Sylheti language

Sylheti (Sylheti: ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ, Bengali: সিলেটি) is an Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam. There is a substantial number of speakers in the Indian states of Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura (North Tripura) with smaller populations in Kolkata and Nagaland.[3]

Sylheti
ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ
ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ
ছিলটি
সিলেটি
Sylheti nagari
The word Silôṭi ('Sylheti') in Sylheti Nagari script
Pronunciation[silɔʈi]
Native toBangladesh, India
RegionSylhet Division, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur
EthnicitySylheti people
Native speakers
11 million (2007)[1]
Sylheti Nagari, Bengali script
Language codes
ISO 639-3syl
Glottologsylh1242[2]
Linguasphere59-AAF-ui
Sylheti speaking zone
Sylheti speakers within South Asia

Status

The status of Sylheti is hotly disputed with some considering it a dialect of Bengali, while others consider it a separate language.[4] There are significant differences in grammar and pronunciation as well as a lack of mutual intelligibility between the two varieties. There are greater differences between Sylheti and Bengali than between Sylheti and Assamese, which is recognised as a separate language.[5] Most Sylhetis are at least bilingual to some degree, as Bengali is taught at all levels of education in Bangladesh. Sylhet was part of the ancient kingdom of Kamarupa,[6] and Sylheti shares many common features with Assamese, including having a larger set of fricatives than other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages. According to George Abraham Grierson,[7] "The inflections also differ from those of regular Bengali, and in one or two instances assimilate to those of Assamese". Considering the unique linguistic properties such as phoneme inventory, allophony, and inflectional morphology in particular and lexicon in general, Sylheti is often regarded as a separate language (Grierson 1928, Chatterjee 1939, Gordon 2005). Indeed, it was formerly written using its own script, Sylheti Nagari, which, although largely replaced with the Bengali script in recent times, is beginning to experience a revival in use.

Sylheti shares at least 80% of its lexicon with Bengali.[8]

Name of the language

Sylheti is the common English spelling of the language name after the accepted British spelling of the Sylhet District. The Standard Bengali spelling of the name Sylheti is সিলেটি (Sileṭi). The Sylheti spelling is ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ or ছিলটি (Silôṭi). In Assamese it is called ছিলঠীয়া (Silothia).

Geographical distribution

The Sylheti language is native to the Greater Sylhet region, which comprises the present-day Sylhet Division of Bangladesh as well as the 3 districts of the Barak Valley in India.

Besides the native region it is also spoken by the Sylhetis living in North Tripura and the Meghalaya region. A significant amount of Sylheti migration to the United Kingdom and the United States from the 20th century has made Sylheti one of the most spoken languages of the Bangladeshi diaspora.

Dialects

The Sylhet region became a part of the Bengal Sultanate in 1303 during the Conquest of Sylhet led by Shamsuddin Firoz Shah. This led to influence from Arabic and Persian. When the British arrived in 1765, Sylhet became a part of Assam leading to Assamese influence on the language. Following the 1947 referendum, majority decided to join East Bengal and the Hill Tracts to form East Pakistan. However, due to the Radcliffe Line, the districts of Karimganj, Hailakandi and Cachar were separated from Sylhet and joined Assam. Due to this separation, the Sylheti language has evolved into many dialects.

1. Jalalabadi Sylheti: This dialect is mostly spoken in the Sylhet, Moulvibazar and Habiganj districts. It is heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian due to arrival of Islam in the region. Named after Shah Jalal, it is mostly spoken by the Muslim population although Hindus in these areas may also speak in this dialect. Covering most of the Sylhet region, there are slight differences in vocabulary which can still be seen although it is one dialect. This dialect is also viewed as the standard version of Sylheti.

2. Lauṛi Sylheti/Sunamganji Sylheti: Named after the Lauṛ Kingdom which comprises modern-day Sunamganj as well as neighbouring districts. Baul Shah Abdul Karim is known for singing in this dialect. It may also be known as Sunamganji. This dialect is closer to the Bengali language than the standard Jalalabadi.

3. Jaintian Sylheti/Shillong Sylheti: Influenced by Sanskrit due to majority of speakers being Sylheti Hindus. It is spoken in the city of Shillong, Meghalaya and other Sylheti-populated areas of the Jaintia Hills. It is also known as Shillong Sylheti.

4. Barak Sylheti: Spoken in the Barak Valley and some other areas in Assam. It is influenced by the Assamese due to the population being part of the Assam state. It is also spoken by people of the North Tripura.

5. There is also a written form of Sylheti which was used to write Puthis and was identical to puthis written in Dobhashi Bengali due to both lacking the use of tatsama and using Perso-Arabic vocabulary as a replacement. Similar to Dobhashi, those written in Sylheti Nagri were paginated from right to left.[9][10]

History

Halot-un-nabi-page1
SAMPLE TEXT:
Front page of a Nagari book titled Halat-un-Nabi, written in the mid-19th century by Sadeq Ali of Sylhet

In ancient literature, Sylhet was referred as Shilahat and Shilahatta.[11] In the 19th century, the British tea-planters in the area referred to the vernacular spoken in Surma and Barak Valleys as Sylheti language.[12] In Assam, the language is still referred to as Sylheti.

During the British colonial period, a Sylheti student by the name of Moulvi Abdul Karim studying in London, England, after completing his education, spent several years in London and learned the printing trade. After returning home, he designed a woodblock type for Sylheti Nagari and founded the Islamia Press in Sylhet Town in about 1870. Other Sylheti presses were established in Sunamganj, Shillong and Kolkata. These presses fell out of use during the early 1970s.[13][14] Since then, the Sylotinagri alphabet has been used mainly by linguists and academics.[15] It gradually became very unpopular.[16][17]

The script includes 5 independent vowels, 5 dependent vowels attached to a consonant letter and 27 consonants. The Sylheti abugida differs from the Bengali alphabet as it is a form of Kaithi, a script that belongs to the main group of North Indian scripts of Bihar.[18] The writing system's main use was to record religious poetry, described as a rich language and easy to learn.[19]

Campaigns started to rise in London during the mid-1970s to mid-1980s to recognise Sylheti as a language in its own right. During the mid-1970s, when the first mother-tongue classes were established for Bangladeshis by community activists, the classes were given in standard Bengali rather than the Sylheti dialect which triggered the campaign. During the 1980s, a recognition campaign for Sylheti took place in the area of Spitalfields, East End of London. One of the main organisations was the Bangladeshis' Educational Needs in Tower Hamlets (usually known by its acronym as BENTH). However this organisation collapsed in 1985 and with its demise, the pro-Sylheti campaign in the borough lost impetus. Nonetheless, Sylheti remains very widespread as a domestic language in working-class as well as upper-class Sylheti households in the United Kingdom.[20]

Sylheti variation from Standard Bengali

Vocabulary look

A phrase in:

  • Standard Bengali: এক দেশের গালি আরেক দেশের বুলি æk desher gali arek desher buli.
  • Sylheti: ꠄꠇ ꠖꠦꠡꠞ ꠉꠣꠁꠟ ꠀꠣꠞꠇ ꠖꠦꠡꠞ ꠝꠣꠔ/এক দেশর গাইল, আরক দেশর মাত ex deshôr gail arôx deshôr mat.

which literally means "one land's obscenity is another land's language", and can be roughly translated to convey that a similar word in one language can mean something very different in another. For example:

মেঘ megh in Standard Bengali means cloud .

ꠝꠦꠊ/মেঘ megh in Sylheti means rain.
In Pali মেঘ megh means both rain and cloud.
In Sylheti cloud is called ꠛꠣꠖꠟ/বাদল badôl, ꠢꠣꠎ/হাজ haz, or ꠀꠡꠝꠣꠘꠤ ꠢꠣꠎ/আসমানি হাজ ashmani haz (decor of the sky).
In Standard Bengali rain is called বৃষ্টি brishti.

নাড়া naṛa in Standard Bengali means to stir or to move .

In Sylheti, to stir is called laṛa (ꠟꠣꠠꠣ).

কম্বল kômbôl in Standard Bengali means blanket.

In Sylheti, blanket is called ꠞꠣꠎꠣꠁ/রাজাই razai.
ꠇꠝꠛꠟ/কম্বল xômbôl in Sylheti means buttock.

Grammar comparisons

The following is a sample text in Sylheti, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations:
Sylheti in Sylheti Nagari script

ꠗꠣꠞꠣ ১: ꠢꠇꠟ ꠝꠣꠘꠥ ꠡꠣꠗꠤꠘꠜꠣꠛꠦ ꠢꠝꠣꠘ ꠁꠎ꠆ꠎꠔ ꠀꠞ ꠢꠇ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠙꠄꠖꠣ ‘ꠅꠄ। ꠔꠣꠞꠣꠞ ꠛꠤꠛꠦꠇ ꠀꠞ ꠀꠇꠟ ꠀꠍꠦ। ꠅꠔꠣꠞ ꠟꠣꠉꠤ ꠢꠇꠟꠞ ꠄꠇꠎꠘꠦ ꠀꠞꠇꠎꠘꠞ ꠟꠉꠦ ꠛꠤꠞꠣꠖꠞꠤꠞ ꠝꠘ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠀꠌꠞꠘ ꠇꠞꠣ ꠃꠌꠤꠔ।

Sylheti in Bengali script

ধারা ১: হকল মানু স্বাধীনভাবে হমান ইজ্জত আর হক লইয়া পয়দা ‘অয়। তারার বিবেক আর আকল আছে। অতার লাগি হকলর একজনে আরকজনর লগে বিরাদরির মন লইয়া আচরণ করা উচিত।

Sylheti in Phonetic Romanization

Dara ex: Hôxôl manu šadinbabe hôman ijjôt ar hôx lôia fôeda ôe. Tarar bibex ar axôl ase. Ôtar lagi hôxlôr exzône arôxzônôr lôge biradôrir môn lôia asôrôn xôra usit.

Sylheti in IPA

/d̪aɾa ex | ɦɔxɔl manu ʃad̪ínbábe ɦɔman id͡ʒːɔt̪ aɾ ɦɔx lɔia fɔe̯d̪a ɔ́e̯ ‖ t̪aɾaɾ bibex aɾ axɔl asé ‖ ɔt̪aɾ lagi ɦɔxlɔɾ exzɔne arɔxzɔnɔɾ lɔge birad̪ɔɾiɾ mɔn lɔia asɔɾɔn xɔɾa usit̪ ‖/

Bengali in Bengali script

ধারা ১: সমস্ত মানুষ স্বাধীনভাবে সমান মর্যাদা এবং অধিকার নিয়ে জন্মগ্রহণ করে। তাঁদের বিবেক এবং বুদ্ধি আছে; সুতরাং সকলেরই একে অপরের প্রতি ভ্রাতৃত্বসুলভ মনোভাব নিয়ে আচরণ করা উচিত।

Bengali in Phonetic Romanization

Dhara æk: Šômôsto manuš šadhinbhabe šôman môrjada æbông odhikar niye jônmôgrôhôn kôre. Tãder bibek æbông buddhi achhe; šutôrang šôkôleri æke ôpôrer prôti bhratrittôšulôbh mônobhab niye achôrôn kôra uchit.

Bengali in IPA

/d̪ʱara ɛk | ʃɔmɔst̪o manuʃ ʃad̪ʱinbʱabe ʃɔman mɔɾd͡ʒad̪a ɛbɔŋ od̪ʱikaɾ nije d͡ʒɔnmɔgɾɔɦɔn kɔɾe ‖ t̪ãd̪eɾ bibek ɛbɔŋ bud̪d̪ʱi at͡ʃʰe ‖ ʃut̪ɔɾaŋ ʃɔkɔleɾi ɛke ɔpɔɾeɾ prɔt̪i bʱɾat̪ɾit̪ːɔʃulɔbʱ mɔnobʱab nije at͡ʃɔɾɔn kɔɾa ut͡ʃit̪ ‖/

Below are the grammar similarities and differences appearing in a word to word comparison:
Sylheti word-to-word gloss

All humans' born happen free and dignity plus rights with. Their conscious, intelligent and judgement-clever staying bearing a-person another-person's with spiritual brotherhood conduct stays.

Bengali word-to-word gloss

All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence exist; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken conduct do should.

English

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Tone

Sylheti is a tonal language. The Indo-Aryan languages are not generally recognized for tone. There are two types of tonal contrasts in Sylheti: the emergence of high tone in the vowels following the loss of aspiration, and a low tone elsewhere.[21]

  • at (ꠀꠔ) 'intestine'
  • át (ꠀ’ꠔ) 'hand'
  • xali (ꠇꠣꠟꠤ) 'ink'
  • xáli (ꠈꠣꠟꠤ) 'empty'
  • guṛa (ꠉꠥꠠꠣ) 'powder'
  • gúṛa (ꠊꠥꠠꠣ) 'horse'
  • suri (ꠌꠥꠞꠤ) 'theft'
  • súri (ꠍꠥꠞꠤ) 'knife'
  • zal (ꠎꠣꠟ) 'net, web'
  • zál (ꠏꠣꠟ) 'pungent'
  • ṭik (ꠐꠤꠇ) 'tick'
  • ṭík (ꠑꠤꠇ) 'correct'
  • ḍal (ꠒꠣꠟ) 'branch'
  • ḍál (ꠓꠣꠟ) 'shield'
  • tal (ꠔꠣꠟ) 'palmyra, rhythm'
  • tál (ꠕꠣꠟ) 'plate'
  • dan (ꠖꠣꠘ) 'donation'
  • dán (ꠗꠣꠘ) 'paddy'
  • ful (ꠙꠥꠟ) 'bridge'
  • fúl (ꠚꠥꠟ) 'flower'
  • bala (ꠛꠣꠟꠣ) 'bangle'
  • bála (ꠜꠣꠟꠣ) 'good, welfare'
  • bat (ꠛꠣꠔ) 'arthritis'
  • bát (ꠜꠣꠔ) 'rice'

Sylheti continues to have a long history of coexisting with other Tibeto-Burman languages such as various dialects of Kokborok, Reang which are tonal in nature. Even though there is no clear evidence of direct borrowing of lexical items from those tonal languages into Sylheti, there is still a possibility that the emergence of Sylheti tones is due to an areal feature as the indigenous speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages by and large use Sylheti as a common medium for interaction.

Phonology

Sylheti is distinguished by its tonal characteristics and a wide range of fricative consonants corresponding to aspirated consonants in closely related languages and dialects such as Bengali; a lack of the breathy voiced stops; word-final stress; and a relatively large set of loanwords from Assamese, Standard Bengali and other Bengali dialects. Sylheti has affected the course of Standard Bengali in the rest of the state.

A notable characteristic of spoken Sylheti is the correspondence of the /ʜ/ (hereafter transliterated x), pronounced as a Voiceless epiglottal fricative to the [ʃ], or "sh", of Bengali, e.g.

Vowels
  Front Central Back
Close i   u
Close-mid e    
Open-mid     ɔ
Open   a  
Consonants
  Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Palato-
alveolar
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n     ŋ  
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless unaspirated p ꠙ, ꠚ ꠔ, ꠕ ʈ ꠐ, ꠑ t͡ʃ ꠌ, ꠍ k ꠇ, ꠈ  
voiced unaspirated b ꠛ, ꠜ ꠖ, ꠗ ɖ ꠒ, ꠓ d͡ʒ ꠎ, ꠏ ɡ ꠉ, ꠊ  
Fricative voiceless fricative ɸ~f ꠙ, ꠚ s ꠌ, ꠍ   ʃ x ꠇ, ꠈ ɦ
voiced fricative   z ꠎ, ꠏ        
Flap   ɾ ɽ      
Approximant w l   j    
Standard Bengali Assamese Sylheti Transliteration Meaning in English
চরণস্পর্শ
Côrônspôrshô
ভৰি চোৱা
Bhori süa
ꠇꠖꠝꠛꠥꠍꠤ
Xôdômbusi
/xɔdɔmbusi/ Touching the feet (A way showing respect)
ঢাকা
Dhaka
ঢাকা
Dhaka
ꠓꠣꠇꠣ
Daxa
/ɖaxa/ Dhaka
একজন লোক
Ēkjôn lōk
এজন লোক
Ezon lük
ꠄꠇꠎꠘ ꠝꠣꠘꠥꠡ
Ēxzôn manush
/exzɔn manuʃ/ A person
একজন
Ekjôn
এজন
Ezon
ꠄꠇꠎꠘ
Exzôn
/exzɔn/ Someone
একজন পুরুষ
Ekjôn purush
এজন মানুহ
Ezon manuh
‌ꠄꠇꠐꠣ ꠛꠦꠐꠣ
Exta beta
/exʈa beʈa/ A man
কীসের
Kisher
কিহৰ
kihor
ꠇꠤꠅꠞ
Kior
/kioɾ/ Informal of Whereof
কন্যা, মেয়ে
Kônna, Meye
জী, ছোৱালী
Zi, Süali
ꠇꠂꠘ꠆ꠘꠣ, ꠏꠤ, ꠙꠥꠠꠤ
Xôinna, Zi, Furi
/xoinna/, /zi/, /ɸuɽi/ Daughter
মানবজাতি
Manôbjati
মানৱজাতি, মানুহৰ জাতি
Manowzati, Manuhor zati
ꠝꠣꠁꠘꠡꠞ ꠎꠣꠔ
Mainshor zat
/mainʃɔɾ zat̪/ Mankind
অসমিয়া, অহমিয়া
Ôshômiya, Ôhômiya
অসমীয়া
Oxomiya
ꠅꠢꠝꠤꠀ
Ôhômia
/ɔɦɔmia/ Assamese people
আঙুল
Angul
আঙুলি
Anguli
ꠀꠋꠉꠥꠁꠟ
Angguil
/aŋguil/ Finger, toe
আংটি
Angti
আঙুঠি
Anguthi
ꠀꠋꠑꠤ
Angti
/aŋʈi/ Ring
আগুনপোড়া
Agunpora
জুইত পোৰা, জুইত সেকা
Zuit püra, Zuit xeka
ꠀꠉꠥꠁꠘꠙꠥꠞꠣ
Aguinfura
/aguinfuɽa/ Baked, grilled
অসিধারী
Oshidhari
খৰ্গধৰ,চোকৰধৰা
Khorgodhor, Sükordhora
ꠔꠟꠥꠀꠞꠗꠣꠞꠤ
Tôluardari
/t̪ɔluaɾd̪aɾi/ Swordsman
পাখি, পক্ষী
Pakhi, Pôkkhi
চৰাই, পখী
Sorai, Pokhi
ꠙꠣꠈꠤ, ꠙꠣꠈꠤꠀ
Faki, Fakia
/ɸaki/, /ɸakia/ Bird
ভালোবাসা, প্রেম, পিরিতি
Bhalobasha, Prem, Piriti
মৰম, ভালপোৱা, প্রেম, পিৰিটি
Morom, Bhalpüwa, Prem, Piriti
ꠜꠣꠟꠣꠙꠣꠅꠣ, ꠙꠦꠞꠦꠝ, ꠙꠤꠞꠤꠔꠤ, ꠝꠢꠛ꠆ꠛꠔ
Balafawa, Ferem, Firiti, Môhôbbôt
Firiti /balaɸawa/, /ɸeɾem/, /ɸiɾit̪i/, /mɔɦɔbbɔt̪/ Love
পরে
Pôre
পিছত, পৰত
pisot, porot
ꠙꠞꠦ, ꠛꠣꠖꠦ
Fôre, Bade
/ɸɔɾe/, /bad̪e/ Later
সকল, সমস্ত, সব
Shôkôl, Shômôsto, Shôb
সকলো, সব, চব
Xokolü; Xob; Sob
ꠢꠇꠟ, ꠢꠇ꠆ꠇꠟ, ꠡꠛ
Hôxôl, Hôkkôl, Shôb
/ɦɔxɔl/, /ɦɔkkɔl/, /ʃɔb/ All
সারা
Shara
গোটেই
Gutei
ꠢꠣꠀꠣ
Hara
/ɦaɾa/ Whole
সাত বিল
Shat bil
সাত বিল
Xat bil
ꠢꠣꠔ ꠛꠤꠟ
Hat bil
/ɦat̪ bil/ Seven wetlands
সাতকড়া
Shatkôra
সাতকৰা
Xatkora
ꠢꠣꠔꠇꠠꠣ
Hatxôra
/ɦat̪xɔɽa/ Citrus macroptera fruit
সাতবার
Shatbar
সাতবাৰ
Xatbar
ꠢꠣꠔꠛꠣꠞ
Hatbar
/ɦat̪baɾ/ Seven-times (Sylheti term for lots of time)
সিলেটি
Sileṭi
ছিলঠীয়া
Silôṭiya
ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ
Silôṭi
/silɔʈi/ Sylheti
সৌভাগ্য
Shoubhaggô
সৌভাগ্য
Xoubhaiggô
ꠈꠥꠡꠘꠍꠤꠛ,
Shoubaiggô, Kushnôsib
/kuʃnɔsib/ Good luck (Sylheti: God's Authority)
ভালো করে খান।
Bhalo kôre khan.
ভালকৈ খাওক।
Bhalkoi khaük.
ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠇꠞꠤ ꠈꠣꠃꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ, ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠑꠤꠇꠦ ꠈꠣꠃꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ।
Bala xôri xaukka, Bala tike xaukka.
/bala xɔɾi xaukka/, /bala ʈike xaukka/ Bon appetit
স্ত্রী, পত্নী
StrI, Pôtni
ঘৈণী, পত্নী
Stri, Ghôini, Pôtni
ꠛꠃ
Bôu
/bɔu/ Wife
স্বামী, বর, পতি
Shami, Bôr, Pôti
গিৰি, পৈ, স্বামী
Swami, Giri, Pôti
ꠎꠣꠝꠣꠁ
Zamai
/zamai/ Husband
জামাই
Jamai
জোঁৱাই
Züai
ꠖꠣꠝꠣꠘ
Daman
/daman/ Son-in-law
শ্বশুর
Shôshur
শহুৰ
Xohur
ꠢꠃꠞ
Hôur
/ɦɔúɾ/ Father-in-law
শাশুড়ি
Shashuṛi
শাহু
Xahu
ꠢꠠꠣ
Hoṛi
/ɦɔɽi/ Mother-in-law
শালা
Shala
খুলশালা
Khulxala
ꠢꠣꠟꠣ
Hala
/ɦala/ Brother-in-law
শালী
Shali
খুলশালী
Khulxali
ꠢꠣꠟꠤ
Hali
/ɦali/ Sister-in-law
শেখা
Shekha
শিকা
Xika
ꠢꠤꠇꠣ
Hika
/ɦika/ Learn
সরষে
Shorshe
সৰিয়হ
Xorioh
ꠢꠂꠞꠢ
Hoiroh
/ɦoiɾoɦ/ Mustard
শিয়াল
Shiyal
শিয়াল
Xial
ꠢꠤꠀꠟ
Hial
/ɦial/ Fox, Jackal
বেড়াল
Beral
মেকুৰী, বিৰালী
Mekuri, birali
ꠝꠦꠇꠥꠞ, ꠛꠤꠟꠣꠁ
Mékur, Bilai
/mekuɾ/, /bilai/ Cat
শুঁটকি
Shuṭki
শুকটি, শুকান মাছ
Xukoti, Xukan mas
ꠢꠥꠐꠇꠤ, ꠢꠥꠇꠂꠘ
Huṭki, Hukôin
/ɦuʈki/, /ɦukoin/ Sundried Fish
আপনার নাম কী?
Apnar nam ki?
আপোনাৰ নাম কি?
Apünar nam ki?
ꠀꠙꠘꠣꠞ ꠘꠣꠝ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?
Afnar nam kita?
/aɸnaɾ nam kit̪a/ What's your name?
ডাক্তার আসার পূর্বে রোগী মারা গেল।
Daktar ashar purbe rogi mara gelo
ডাক্তৰ অহাৰ আগতেই ৰোগী মৰি গ’ল।

Daktor ohar agotei rügi mori gól

ꠒꠣꠇ꠆ꠔꠞ ꠀꠅꠣꠞ ꠀꠉꠦꠃ ꠛꠦꠝꠣꠞꠤ ꠝꠞꠤ ꠉꠦꠟ।
Daxtôr awar ageu bemari môri gelo.
/ɖaxt̪ɔɾ awaɾ ageu bemaɾi mɔɾi gelo/ Before the doctor came, the patient had died.
বহুদিন দেখিনি।
Bôhudin dekhini.
বহুদিন দেখা নাই।
Bohudin dekha nai.
ꠛꠣꠇ꠆ꠇꠣ ꠖꠤꠘ ꠖꠦꠈꠍꠤ ꠘꠣ।
Bakka din dexsi na.
/bakka d̪in d̪exsi na/ Long time, no see.
আপনি কি ভালো আছেন?
Apni ki bhalo Achen?
আপুনি ভালে আছে নে?
Apuni bhale asê nê?
ꠀꠙꠘꠦ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠀꠍꠂꠘ ꠘꠤ?
Afne bala asôin ni?
/bála asoin ni/ How are you?
আমি তোমাকে ভালোবাসি।
Ami tomake bhalobashi.
মই তোমাক ভাল পাওঁ।
Moi tümak bhal paü.
ꠀꠝꠤ ꠔꠥꠝꠣꠞꠦ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠙꠣꠁ।
Ami tumare bala fai.
/ami t̪umare bála ɸai/ I love you.
আমি ভুলে গিয়েছি।
Ami bhule giechi.
মই পাহৰি গৈছোঁ।
Môi pahôri goisü.
ꠀꠝꠤ ꠙꠣꠅꠞꠤ ꠟꠤꠍꠤ।
Ami faûri lisi.
/ami ɸaʊ́ɾi lisi/ I have forgotten.
মাংসের ঝোলটা আমার খুব ভালো লেগেছে।
Mangsher jholṭa amar khub bhalo legeche.
‍মাংসৰ তৰকাৰীখন মোৰ খুব ভাল লাগিছে।
Mangxor torkarikhon mür khub bhal lagise.
ꠉꠥꠍꠔꠞ ꠍꠣꠟꠘꠐꠣ ꠀꠝꠣꠞ ꠈꠥꠛ ꠜꠣꠟꠣ ꠟꠣꠉꠍꠦ।
Gustôr salônṭa amar kub bala lagse.
/gust̪ɔɾ salɔnʈa amaɾ kúb bála lagse/ I liked the meat curry.
শিলচর কোনদিকে?
Shilcôr kondike?
শিলচৰ কোন ফালে/পিনে?
Xilsor kün fale/pine?
ꠢꠤꠟꠌꠞ ꠇꠥꠘ ꠛꠣꠄ/ꠛꠣꠁꠖꠤ/ꠝꠥꠈꠣ?
Hilcôr kun bae/baidi/muka?
/ɦil͡tʃɔɾ kun bae, baid̪i, muka/ Which way to Silchar?
শৌচাগার কোথায়?
Shôucagar kothay?
শৌচালয় ক’ত?
Xousaloy kót?
ꠐꠣꠐ꠆ꠐꠤ ꠇꠥꠘꠈꠣꠘꠧ/ꠇꠥꠘꠣꠘꠧ/ꠈꠣꠘꠧ/ꠇꠁ?
ṭaṭṭi kunxano/kunano/xano/xoi?
/ʈaʈʈi kunxano, kunano, xano, xoi/ Where is the toilet?
এটা কী?

Eṭa ki?

এইটো কি?

Eitü ki?

ꠁꠉꠥ/ꠁꠇꠐꠣ/ꠁꠐꠣ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?

Igu/Ikṭa/Iṭa kita?

/igu, ikʈa, iʈa kit̪a/ What is this?
সেটা কী?

Sheṭa ki?

সেইটো কি?

Xeitü ki?

ꠢꠤꠉꠥ/ꠢꠤꠇꠐꠣ/ꠢꠤꠐꠣ ꠇꠤꠔꠣ?

Higu/Hikṭa/Hiṭa kita?

/ɦigu, ɦikʈa, ɦiʈa kit̪a/ What is that?
শেষ
Shesh
শেষ
Xex/xeh
ꠢꠦꠡ
Hesh
/ɦeʃ/ End, finish

References

  1. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sylheti". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Sylheti". Ethnologue.
  4. ^ Sebastian M. Rasinger (2007). Bengali-English in East London: A Study in Urban Multilingualism. pp.F 26-27. Retrieved on 2017-05-02.
  5. ^ Glanville Price (2000). Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe. pp. 91-92.
  6. ^ Edward Gait, History of Assam, p. 274
  7. ^ George Grierson, Language Survey of India, Vol II, Pt 1, p224
  8. ^ Chalmers (1996)
  9. ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Sylheti_Nagri
  10. ^ d'Hubert, Thibaut (May 2014). "In the Shade of the Golden Palace: Alaol and Middle Bengali Poetics in Arakan".
  11. ^ James Lloyd-Williams & Sue Lloyd-Williams (Sylheti Translation and Research/STAR); Peter Constable (SIL International) Date: 1 November 2002
  12. ^ Grierson, George A. (1903). Linguistic Survey of India. Volume V, Part 1, Indo-Aryan family. Eastern group. Specimens of the Bengali and Assamese languages. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
  13. ^ Banglapedia
  14. ^ Archive
  15. ^ Sylheti Alphabets
  16. ^ Syloti Nagri alphabet
  17. ^ Sylheti unicode chart
  18. ^ Sylheti Literature
  19. ^ Sylheti Literature
  20. ^ Anne J. Kershen (2005). Strangers, Aliens and Asians: Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis in Spitalfields, 1660–2000. Routledge. pp. 148–150. ISBN 978-0-7146-5525-3.
  21. ^ Gope, Amalesh; Mahanta, Shakun (May 2014). "Lexical Tones in Sylheti". ResearchGate.

External links

Sylheti phrasebook travel guide from Wikivoyage

Ashadha

Ashadha or Aashaadha (Nepali: आषाढ Āsādh; Hindi: आषाढ़ Āṣārh; Assamese: আহাৰ ahar; Odia: ଆଷାଢ; Bengali: আষাঢ়; Sylheti: ꠀꠀꠠ aáṛ) is a month of the Hindu calendar (and of the present-day Nepali calendar) that corresponds to June/July in the Gregorian calendar. In India's national civil calendar, Āsāṛh is the third month of the year, beginning on 15 June and ending on 16 July. In Vedic Jyotish, Āsāṛh begins with the Sun's entry into Gemini. It is the first of the two months that comprise the monsoon season.

The corresponding month in the Bengali calendar, Aṣaṛh (Bengali: আষাঢ় "Monsoon"), is the third month.

In lunar religious calendars, Āsāṛh begins on a new moon and is usually the fourth month of the year.

Balaganj Upazila

Balaganj (Bengali: বালাগঞ্জ, Sylheti: ꠛꠣꠟꠣꠉꠘ꠆ꠎ) is an upazila of Sylhet District in Sylhet Division, Bangladesh.

Bengali numerals

Bengali numerals, also called Bengali–Assamese numerals, Assamese numerals (Bengali: সংখ্যা shôngkha, Assamese: সংখ্যা xoiŋkha), are the numeral system, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in Bengali, Sylheti, Chittagonian, Assamese, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Chakma, Hajong and Meithei languages. It is used by more than 350 million people around the world or over 5% of the world's population. The Bengali–Assamese numerals are a variety of the Hindu–Arabic numerals.

Bishwanath Upazila

Bishwanath (Bengali: বিশ্বনাথ, Sylheti: ꠛꠤꠡꠘꠣꠕ) is an Upazila of Sylhet District in the Division of Sylhet, Bangladesh.

Boishakh

Boishakh (Bengali: বৈশাখ, Sylheti: Boishakh/Bohag, Nepali: बैशाख, Bôishakh, Baishakh) is the first month in the Assamese Calendar, Bengali Calendar and Nepali calendar. This month lies between the second half of April and the first half of May.

Crore

A crore (; abbreviated cr) or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation) and is equal to 100 lakh in the Indian numbering system as 1,00,00,000 with the local style of digit group separators (a lakh is equal to one hundred thousand and is written as 1,00,000).

Dakshin Sunamganj Upazila

Dakshin Sunamganj (Bengali: দক্ষিণ সুনামগঞ্জ, Sylheti: ꠖꠇ꠆ꠈꠤꠘ ꠡꠥꠘꠣꠝꠉꠘ꠆ꠎ) is an Upazila of Sunamganj District in the Division of Sylhet, Bangladesh.Formerly part of Sunamganj Sadar Upazila, it was formed as a separate upazila in 2007.

Indian numbering system

The Indian numbering system is used in the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) and in Burma. The terms lakh (100,000 or 1,00,000 in the Indian system) and crore (10,000,000 or 1,00,00,000 in the Indian system) are used in Indian English to express large numbers. For example, in India 150,000 rupees becomes 1.5 lakh rupees, written as ₹1,50,000 or INR 1,50,000, while 30,000,000 (thirty million) rupees becomes 3 crore rupees, written as ₹3,00,00,000 with commas at the thousand, lakh, and crore levels, and 1,000,000,000 (one billion) rupees (one hundred crore rupees or one arab अरब ) is written ₹1,00,00,00,000. While there are specific terms for numbers larger than 1 crore, these are not commonly used, and most practitioners are not familiar with these. In common parlance, the thousand, lakh, crore terminology repeats for larger numbers. Thus 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) becomes 1 lakh crore, and is written as 10,00,00,00,00,000.

The Indian numbering is equal to the western numbering system from ones then tens then hundreds then thousand then ten thousand. After ten thousand, the Indian and the western numbering diverge. According to the Indian numbering system, after ten thousand, the next power of ten is one lakh, then ten lakh, then one crore, then ten crore, and so on. According to the Western numbering system, after ten thousand, the next power of ten is referred to as one hundred thousand, then one million, then ten million, then one hundred million, and so on. The two numbering systems are not functionally different — 10,000 (Indian system) = 10,000 (Western system) — but they assign different names to the same number.

Kamtapuri language

Kamtapuri, Rangpuri or Rajbangshi is a Bengali-Assamese language spoken by the Koch-Rajbonshi people people in India, Rajbanshi and Tajpuria in Nepal, and in Bangladesh. Many are bilingual in either Bengali or Assamese.

Kheer

Kheer is a rice pudding, originating from the Indian subcontinent, made by boiling with milk and sugar one of the following: rice, broken wheat, tapioca, vermicelli, sweet corn, etc. It is flavoured with cardamom, raisins, saffron, cashews, pistachios, almonds or other dry fruits and nuts. It is typically served during a meal or as a dessert. It is also known in some regions as meetha bhaat, payasam, payasa, and phirni.

Lungi

The lungi (/luŋɡi/) is a type of sarong, that originated in the Indian subcontinent, worn around the waist in Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. It is particularly popular in regions where the heat and humidity create an unpleasant climate for trousers.

Pitha

Pitha (Assamese: পিঠা pitha, Bengali: পিঠে piṭhe, Odia: ପିଠା piṭha or Sylheti: ꠙꠤꠑꠣ fiṭa) is a type of rice cake from South Asia, common in Bangladesh, eastern India (states of Jharkhand, Odisha, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar) and Nepal. Pithas are typically made of rice flour, although there are some types of pitha made of wheat flour. Less common types of pitha are made of palm or ol (a local root vegetable).

Razai

Razai (Hindustani: रज़ाई; رزائی, Sylheti: ꠞꠣꠎꠣꠁ, ruh-zaa-ee; or ਰਜਾਈ, in Punjabi) is a bedquilt used in Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, North India, Sylhet and Nepal. It is a type of bedding similar to a duvet or comforter. Razais usually have a cotton, silk or velvet cover which is stuffed with cotton wool. They can provide a great deal of warmth even in the very cold weather that can occur in these regions, primarily due to the insulating effects of the large amount of air trapped in the cotton wool.

Sandesh (confectionery)

Sandesh (Bengali: সন্দেশ Shôndesh; Sylheti: ꠢꠣꠘꠖꠦꠡ / হান্দেশ Handesh; Hindi: संदेश) is a dessert, originating from the Bengal region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, created with milk and sugar. Some recipes of Sandesh call for the use of chhena or paneer (which is made by curdling the milk and separating the whey from it) instead of milk itself. Some people in the region of Dhaka call it pranahara (literally, heart 'stealer') which is a softer kind of sandesh, made with mawa and the essence of curd.

Sylhet Sixers

Sylhet Sixers (Bengali: সিলেট সিক্সার্স, Sylheti: ꠍꠤꠟꠦ꠆ꠑ ꠍꠤꠇꠍꠣꠞꠡ) is a professional cricket franchise team based in Sylhet, Bangladesh. The team competes in the Bangladesh Premier League. The franchise made their debut at the 2017 Bangladesh Premier League.

The Sixers play their home games at the Sylhet International Cricket Stadium. The team is owned by Sylhet Sports Limited in care of Bangladesh's former Finance Minister Abul Maal Abdul Muhith. His son, Shahed Muhith is the Chairman of team. The Sixers announced Waqar Younis as head coach and International Cricketer, David Warner as captain for the 6th edition of Bangladesh Premier League. Former Bangladesh National Cricket Team all-rounder Alok Kapali took over as captain after Warner's departure, due to injury.

Voiced glottal fricative

The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɦ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h\.

In many languages, [ɦ] has no place or manner of articulation. Thus, it has been described as a breathy-voiced counterpart of the following vowel from a phonetic point of view. However, its characteristics are also influenced by the preceding vowels and whatever other sounds surround it. Therefore, it can be described as a segment whose only consistent feature is its breathy voice phonation in such languages. It may have real glottal constriction in a number of languages (such as Finnish), making it a fricative.

Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.

Voiceless bilabial fricative

The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɸ⟩. For English-speakers, it is easiest to think of the sound as an f-sound made only with the lips, instead of the upper teeth and lower lip, or a blowing sound.

Voiceless retroflex stop

The voiceless retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. This consonant is found as a phoneme mostly (though not exclusively) in two areas: India and Australia.

Zakiganj Upazila

Zakiganj (Bengali: জকিগঞ্জ, Sylheti: ꠎꠇꠤꠉꠘ꠆ꠎ) is an Upazila of Sylhet District in Sylhet Division, Bangladesh.

Official language
Semiofficial language
Indo-European
Sino-Tibetan
Austroasiatic
Dravidian
Dardic
Northern
North-
western
Western
Central
Eastern
Southern
Unclassified
Pidgins/
creoles

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