Swift

The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of highly aerial birds. They are superficially similar to swallows, but are not closely related to any passerine species. Swifts are placed in the order Apodiformes with hummingbirds. The treeswifts are closely related to the true swifts, but form a separate family, the Hemiprocnidae.

Resemblances between swifts and swallows are due to convergent evolution, reflecting similar life styles based on catching insects in flight.

The family name, Apodidae, is derived from the Greek ἄπους (ápous), meaning "footless", a reference to the small, weak legs of these most aerial of birds.[1][2] The tradition of depicting swifts without feet continued into the Middle Ages, as seen in the heraldic martlet.

Swift
Temporal range: Eocene to present
Apus apus 01
Common swift, Apus apus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Apodiformes
Family: Apodidae
Hartert, 1897
Subfamilies

Taxonomy

Dans l'ombre des dinosaures - Scaniacypselus - 02
Scaniacypselus fossil

Taxonomists have long classified swifts and treeswifts as relatives of the hummingbirds, a judgment corroborated by the discovery of the Jungornithidae (apparently swift-like hummingbird-relatives) and of primitive hummingbirds such as Eurotrochilus. Traditional taxonomies place the hummingbird family (Trochilidae) in the same order as the swifts and treeswifts (and no other birds); the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy treated this group as a superorder in which the swift order was called Trochiliformes.

The taxonomy of the swifts is complicated, with genus and species boundaries widely disputed, especially amongst the swiftlets. Analysis of behavior and vocalizations is complicated by common parallel evolution, while analyses of different morphological traits and of various DNA sequences have yielded equivocal and partly contradictory results.[3]

The Apodiformes diversified during the Eocene, at the end of which the extant families were present; fossil genera are known from all over temperate Europe, between today's Denmark and France, such as the primitive swift-like Scaniacypselus[4] (Early – Middle Eocene) and the more modern Procypseloides (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene – Early Miocene). A prehistoric genus sometimes assigned to the swifts, Primapus (Early Eocene of England), might also be a more distant ancestor.

Species

There are around 100 species of swifts, normally grouped into two subfamilies and four tribes.[5]

Cypseloidinae

  • Tribe Cypseloidini

Apodinae

  • Tribe Collocaliini swiftlets
  • Tribe Chaeturini – needletails
  • Tribe Apodini – typical swifts

Description

Swifts are among the fastest of birds, and larger species like the white-throated needletail have been reported travelling at up to 169 km/h (105 mph).[6] in level flight. Even the common swift can cruise at a maximum speed of 31 metres per second (112 km/h; 70 mph). In a single year the common swift can cover at least 200,000 km.[7]

The wingtip bones of swiftlets are of proportionately greater length than those of most other birds. Changing the angle between the bones of the wingtips and forelimbs allows swifts to alter the shape and area of their wings to increase their efficiency and maneuverability at various speeds.[8] They share with their relatives the hummingbirds a unique ability to rotate their wings from the base, allowing the wing to remain rigid and fully extended and derive power on both the upstroke and downstroke.[9] The downstroke produces both lift and thrust, while the upstroke produces a negative thrust (drag) that is 60% of the thrust generated during the downstrokes, but simultaneously it contributes lift that is also 60% of what is produced during the downstroke. This flight arrangement might benefit the bird's control and maneuverability in the air.[10]

The swiftlets or cave swiftlets have developed a form of echolocation for navigating through dark cave systems where they roost.[11] One species, the Three-toed swiftlet, has recently been found to use this navigation at night outside its cave roost too.

Distribution and habitat

Swifts occur on all the continents except Antarctica, but not in the far north, in large deserts, or on many oceanic islands.[12] The swifts of temperate regions are strongly migratory and winter in the tropics. Some species can survive short periods of cold weather by entering torpor, a state similar to hibernation.[11]

Many have a characteristic shape, with a short forked tail and very long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. The flight of some species is characterised by a distinctive "flicking" action quite different from swallows. Swifts range in size from the pygmy swiftlet (Collocalia troglodytes), which weighs 5.4 g and measures 9 cm (3.5 in) long, to the purple needletail (Hirundapus celebensis), which weighs 184 g (6.5 oz) and measures 25 cm (9.8 in) long.[11]

Behaviour

Breeding

Mossy-nest Swiftlets (Aerodramus salangana natunae) on nest (15593076875)
Nesting mossy-nest swiftlets

The nest of many species is glued to a vertical surface with saliva, and the genus Aerodramus use only that substance, which is the basis for bird's nest soup. The eggs hatch after 19 to 23 days, and the young leave the nest after a further six to eight weeks. Both parents assist in raising the young.[11]

Swifts as a family have smaller egg clutches and much longer and more variable incubation and fledging times than passerines with similarly sized eggs, resembling tubenoses in these developmental factors. Young birds reach a maximum weight heavier than their parents; they can cope with not being fed for long periods of time, and delay their feather growth when undernourished. Swifts and seabirds have generally secure nest sites, but their food sources are unreliable, whereas passerines are vulnerable in the nest but food is usually plentiful.[13][14]

Feeding

All swifts eat insects, such as aerial spiders, dragonflies, flies, ants, aphids, wasps and bees. Some species, like the chimney swift, hunt with other bird species as well.

Status

No swift species has become extinct since 1600,[15] but BirdLife International assesses the Guam swiftlet as endangered and lists the Atiu, dark-rumped, Schouteden's, Seychelles and Tahiti swiftlets as vulnerable; twelve other species are near threatened or lack sufficient data for classification.[16]

Exploitation by humans

The hardened saliva nests of the edible-nest swiftlet and the black-nest swiftlet have been used in Chinese cooking for over 400 years, most often as bird's nest soup.[17] Over-harvesting of this expensive delicacy has led to a decline in the numbers of these swiftlets,[18][19] especially as the nests are also thought to have health benefits and aphrodisiac properties. Most nests are built during the breeding season by the male swiftlet over a period of 35 days. They take the shape of a shallow cup stuck to the cave wall. The nests are composed of interwoven strands of salivary cement and contain high levels of calcium, iron, potassium, and magnesium.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Jobling (2010) pp. 50–51.
  2. ^ Kaufman (2001) p. 329.
  3. ^ Thomassen, Henri A.; Tex, Robert-Jan; de Bakker, Merijn A.G.; Povel, G. David E. (2005). "Phylogenetic relationships amongst swifts and swiftlets: A multi locus approach". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (1): 264–277. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.05.010. PMID 16006151.
  4. ^ Mayr, Gerald (2003). "A new Eocene swift-like bird with a peculiar feathering" (PDF). Ibis. 145 (3): 382–391. doi:10.1046/j.1474-919x.2003.00168.x.
  5. ^ Chantler & Driessens (2000) pp. 19–20
  6. ^ Bourton, Jody (2 March 2010). "Supercharged swifts fly fastest". BBC News.
  7. ^ Piper, Ross (2007), Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals, Greenwood Press.
  8. ^ On Swift Wings | Natural History Magazine
  9. ^ Birds of Venezuela – Steven L. Hilty
  10. ^ Vortex wake and flight kinematics of a swift in cruising flight in a wind tunnel
  11. ^ a b c d Collins, Charles T. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 134–136. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.
  12. ^ Martins, Thais; Mead, Christopher J. (2003). "Swifts". In Perrins, Christopher (ed.). The Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. pp. 346–350. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.
  13. ^ Lack, David; Lack, Elizabeth (1951). "The breeding biology of the Swift Apus apus". Ibis. 93 (4): 501–546. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1951.tb05457.x.
  14. ^ Boersma, P Dee (1982). "Why some birds take so long to hatch". The American Naturalist. 120 (6): 733–750. doi:10.1086/284027. JSTOR 2461170.
  15. ^ del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi; Christie, David A.; de Juana, Eduardo (eds.). "Apodidae". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  16. ^ "Apodidae". Species. BirdLife International. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  17. ^ Hobbs, Joseph J (2004). "Problems in the harvest of edible birds' nests in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysian Borneo". Biodiversity and Conservation. 13 (12): 2209–2226. doi:10.1023/b:bioc.0000047905.79709.7f.
  18. ^ Gausset, Quentin (2004). "Chronicle of a Foreseeable Tragedy: Birds' Nests Management in the Niah Caves (Sarawak)". Human Ecology. 32 (4): 487–506. doi:10.1023/b:huec.0000043517.23277.54.
  19. ^ a b Marcone, Massimo F (2005). "Characterization of the edible bird's nest the Caviar of the East". Food Research International. 38 (10): 1125–1134. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2005.02.008.

Bibliography

  • Chantler, Phillip; Driessens, Gerald (2000). Swifts: A Guide to the Swifts and Treeswifts of the World. London: Pica Press. ISBN 1-873403-83-6.
  • Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  • Walker, Mark (2016). Swift Summers. Sheffield: Sicklebrook Publishing. ISBN 1329963091. Online copy to download
  • Kaufman, Kenn (2001). Lives of North American Birds. Oxford: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-618-15988-6.

External links

1989 (Taylor Swift album)

1989 is the fifth studio album by American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift, released on October 27, 2014 through Big Machine Records. Swift started songwriting for the album in mid-2013, when she was touring in support of her fourth studio release Red (2012). Critics noticed Red's emerging departure from Swift's previously characteristic country styles and incorporation of straightforward pop hooks, a result of Swift's collaborations with pop producers Max Martin and Shellback. For Red's follow-up, Swift sought to completely move away from country. Inspired by 1980s synth-pop, she enlisted a production team whose key figures included Martin, Shellback, Ryan Tedder, and Jack Antonoff, who shaped the album's overall 1980s-styled sonic coherence. Martin and Swift served as the album's executive producers.

Titled after Swift's birth year, 1989 is a synth-pop record that uses heavy synthesizers, programmed percussion, and processed background vocals. While the album is primarily about reflections on past romantic relationships, Swift's recurring theme, it presents more mature and wistful perspectives, and therefrom expresses self-discovery. Critical reaction to 1989 was generally positive: the pop production polarized reviewers, but Swift's songwriting received mostly favorable responses. The album was included in the top ten of year-end lists by such publications as Billboard, Rolling Stone, and Time. It won Album of the Year and Best Pop Vocal Album at the 58th Grammy Awards, making Swift the first female solo artist to win the former category twice.

The album debuted atop the US Billboard 200 with first-week sales of 1.287 million copies, making Swift the first artist to have three million-selling albums within first week of release in the country. It also reached number one in several markets including Australia, Canada, and the UK. 1989 was among the best-selling albums of 2014 and 2015 globally, and has sold 6.19 million copies in the US and 10.1 million copies worldwide. The album was promoted by seven singles, three of which charted atop the US Billboard Hot 100—"Shake It Off", "Blank Space", and a remix of "Bad Blood" featuring rapper Kendrick Lamar. Its associated world tour ran from May to December 2015 and accumulated over $250 million, becoming the highest-grossing concert tour of 2015.

Bad Blood (Taylor Swift song)

"Bad Blood" is a song by American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift, from her fifth studio album 1989. Swift wrote the song with its producers Max Martin and Shellback, with a remixed version featuring additional writing and guest vocals from American rapper Kendrick Lamar. The Lamar version was released by Republic Records on May 17, 2015 as the fourth single from 1989. The lyrics of "Bad Blood" describe betrayal by a close friend. The album version is the eighth track of 1989.

The song reached number one in Australia, Canada, Israel, New Zealand, Scotland, and the United States, becoming the third song from 1989 to do so. The accompanying music video was directed by Joseph Kahn , and produced by Swift, the video features an ensemble cast. The video previously held the 24-Hour Vevo Record with 20.1 million views, before being surpassed by Adele's "Hello". It won Video of the Year and Best Collaboration at the 2015 MTV Video Music Awards. The song received a nomination for Best Pop Duo/Group Performance while its music video won Best Music Video at the 58th Grammy Awards.

Big Machine Records

Big Machine Records is an American independent record label, which is distributed by Universal Music Group, specializing in country and pop artists. Big Machine is based on Music Row in Nashville, Tennessee. The label was founded in September 2005 by former DreamWorks Records executive David Gould and became a joint venture between Gould and country singer Toby Keith. The company concentrates on publishing, management, and merchandising and oversees imprints, such as Valory Music, that are part of the Big Machine Label Group.

Fearless (Taylor Swift album)

Fearless is the second studio album by American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift. The album was released on November 11, 2008, by Big Machine Records. As with her first album, Taylor Swift, Swift wrote or co-wrote all thirteen tracks on Fearless. Most of the songs were written as the singer promoted her first album as the opening act for numerous country artists. Due to the unavailability of collaborators on the road, eight songs were written by Swift. Other songs were co-written with Liz Rose, Hillary Lindsey, Colbie Caillat, and John Rich. Swift also made her debut as a record producer, co-producing all songs on the album with Nathan Chapman.

Five singles were released from Fearless. The first single, "Love Story", sold more than 8.1 million copies worldwide (according to the IFPI). It was a crossover hit that became one of the best-selling singles of all time internationally and was once the best-selling country song of all time. The succeeding single, "White Horse", also performed well in the US. "You Belong with Me" was an international success, becoming Swift's second best-selling single and her highest position on the US Billboard Hot 100 at the time. "Fifteen" and "Fearless" followed with both achieving a platinum certification from the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).

Fearless was an international breakthrough and huge commercial success for Swift. It debuted at No. 1 in the United States, and later became the best-selling album of 2009, selling over 3.2 million copies. It gave Swift, 18 at the time, the distinction of being the youngest artist in history to have the year's best-selling album. As of July 2019, the album has sold 7.18 million copies in the United States. Fearless topped the charts in Canada and New Zealand and achieved multi-platinum status in six countries. In all, Fearless has sold more than 9.7 million copies worldwide as of December 2017. Fearless is also the most awarded album in the history of country music, winning Album of the Year at the 52nd Annual Grammy Awards, the American Music Awards of 2009, the Country Music Association Awards and the Academy of Country Music Awards. Winning Album of the Year at age 20, Swift became the youngest artist in the history of the Grammy Awards to win the award. She would later win her second Album of the Year six years later. On December 11, 2017, Fearless became the 121st album to achieve a diamond certification in the United States, signifying 10,000,000 album-equivalent units. To promote the album, Swift embarked on her first concert tour, Fearless Tour between April 2009 and June 2010.

Ghostface Killah

Dennis Coles (born May 9, 1970), better known by his stage name Ghostface Killah, is an American rapper, songwriter and actor and member of the Wu-Tang Clan. After the group achieved breakthrough success in the aftermath of Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers), the members went on to pursue solo careers to varying levels of success. Ghostface Killah debuted his solo-career with Ironman in 1996, which was well received by music critics. He has continued his success over the following years with critically acclaimed albums such as Supreme Clientele (2000) and Fishscale (2006). His stage name was taken from one of the characters in the 1979 kung fu film Mystery of Chessboxing. He is the founder of his own label Starks Enterprises.

Ghostface Killah is critically acclaimed for his loud, fast-paced flow, and his emotional stream-of-consciousness narratives containing cryptic slang and non-sequiturs. In 2006, MTV included him on their honorable mention list of The Greatest MCs of All Time, while the editors of About.com placed him on their list of the Top 50 MCs of Our Time (1987–2007), calling him "one of the most imaginative storytellers of our time." Q magazine called him "rap's finest storyteller." Pitchfork Media stated that, "Ghostface has unparalleled storytelling instincts; he might be the best, most colorful storyteller rap has ever seen." NPR called him "a compulsive storyteller", and asserted, "His fiction is painterly."

Gulliver's Travels

Gulliver's Travels, or Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships is a prose satire of 1726 by the Irish writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift, satirising both human nature and the "travellers' tales" literary subgenre. It is Swift's best known full-length work, and a classic of English literature. Swift claimed that he wrote Gulliver's Travels "to vex the world rather than divert it".

The book was an immediate success. John Gay remarked "It is universally read, from the cabinet council to the nursery."In 2015, Robert McCrum released his selection list of 100 best novels of all time in which Gulliver’s Travels is listed as "a satirical masterpiece".

ISO 9362

ISO 9362 defines a standard format of Business Identifier Codes (also known as SWIFT-BIC, BIC, SWIFT ID or SWIFT code) approved by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It is a unique identification code for both financial and non-financial institutions. The acronym SWIFT stands for the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication. The ISO has designated SWIFT as the BIC registration authority. When assigned to a non-financial institution, the code may also be known as a Business Entity Identifier or BEI. These codes are used when transferring money between banks, particularly for international wire transfers, and also for the exchange of other messages between banks. The codes can sometimes be found on account statements.

The overlapping issue between ISO 9362 and ISO 13616 is discussed in the article International Bank Account Number (also called IBAN). The SWIFT network does not require a specific format for the transaction so the identification of accounts and transaction types is left to agreements of the transaction partners. In the process of the Single Euro Payments Area the European central banks have agreed on a common format based on IBAN and BIC including an XML-based transmission format for standardized transactions. TARGET2 is a joint gross clearing system in the European Union that does not require the SWIFT network for transmission (see EBICS). The TARGET directory lists all the BICs of the banks that are attached to the TARGET2-network being a subset of the SWIFT-directory of BICs.

Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.Swift is remembered for works such as A Tale of a Tub (1704), An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity (1712), Gulliver's Travels (1726), and A Modest Proposal (1729). He is regarded by the Encyclopædia Britannica as the foremost prose satirist in the English language, and is less well known for his poetry. He originally published all of his works under pseudonyms – such as Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff, M. B. Drapier – or anonymously. He was a master of two styles of satire, the Horatian and Juvenalian styles.

His deadpan, ironic writing style, particularly in A Modest Proposal, has led to such satire being subsequently termed "Swiftian".

Lover (album)

Lover is the upcoming seventh studio album by American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift. It is scheduled to be released on August 23, 2019. The album is Swift's first release under Republic Records. The lead single "Me!" featuring Brendon Urie of Panic! at the Disco was released on April 26, 2019. The second single "You Need to Calm Down" was released on June 13, 2019. The title track was released as the third single on August 16, 2019. Aside from Urie, Lover also features a collaboration with the Dixie Chicks.

Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory

The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, previously called the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission, is a NASA space telescope designed to detect gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). It was launched on November 20, 2004, aboard a Delta II rocket. Headed by principal investigator Neil Gehrels, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the mission was developed in a joint partnership between Goddard and an international consortium from the United States, United Kingdom, and Italy. The mission is operated by Pennsylvania State University as part of NASA's Medium Explorers program (MIDEX).

Red (Taylor Swift album)

Red (stylized in all caps) is the fourth studio album by American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift. It was released on October 22, 2012, by Big Machine Records, as the follow-up to her third studio album, Speak Now. The album title was inspired by the "semi-toxic relationships" that Swift experienced during the process of conceiving this album, with Swift describing the emotions she felt as "red emotions" due to their intense and tumultuous nature. Red touches on Swift's signature themes of love and heartbreak, however, from a more mature perspective while exploring other themes such as fame and the pressure of being in the limelight. She explained how red can be associated with feelings on "opposite ends of the spectrum." The album features collaborations with producers and guest artists such as Gary Lightbody of the band Snow Patrol and Ed Sheeran, and is noted for Swift's experimentation with new musical genres. Swift completed The Red Tour in support of the album in 2014, which became the highest-grossing concert tour of all time by a country artist, grossing over $150 million.

Red was well received by critics and earned Swift two Grammy Award nominations, for Album of the Year and Best Country Album. It debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart, giving Swift her third consecutive chart-topper in the US. Its first week sales of 1.21 million copies was the third biggest debut for a female artist in US history and became the fastest-selling album in over a decade in the United States. It made music history for claiming the biggest first week sales of all time by a country act, the record previously held by Garth Brooks. Red is just the 18th album in United States history to sell one million copies in a single week. It was also a huge global success, becoming Swift's first chart-topper in the United Kingdom, and also topped the album charts in Australia, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, while also charting in the top ten in every other major music market, including China.

Worldwide, Red has sold 7 million copies as of 2017. It was Swift's third consecutive top-selling album of the year in the United States, managing to be the second best-selling album of 2012 across all genres only two months after its release. This made it the fourth time Swift had an album ranked in the year's top three sellers in the United States. According to the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), it was the second global best-selling album of 2012 with sales of 5.2 million copies. Red has been certified seven times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), making it Swift's fourth consecutive album to exceed the quadruple platinum status.

Reputation (Taylor Swift album)

Reputation (stylized in all lowercase) is the sixth studio album by American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift. It was released on November 10, 2017, through Big Machine Records. The record was primarily produced by Jack Antonoff, Max Martin, Shellback and Swift herself, who also serves as the executive producer. Artists featured on the album include English singer-songwriter Ed Sheeran and American rapper Future.

Reputation received generally positive reviews from music critics and reached number one in 13 countries including the United Kingdom, and United States. In the US, the album sold 1.216 million copies in its first week of release, making it the country's best-selling album of 2017, while with global sales of 4.5 million copies, it was the second best-selling album of 2017 worldwide.It received a nomination for Best Pop Vocal Album at the 61st Grammy Awards, becoming her second nomination in the category. To promote the album, Swift embarked on the Reputation Stadium Tour, starting on May 8, 2018 and ended on November 21 of the same year. The tour grossed $345.7 million, being the second highest-grossing concert tour of the year and the highest-grossing tour of all time in the United States. A concert film based on the tour was released on Netflix on December 31, 2018.

Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), legally S.W.I.F.T. SCRL, provides a network that enables financial institutions worldwide to send and receive information about financial transactions in a secure, standardized and reliable environment. SWIFT also sells software and services to financial institutions, much of it for use on the SWIFTNet network, and ISO 9362. Business Identifier Codes (BICs, previously Bank Identifier Codes) are popularly known as "SWIFT codes".

The majority of international interbank messages use the SWIFT network. As of 2015, SWIFT linked more than 11,000 financial institutions in more than 200 countries and territories, who were exchanging an average of over 32 million messages per day (compared to an average of 2.4 million daily messages in 1995). SWIFT transports financial messages in a highly secure way but does not hold accounts for its members and does not perform any form of clearing or settlement.

SWIFT does not facilitate funds transfer: rather, it sends payment orders, which must be settled by correspondent accounts that the institutions have with each other. Each financial institution, to exchange banking transactions, must have a banking relationship by either being a bank or affiliating itself with one (or more) so as to enjoy those particular business features.

SWIFT is a cooperative society under Belgian law owned by its member financial institutions with offices around the world. SWIFT headquarters, designed by Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura are in La Hulpe, Belgium, near Brussels. The chairman of SWIFT is Yawar Shah, originally from Pakistan, and its CEO is Gottfried Leibbrandt, originally from the Netherlands. SWIFT hosts an annual conference, called Sibos, specifically aimed at the financial services industry. Starting from July 2019, the CEO will be Javier Pérez-Tasso.

Speak Now

Speak Now is the third studio album by American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift. It was released on October 25, 2010, by Big Machine Records. Production for the album took place during 2009 to 2010 at several recording studios, and was handled by Swift and Nathan Chapman. Written entirely by Swift as the follow-up to Fearless, Speak Now expands on the country pop style of her previous work, and features lyrical themes including love, romance, and heartbreak.

Speak Now received generally positive reviews from music critics, who praised Swift's songwriting and themes. It received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Country Album, making it her second consecutive nomination in the category, following her 2010 victory for Fearless. Several music critics and publications included Speak Now in their year-end lists. Six singles were released from the album, all of which have either received a platinum or multi-platinum certification from the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). Swift promoted the album with the Speak Now World Tour, grossing over $123 million.

Speak Now debuted at number one on the U.S. Billboard 200 chart, giving Swift her second consecutive chart-topper in the U.S. Its first-week sales of 1,047,000 copies was the fifth-biggest debut in history for a female artist, the third biggest ever by a country album (the first being Swift's own Red album later released in 2012), the biggest in five and a half years, and the biggest first week sales of 2010. The album also made music history for claiming the biggest one-week sales tally for an album by a female country artist. As of 2017, Speak Now was ranked as the 16th album to sell at least one million copies in a single week in the United States. Internationally, it charted within the top 10 in several countries, including Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The album has been certified 6× platinum by the RIAA and, as of July 2019, has sold 4.68 million copies in the United States and 6 million copies worldwide. It is also the tenth best-selling digital album of all time.

Speak Now was included in Rolling Stone's list of "50 Best Female Albums of All Time" in 2012, ranking at number forty-five. This gave Swift, age 20 at the time of publication, the distinction of being the youngest artist across all genres to be included on the list.

Suzuki Swift

The Suzuki Swift (Japanese: スズキ・スイフト, Suzuki Suifuto) is a subcompact car produced by Suzuki. The Suzuki Swift is classified in B-segment in European single market, segment known as Supermini in British islands. Prior to this, the "Swift" nameplate had been applied to the Suzuki Cultus in numerous export markets.

Swift (programming language)

Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, Linux, and z/OS. Swift is designed to work with Apple's Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks and the large body of existing Objective-C code written for Apple products. It is built with the open source LLVM compiler framework and has been included in Xcode since version 6, released in 2014. On Apple platforms, it uses the Objective-C runtime library which allows C, Objective-C, C++ and Swift code to run within one program.Apple intended Swift to support many core concepts associated with Objective-C, notably dynamic dispatch, widespread late binding, extensible programming and similar features, but in a "safer" way, making it easier to catch software bugs; Swift has features addressing some common programming errors like null pointer dereferencing and provides syntactic sugar to help avoid the pyramid of doom. Swift supports the concept of protocol extensibility, an extensibility system that can be applied to types, structs and classes, which Apple promotes as a real change in programming paradigms they term "protocol-oriented programming" (similar to traits).Swift was introduced at Apple's 2014 Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC). It underwent an upgrade to version 1.2 during 2014 and a more major upgrade to Swift 2 at WWDC 2015. Initially a proprietary language, version 2.2 was made open-source software under the Apache License 2.0 on December 3, 2015, for Apple's platforms and Linux.Through version 3.0 the syntax of Swift went through significant evolution, with the core team making source stability a focus in later versions. In the first quarter of 2018 Swift surpassed Objective-C in measured popularity.Swift 4.0, released in 2017, introduced several changes to some built-in classes and structures. Code written with previous versions of Swift can be updated using the migration functionality built into Xcode. Swift 5, released in March 2019, introduced a stable binary interface on Apple platforms, allowing the Swift runtime to be incorporated into Apple operating systems. It is source compatible with Swift 4.

Swift Current

Swift Current is the fifth largest city in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It is situated along the Trans Canada Highway 170 kilometres (110 mi) west from Moose Jaw, and 218 kilometres (135 mi) east from Medicine Hat, Alberta. Swift Current grew 6.8% between 2011 and 2016, ending up at 16,604 residents. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Swift Current No. 137.

Taylor Swift

Taylor Alison Swift (born December 13, 1989) is an American singer-songwriter. She is known for narrative songs about her personal life, which have received widespread media coverage. Born and raised in Pennsylvania, Swift moved to Nashville, Tennessee, at the age of 14 to pursue a career in country music. She signed with label Big Machine Records and became the youngest artist signed by the Sony/ATV Music publishing house. Her 2006 self-titled debut album was the longest-charting album of the 2000s in the U.S., where it peaked at number five. The album's third single, "Our Song", made her the youngest person to single-handedly write and perform a number-one song on the Hot Country Songs chart. Swift's second album, Fearless, was released in 2008. Buoyed by the success of pop crossover singles "Love Story" and "You Belong with Me", Fearless became the best-selling album of 2009 in the U.S. The album won four Grammy Awards, and Swift became the youngest Album of the Year winner.

Swift was the sole writer of her 2010 album, Speak Now. It debuted at number one in the U.S. and the single "Mean" won two Grammy Awards. Her fourth album, Red (2012), yielded the successful singles "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together" and "I Knew You Were Trouble". For her fifth album, the pop-focused 1989 (2014), she received three Grammys and became the first woman and fifth act overall to win Album of the Year twice. Its singles "Shake It Off", "Blank Space", and "Bad Blood" reached number one in the U.S., Australia, and Canada. Swift's sixth album, Reputation (2017), and its lead single, "Look What You Made Me Do", topped the UK and U.S. charts; with Reputation, she became the first act to have four albums sell one million copies within one week in the U.S. Her upcoming seventh album, Lover (2019), has already spawned two U.S. number-two singles, "Me!" and "You Need to Calm Down".

Having sold more than 50 million albums—including 32 million in the US—and 150 million singles, Swift is one of the best-selling music artists of all time. As a songwriter, she has received awards from the Nashville Songwriters Association and the Songwriters Hall of Fame, and was included in Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time in 2015. Her other accolades include 10 Grammy Awards, one Emmy, 23 Billboard Music Awards, six Guinness world records, and appearances in Time's 100 most influential people in the world (2010, 2015, 2019). She also ranked first in the Forbes Celebrity 100 (2016 and 2019), and was the youngest to be featured in the magazine's listing of the 100 most powerful women (2015).

Taylor Swift discography

American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift has released six studio albums, five extended plays (EP), one live album, one compilation album, four video albums, 52 singles (including three as a featured artist), 16 promotional singles, and 44 music videos. With estimated sales of over 50 million albums and 150 million singles worldwide, Swift is one of the best-selling music artists. According to the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), Swift is the third best-selling digital singles artist in the US, totaling single certifications of 120 million downloads and streams. She is the first artist to have four albums sell over one million copies within first week of release on the Billboard 200, and has sold 32.7 million albums in the US. Her UK album and single sales stand at 3.29 million and 15.7 million, respectively.Her career began with a record deal with Big Machine Records in 2005 and the release of her eponymous debut album the following year. The album was the longest-charting release of the 2000s decade in the US, where it peaked at number five. All of its singles—"Tim McGraw", "Teardrops on My Guitar", "Our Song", "Picture to Burn", and "Should've Said No"—charted within the top 40 in the US and were certified platinum or multi-platinum by the RIAA. Swift followed with the release of the EPs Sounds of the Season: The Taylor Swift Holiday Collection and Beautiful Eyes, which peaked at number 20 and number nine on the Billboard 200, respectively.Swift released her second studio album, Fearless, in 2008, which topped the charts in the US, Canada, and New Zealand. It became the best-selling album of 2009 in the US, and 13 of its songs charted within the top 40 of the US Billboard Hot 100, breaking the record for the most top 40 entries from a single album. Its songs "Love Story", "You Belong with Me", and "Fearless" reached the top 10 in the US; "Love Story" became her first number-one single in Australia. She obtained her first number-one single in Canada with "Today Was a Fairytale" from the Valentine's Day soundtrack (2010). Swift's third studio album, Speak Now (2010), peaked at number one in the US, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Three of its singles—"Mine", "Back to December", and "Mean"—peaked within the top 10 in Canada.Swift's fourth studio album, Red (2012), became her first number-one album in the UK and spawned the internationally successful singles "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together" and "I Knew You Were Trouble", the former becoming her first number-one single in the US. Swift's fifth studio album, 1989 (2014), has sold over 10 million copies and spawned three US number-one singles—"Shake It Off", "Blank Space", and "Bad Blood"—all of which also reached number one in Australia and Canada. A track Swift recorded with Zayn, titled "I Don't Wanna Live Forever", for the Fifty Shades Darker soundtrack became an international top-five single. Her sixth album Reputation (2017) debuted atop the Billboard 200 with first-week sales of over one million copies, being her fourth album to do so following Speak Now, Red, and 1989. It spawned the internationally successful singles "Look What You Made Me Do" and "...Ready for It?", the former becoming her first number-one single in the UK and Ireland. Swift's upcoming seventh studio album Lover (2019) has had two singles released—"Me!" and "You Need to Calm Down"; both peaked at number two in the US and charted within the top five in Australia, Canada, The UK, and Ireland.

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