Sylvioidea

Sylvioidea is a superfamily of passerine birds, one of at least three major clades within the Passerida along with the Muscicapoidea and Passeroidea. It contains about 1300 species including the Old World warblers, Old World babblers, swallows, larks and bulbuls. Members of the clade are found worldwide, but fewer species are present in the Americas.

Sylvioidea
Sylvia atricapilla male 2
Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Infraorder: Passerida
Superfamily: Sylvioidea
Families

See text

Systematics

The superfamily Sylvioidea was first proposed in 1990 in the Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy of birds based on DNA–DNA hybridization experiments.[1] More recent studies based on comparison of DNA sequences have failed to support the inclusion of some families such as Certhiidae (treecreepers), Sittidae (nuthatches), Paridae (tits and chickadees) and Regulidae (goldcrests and kinglets) but instead support the addition of Alaudidae (larks).[2]

Some of the families within the Sylvioidea have been greatly redefined. In particular, the Old World warbler family Sylviidae and Old World babbler family Timaliidae were used as wastebin taxa and included many species which have turned out not to be closely related. Several new families have been created and some species have been moved from one family to another.[3]

List of families

This list of 23 families is based on the molecular phylogenetic study published by Silke Fregin and colleagues in 2012.[4][5] The number of species is from the online list of world birds maintained by Frank Gill and David Donsker on behalf of the International Ornithological Committee (IOC).[6]

References

  1. ^ Sibley, C.G.; Ahlquist, J.E. (1990). Phylogeny and Classification of Birds. A Study in Molecular Evolution. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
  2. ^ Alström, Per; Ericson, Per G.P.; Olsson, Urban; Sundberg, Per (2006). "Phylogeny and classification of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 38 (2): 381–397. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.05.015. PMID 16054402.
  3. ^ Boyd, John H. (2010): Sylvioidea, Aves — A Taxonomy in Flux. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
  4. ^ Fregin, Silke; Haase, Martin; Olsson, Urban; Alström, Per (2012). "New insights into family relationships within the avian superfamily Sylvioidea (Passeriformes) based on seven molecular markers". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 (157): 1–12. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-157. PMC 3462691. PMID 22920688.
  5. ^ Alström, Per; Olsson, Urban; Lei, Fumin (2013). "A review of the recent advances in the systematics of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea". Chinese Birds. 4 (2): 99–131. doi:10.5122/cbirds.2013.0016.
  6. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2018). "Family index". World Bird List Version 8.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
Aberrant bush warbler

The aberrant bush warbler (Horornis flavolivaceus) is a species of bush warbler (family Cettiidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found in central and southern China, and the northern extremes of Myanmar and Vietnam. It occurs in the countries of Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam and also may occur in north-eastern and south-eastern Bangladesh.

Acrocephalidae

The Acrocephalidae (the reed warblers, marsh- and tree-warblers, or acrocephalid warblers) are a family of oscine passerine birds, in the superfamily Sylvioidea.

The species in this family are usually rather large "warblers". Most are rather plain olivaceous brown above with much yellow to beige below. They are usually found in open woodland, reedbeds, or tall grass. The family occurs mostly in southern to western Eurasia and surroundings, but also ranges far into the Pacific, with some species in Africa.

Asian stubtail

The Asian stubtail (Urosphena squameiceps) is a species of bird in the family Cettiidae.

It breeds in Korea, Manchuria and Japan and winters to southern China and northern Southeast Asia.

Its natural habitat is temperate forests.

Bearded reedling

The bearded reedling (Panurus biarmicus) is a small, sexually dimorphic reed-bed passerine bird. It is frequently known as the bearded tit, due to some similarities to the long-tailed tit, or the bearded parrotbill. It is the only species in the family Panuridae.

Black-faced warbler

The black-faced warbler (Abroscopus schisticeps) is a species of bush warbler (family Cettiidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.

Broad-billed warbler

The broad-billed warbler (Tickellia hodgsoni) is a species of bush warbler (family Cettiidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage, and belongs to the monotypic genus Tickellia.

It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.

Brown-flanked bush warbler

The brown-flanked bush warbler (Horornis fortipes), also known as the brownish-flanked bush warbler, is a species of bush-warbler belonging to the Cettiidae family. It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage. It is found in South Asia.

Bush-warbler

Bush-warblers (or bush warblers) are small insectivorous songbirds belonging to the genera Cettia, Horornis, and Bradypterus. They were formerly placed in the "wastebin" Old World warbler family. Neither genus as traditionally delimited is believed to be monophyletic.Due to their external similarity convergently acquired by strong selective pressures due to the identical habitat, they were occasionally believed to be close relatives. However, they belong to two well-distant families in the Sylvioidea, the "warbler-and-babbler" superfamily:

Cettia, the cettiid bush-warblers or typical bush-warblers, belong in the Cettiidae, an ancient sylvioid lineage related to long-tailed tits.

Horornis, the horornid bush-warblers, also belonging in the Cettiidae, an ancient sylvioid lineage related to long-tailed tits.

Bradypterus, the megalurid bush-warblers, belong to in the Megaluridae, the grass-warbler family which is closely related to the Malagasy warblers and the peculiar black-capped donacobius from South America, formerly believed to be an aberrant wren.

Eurasian penduline tit

The Eurasian penduline tit or European penduline tit (Remiz pendulinus) is a passerine bird of the genus Remiz. The genus name is the Polish word for the Eurasian penduline tit, and pendulinus is Latin for "hanging down”, which refers to its nest.It is relatively widespread throughout Eurasia. The breeding range of the species in Western Europe experienced an expansion during the 1980s and 1990s. This was accompanied by an expansion of the species’ winter range and reached as far south as northern Morocco.It builds an elaborate hanging nest, formerly used in Central Europe as children's slippers.This species was first described as Motacilla pendulinus by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758.

Leiothrichidae

The laughingthrushes are a family of Old World passerine birds. They are diverse in size and coloration. These are birds of tropical areas, with the greatest variety in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The entire family used to be included in the Timaliidae.

Locustellidae

Locustellidae is a newly recognized family of small insectivorous songbirds ("warblers"), formerly placed in the Old World warbler "wastebin" family. It contains the grass warblers, grassbirds, and the Bradypterus "bush warblers". These birds occur mainly in Eurasia, Africa, and the Australian region. The family name is sometimes given as Megaluridae, but Locustellidae has priority.The species are smallish birds with tails that are usually long and pointed; the scientific name of the genus Megalurus in fact means "the large-tailed one" in plain English. They are less wren-like than the typical shrub-warblers (Cettia) but like these drab brownish or buffy all over. They tend to be larger and slimmer than Cettia though, and many have bold dark streaks on wings and/or underside. Most live in scrubland and frequently hunt food by clambering through thick tangled growth or pursuing it on the ground; they are perhaps the most terrestrial of the "warblers". Very unusual for Passeriformes, beginning evolution towards flightlessness is seen in some taxa.Among the "warbler and babbler" superfamily Sylvioidea, the Locustellidae are closest to the Malagasy warblers, another newly recognized (and hitherto unnamed) family; the black-capped donacobius (Donacobius atricapillus) is an American relative derived from the same ancestral stock and not a wren as was long believed.

Macrosphenidae

The African warblers are a newly erected family Macrosphenidae, of songbirds. Most of the species were formerly placed in the Old World warbler family Sylviidae, although one species, the rockrunner, was placed in the babbler family Timaliidae. A series of molecular studies of the Old World warblers and other bird families in the superfamily Sylvioidea (which includes the larks, swallows and tits) found that the African warblers were not part of the family Sylviidae but were instead an early offshoot (basal) to the entire Sylvioidea clade.

Manchurian bush warbler

The Manchurian bush warbler (Horornis canturians), also known as Korean bush warbler, is a species of bird in the family Cettiidae.

It is found in northeastern China.

The estimated distribution size is reported to be a large range – approximately 1,610,000 km2. Although the global population has not been measured, the population trend appears to be stable. Because of this, the Manchurian bush warbler is evaluated as a least concern species.

Palau bush warbler

The Palau bush warbler (Horornis annae) is a species of Old World warbler in the family Cettiidae.

It is found only in Palau.

Passerida

Passerida is, under the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, one of two parvorders contained within the suborder Passeri (standard taxonomic practice would place them at the rank of infraorder). While more recent research suggests that its sister parvorder, Corvida, is not a monophyletic grouping, the Passerida as a distinct clade are widely accepted.

Rufous-faced warbler

The rufous-faced warbler (Abroscopus albogularis) is a species of bush warbler (family Cettiidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Timor stubtail

The Timor stubtail (Urosphena subulata) is a species of bird in the family Cettiidae.

It is found in Timor and northern and eastern adjacent islands.

Western nicator

The western nicator (Nicator chloris) is a species of songbird in the family Nicatoridae, which is native to the western and central Afrotropics.

Yellow-bellied warbler

The yellow-bellied warbler (Abroscopus superciliaris) is a species of bush warbler (family Cettiidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are temperate forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.

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