nd century)

Dionysius of Byzantium (2nd century)

Agathemerus (3rd century)

Tabula Peutingeriana (4th century)

Alypius of Antioch (4th century)

Marcian of Heraclea (4th century)

Expositio totius mundi et gentium (AD 350-362)

Julius Honorius (very uncertain: 4th, 5th or 6th century)Byzantine EmpireHierocles (author of Synecdemus) (6th century)

Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century)

Stephanus of Byzantium (6th century)

Nisa (Lycia)

Nisa (Ancient Greek: Νίσα or Νίσσα), also Nyssa (Νύσσα) or Nysa (Νύσα) or Neisa (Νείσα), was a town in ancient Lycia near the source of the River Xanthus.

Podalia (Lycia)

Podalia (Ancient Greek: Ποδαλία), also spelled Podalaea or Podalaia (Ποδαλαία), Podallia (Ποδαλλία), and Podaleia (Ποδάλεια), was a town of ancient Lycia, mentioned by several ancient authors.


Pogla was a town in the late Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda. Its bishopric, which was a suffragan of Perge, is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.


Rhesaina (Rhesaena) was a city in the late Roman province of Mesopotamia Secunda and a bishopric that was a suffragan of Dara.Rhesaina (Rhesaena, Resaena – numerous variations of the name appear in ancient authors) was an important town at the northern extremity of Mesopotamia, near the sources of the Chaboras (now the Khabur River. It was on the way from Carrhae to Nicephorium, about eighty miles from Nisibis and forty from Dara. Nearby, Gordian III fought the Persians in 243, at the battle of Resaena. It is now Ra's al-'Ayn, Syria.

Its coins show that it was a Roman colony from the time of Septimius Severus. The Notitia dignitatum (ed. Boecking, I, 400) represents it as under the jurisdiction of the governor or Dux of Osrhoene. Hierocles (Synecdemus, 714, 3) also locates it in this province but under the name of Theodosiopolis; it had in fact obtained the favour of Theodosius the Great and taken his name. It was fortified by Justinian. In 1393 it was nearly destroyed by Tamerlane's troops.

Rhodope (Roman province)

Rhodope (Greek: Ῥοδόπη, Ἐπαρχία Ῥοδόπης) was a late Roman and early Byzantine province, situated on the northern Aegean coast. A part of the Diocese of Thrace, it extended along the Rhodope Mountains range, covering parts of modern Western Thrace (in Greece) and south-western Bulgaria. The province was headed by a governor of the rank of praeses, with Trajanopolis as the provincial capital. According to the 6th-century Synecdemus, there were six further cities in the province, Maroneia, Maximianopolis, Nicopolis, Kereopyrgos (unknown location) and Topeiros (mod. Toxotai in Greece).

The province survived until the Slavic invasions of the 7th century, although as an ecclesiastic province, it continued in existence at least until the 12th century. The theme of Boleron covered most of the area in later Byzantine times.


Scamandrus or Skamandros (Ancient Greek: Σκάμανδρος), was a small town in the ancient Troad in ancient Mysia, no doubt situated on the Scamander River in the plain of Troy.Its site is located near Akköy Yakası, Asiatic Turkey.

Seleucia Sidera

Seleucia Sidera (Greek: Σελεύκεια η Σιδηρᾶ, Seleukeia hê Sidêra; Latin: Seleucia Ferrea), also transliterated as Seleuceia, Seleukeia, and later known as Claudioseleucia, Greek Klaudioseleukeia, was an ancient city in the northern part of Pisidia, Anatolia, near the village of Bayat (old name Selef), near Atabey, about 15 km North-northeast of Isparta, Isparta Province, in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey.

Founded by Seleucus I Nicator or Antiochus I Soter to protect the military road across northern Pisidia. The city's surname Sidera (hê Sidêra, Ptol. v. 5. § 4; Hierocl. p. 673), is probably derives from iron-works in its vicinity. The city minted its own coins, some of which bear the image of the Asiatic divinity Men, who was worshipped at Antioch.

The city was restored by the Roman emperor Claudius, and the name was changed to Claudioseleucia. This name is retained on the city's coins down to the time of Claudius II, though in Ptolemy, the Synecdemus of Hierocles, and the Notitiae Dignitatum the name is recorded as Seleucia.

The city was Christianized early, its bishop, Eutychius being present at the Council of Nicaea in 325. [1]

The city is in ruins. Remnants of the city wall, a necropolis, and a theater can be found.


Zaliche (Greek: Ζαλίχη) or Zaliches (Greek: Ζαλίχης) was an ancient town in the late Roman province of Helenopontus.


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