Surya

Surya (/ˈsuːrjə/;[3] Sanskrit: सूर्य, IAST: Sūrya) is a Sanskrit word that means the Sun.[4] Synonyms of Surya in ancient Indian literature include Aaditya, Arka, Bhanu, Savitr, Pushan, Ravi, Martanda, Mitra and Vivasvan.[5][6][7]

Surya also connotes the solar deity in Hinduism,[8] particularly in the Saura tradition found in states such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha. Surya is one of the five deities considered as equivalent aspects and means to realizing Brahman in the Smarta Tradition.[9] Surya's iconography is often depicted riding a chariot harnessed by horses, often seven in number[1] which represent the seven colours of visible light, and seven days in a week.[4][10] In medieval Hinduism, Surya is also an epithet for the major Hindu gods Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu.[8][11] In some ancient texts and arts, Surya is presented syncretically with Indra, Ganesha or others.[5][10] Surya as a deity is also found in the arts and literature of Buddhism and Jainism.[12][13]

Surya is one of the nine heavenly houses (Navagraha) in the zodiac system of Hindu astrology. Surya or Ravi is the basis of Ravivara, or Sunday, in the Hindu calendar.[14] Major festivals and pilgrimages in reverence of Surya include Makar Sankranti, Pongal, Ratha Sapthami, Chath puja and Kumbh Mela.[15][16][17]

Surya
The Sun
God of Light and Day
Shri Surya Bhagvan bazaar art, c.1940's
Surya (c. 1940)
Other namesAdithya, Bhaskara, Divakara, Surya Narayanan, Shiva Surya
AffiliationDeva, Navagraha, Adityas, Saguna Brahman (Panchayatana puja)
AbodeSuryaloka
PlanetSun
WeaponWand
DaySunday
MountChariot drawn by seven horses
Charioteer: Aruṇa[1]
Personal information
ConsortUshas/Saranyu, Chhaya, and Ratri
ChildrenShraddhadeva Manu, Yama, Yami, Ashwins, Shani, Tapati , Bhadra Sugriva and Karna
Parents
Greek equivalentHelios[2]
Roman equivalentApollo / Sol

Texts and history

Vedic

Sunrise from Kausani, Almora, Uttarakhand, India
Surya means Sun in Indic literature. Above: Sunrise in Uttarakhand, India

The oldest surviving Vedic hymns, such as the hymn 1.115 of the Rigveda, mention Sūrya with particular reverence for the "rising sun” and its symbolism as dispeller of darkness, one who empowers knowledge, the good and all life.[4][18] However, the usage is context specific. In some hymns, the word Surya simply means sun as an inanimate object, a stone or a gem in the sky (Rigvedic hymns 5.47, 6.51 and 7.63); while in others it refers to a personified deity.[4][19]

Surya statue, New Delhi, India - 20051204
Surya sculpture

The Vedas assert Sun (Surya) to be the creator of the material universe (Prakriti).[20] In the layers of Vedic texts, Surya is one of the several trinities along with Agni and either Vayu or Indra, which are presented as an equivalent icon and aspect of the Hindu metaphysical concept called the Brahman.[21]

In the Brahmanas layer of Vedic literature, Surya appears with Agni (fire god) in the same hymns.[22] Surya is revered for the day, while Agni for its role during the night.[22] The idea evolves, states Kapila Vatsyayan, where Surya is stated to be Agni as the first principle and the seed of the universe.[23] It is in the Brahmanas layer of the Vedas,[24][25] and the Upanishads that Surya is explicitly linked to the power of sight, to visual perception and knowledge. He is then interiorized to be the eye as ancient Hindu sages suggested abandonment of external rituals to gods in favor of internal reflections and meditation of gods within, in one's journey to realize the Atman (soul, self) within, in texts such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chandogya Upanishad, Kaushitaki Upanishad and others.[26][27][28]

Epics

The Mahabharata epic opens its chapter on Surya that reverentially calls him as the "eye of the universe, soul of all existence, origin of all life, goal of the Samkhyas and Yogis, and symbolism for freedom and spiritual emancipation.[4]

In the Mahabharata, Karna is the son of Surya and unmarried princess Kunti.[4] The epic describes Kunti's trauma as an unmarried mother, then abandonment of Karna, followed by her lifelong grief. Baby Karna is found and adopted by a charioteer but he grows up to become a great warrior and one of the central characters in the great battle of Kurukshetra where he fights his half brothers.[29]

Buddhist

Bodhgaya(1878) p406 T50
Surya in the Buddhist Bodh Gaya relief (right, middle).

Surya is celebrated as a deity in Buddhist artwork, such as the ancient works attributed to Ashoka. He appears in a relief at the Mahabodhi temple in Bodhgaya, riding in a chariot pulled by four horses, with Usha and Prattyusha on his sides.[12] Such artwork suggests that the Surya as symbolism for the victory of good over evil is a concept adopted in Buddhism from an earlier Indic tradition.[12]

Greek and Persian influences

Sun is a common deity in ancient and medieval cultures found in South America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The features and mythologies of Surya share resemblances with Hvare-khshaeta of pre-Islam Persia, and the Helios-Sol deity in the Greek-Roman culture.[18][30][31] Surya is a Vedic deity, states Elgood, but its deity status was strengthened from the contacts between ancient Persia and India during the Kushan era, as well as after the 8th-century when Sun-worshipping Parsees moved to India.[32] Some Greek features were incorporated into Surya iconography in post-Kushan era, around mid 1st millennium, according to Elgood.[32]

Iconography

Lord Surya
Surya iconography typically shows him holding lotus flower and riding in a horse-drawn chariot.

The iconography of Surya in Hinduism varies with its texts. He is typically shown as a resplendent standing person holding lotus flower in both his hands, riding a chariot pulled by one or more horses typically seven.[33] The seven horses are named after the seven meters of Sanskrit prosody: Gayatri, Brihati, Ushnih, Jagati, Trishtubha, Anushtubha and Pankti.[4]

The Brihat Samhita, a Hindu text that describes architecture, iconography and design guidelines, states that Surya should be shown with two hands and wearing a crown. In contrast, the Vishnudharmottara, another Hindu text on architecture, states Surya iconography should show him with four hands, with flowers in two hands, a staff in third, and in fourth he should be shown to be holding writing equipment (Kundi palm leaf and pen symbolizing knowledge).[4] His chariot driver in both books is stated to be Aruṇa who is seated.[4] Two females typically flank him, who represent the dawn goddesses named Usha and Pratyusha. The goddesses are shown to be shooting arrows, a symbolism for their initiative to challenge darkness.[32]

The iconography of Surya has also varied over time. In some ancient arts, particularly from the early centuries of the common era, his iconography is similar to those found in Persia and Greece suggesting likely adoption of Greek, Iranian and Scythian influences.[4][31] After the Greek and Kushan influences arrived in ancient India, some Surya icons of the period that followed show him wearing a cloak and high boots.[32][34] In some Buddhist artwork, his chariot is shown as being pulled by four horses.[12] The doors of Buddhist monasteries of Nepal show him, along with the Chandra (moon god), symbolically with Surya depicted as a red circle with rays.[35]

Aniconic symbols of Surya include the Swastika and the ring-stone.[32]

Arka, Mitra and other synonyms

Surya in Indian literature is referred to by various names, which typically represent different aspects or phenomenological characteristics of the Sun. Thus, Savitr refers to one that rises and sets, Aditya means one with splendor, Mitra refers to Sun as "the great luminous friend of all mankind",[36] while Pushan refers to Sun as illuminator that helped the Devas win over Asuras who use darkness.[37] Arka, Mitra, Aditya, Tapan, Ravi and Surya have different characteristics in early mythologies, but by the time of the epics they are synonymous.[37]

The term "Arka" is found more commonly in temple names of north India and in the eastern parts of India. The 11th century Konark Temple in Odisha is named after a composite word "Kona and Arka", or "Arka in the corner".[38] Other Surya temples named after Arka include Uttararka and Lolarka in Uttar Pradesh, and Balarka in Rajasthan. Another 10th-century sun temple ruin is in Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh named Balarka Surya Mandir, which was destroyed in the 14th century during the Turkish invasions.

Astronomy

Surya as an important heavenly body appears in various Indian astronomical texts in Sanskrit, such as the 5th century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhata, the 6th century Romaka by Latadeva and Panca Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla.[41] These texts present Surya and various planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion.[41] Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various planets with deity mythologies.[41]

The manuscripts of these texts exist in slightly different versions, present Surya- and planets-based calculation and its relative motion to earth. These vary in their data, suggesting that the text were open and revised over their lives.[42][43][44] For example, the 1st millennium CE Hindu scholars had estimated the sidereal length of a year as follows, from their astronomical studies, with slightly different results:[45]

Sanskrit texts: How many days in a year?
Hindu text Estimated length of the sidereal year[45]
Surya Siddhanta 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 36.56 seconds
Paulica Siddhanta 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 36 seconds
Paracara Siddhanta 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 31.50 seconds
Arya Siddhanta 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 30.84 seconds
Laghu Arya Siddhanta 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 30 seconds
Siddhanta Shiromani 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 9 seconds

The oldest of these is likely to be the Surya Siddhanta, while the most accurate is the Siddhanta Shiromani.[45]

Zodiac and astrology

Surya's synonym Ravi is the root of the word 'Ravivara' or Sunday in the Hindu calendar.[46] In both Indian and Greek-Roman nomenclature for days of the week, the Sunday is dedicated to the Sun.

Surya is part of the Navagraha in Hindu zodiac system. The Hindu astrology based on Sun and planets likely developed in the centuries Before the arrival of Greek astrology with Alexander the Great,[47][48][49] their zodiac signs being nearly identical.[50] Technical horoscopes and astrology ideas in India came from Greece, states Nicholas Campion, and developed in the early centuries of the 1st millennium CE.[51]

In Buddhism

In the Buddhism of the Far East, Surya is one of the twelve Devas, as guardian deities, who are found in or around Buddhist shrines (Jūni-ten, 十二天).[52] In Japan, he has been called "Nit-ten".[53] He joins these other eleven Devas of Buddhism, found in Japan and other parts of southeast Asia: Indra (Taishaku-ten), Agni (Ka-ten), Yama (Emma-ten), Nirrti (Rasetsu-ten), Vayu (Fu-ten), Ishana (Ishana-ten), Kubera (Tamon-ten), Varuna (Sui-ten), Brahma (Bon-ten), Prithvi (Chi-ten), Chandra (Gat-ten).[53][54][55]

On the Mount Meru buddhist cosmological system, Surya is considered a female deity, contrasting a male lunar god.[56]

Sun Temples

Surya temples are found in many parts of India. More common than Surya temples are artwork related to Surya, which are found in all types of temples of various traditions within Hinduism, such as the Hindu temples related to Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha and Shakti.[57] Reliefs on temple walls, forts and artwork above doorways of many Hindu monasteries feature Surya.[57][58]

Many of the temples that contain Surya icons and artwork are dated to the second half of the 1st millennium CE and early centuries of the 2nd millennium. The 11th-century Vaishnava temple at Kadwaha in Madhya Pradesh, for example, features a Surya artwork along with many other gods and goddesses at its doorway.[57] The 8th and 9th century goddess (Shaktism) temples of central India, similarly engrave Surya along with other Hindu gods within the temple.[57] The six century Shiva temple at Gangadhar in Rajasthan includes Surya.[59] Similar mentions are found in stone inscriptions found near Hindu temples, such as the 5th century Mandasor inscription.[60] These temples, states Michael Meister, do not glorify one god or goddess over the other, but present them independently and with equal emphasis in a complex iconography.[57]

Cave temples of India, similarly, dedicated to different gods and goddesses feature Surya.[61][62] For example, the 6th century carvings in the Ellora Caves in Maharashtra as well as the 8th and 9th century artworks there, such as Cave 25, the Kailasha Temple (Cave 16) and others feature complete iconography of Surya.[63][64]

Hindu temples predominantly have their primary entrance facing east, and their square principle based architecture is reverentially aligned the direction of the rising Surya.[65][66] This alignment towards the sunrise is also found in most Buddhist and Jaina temples in and outside of India.[67][68]

Dedicated temples

The most famous Surya temple is the Konark Sun Temple, a World Heritage Site in Orissa.[69] Constructed in the 13th century by the Eastern Ganga dynasty, on a pre-existing pilgrimage site for Surya god, the temple architecture mimics a grand chariot with twelve wheels pulled by seven horses.[69][70] The temple features Surya in three representations, with the main large Surya destroyed and the temple damaged over repeated Muslim invasions.[71] Besides Konark, there are two other sun temples in Orissa called Biranchi Narayan Sun Temple.

There are sun temples in many parts of India, such as Modhera, Gujarat.[72] It was sponsored by King Bhimdev of the Chaulukya dynasty. Other major Surya temples are found in Arasavalli, Andhra Pradesh, Kanakaditya Temple in Kasheli (Dist. Sindhudurg) – Maharashtra, near the famous Galtaji's temple in Jaipur, Rajasthan and in clusters of Navagraha temples in Tamil Nadu and Assam.

The Martand Sun Temple in Jammu and Kashmir was destroyed by Islamic armies.[73] A surviving Surya temple in northern India is Kattarmal Surya mandir in Almora District, Uttarakhand created by King Kattarmal in the 12th century.

The Gurjars were essentially sun worshipers and some of the sun temples were erected by them during the medieval period.[74] The sun temple known as Jayaditya was constructed by Gurjar king of Nandipuri, Jayabhatta II. This temple is situated at Kotipura near Kapika in the Bharukachha district.[75] The Surya temple of Bhinmal known as Jagaswami Surya temple was also erected during this period.[76]

Konark Sun Temple Panoramic View
Konark Sun Temple Panoramic View

Surya temples outside India

The Sun Temple of Multan (in modern-day Pakistan) contained a revered statue of Surya. It was one of the focal points of Hindu-Muslim religious conflicts.[77] After 871 CE, Multan (Panjab) was under the rule by Arab princes, who kept the Surya temple hostage and protected it,[78] in order to threaten its destruction if the Hindu Gurjara attacked them.[79] The early Muslim rulers taxed Hindu pilgrims for the privilege to visit the Surya temple, and this provided these rulers an important source of revenue.[80] The Surya temple was destroyed by Ismaili Shia rulers in the late 10th century, who built a mosque atop the site, abandoning the Sunni congregational mosque in Multan.[81] This Ismaili Shia mosque atop the Sun Temple's ruins was then destroyed by the Sunni ruler Mahmud of Ghazni, the Surya temple was not rebuilt and an empty space left in place, actions that helped re-establish the importance of the Sunni mosque in Multan.[81]

Jinsha sunbird golden foil
Sanxingdui in China - Golden Sun with birds. According to Chung Tan, this is akin to Surya.

While Shiva and Vishnu are more common in 1st millennium southeast Asian artwork such as those found in Cambodia and Thailand, archaeological evidence suggest god Surya were among the pantheon of ideas adopted early in these regions and retained after Buddhism became the dominant tradition.[82]

In Nepal, many Surya temples and artworks trace to the medieval era, such as the 11th-century Thapahiti and Saugal-tol, and 12th century Naksal stone sculptures.[83]

Artifacts discovered at the Sanxingdui culture founded c 1,600 BCE, about 40 km from present day Chengdu, capital city of Sichuan province China reveal an ancient worship of sun-deity, similar to Surya. The artifacts include a gold sheet with design of four birds flying around the sun deity, and a bronze sculpture of the surya-chakra.[84]

Surya in Indian culture

Festivals

Various festivals mark deity Surya and these vary regionally in India. Pongal or Makara Sankaranti is the most widely celebrated Hindu festival dedicated to the Sun God. These celebrate a good harvest. Other festivals that focus on Surya include Chhath of Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and the neighboring regions, Samba Dashami and Ratha Saptami are also major festivals celebrated in honour of Surya; Chhath is celebrated immediately after Diwali with fasting for three days followed by bathing in river or tank with remembrance of Sun.[85] Similarly Aytar Puja is celebrated in Goa.[86] The latter is known as Aditya Ranubai in Maharashtra.[87]

The second day of the Pongal harvest festival is dedicated to Surya in Tamil Nadu, and is called the "Surya Pongal".[88]

Another festival named Kartik Puja marks Surya, along with Shiva, Vishnu, Lakshmi, Radha, Krishna and Tulsi. It is observed by Hindu women, typically with visit to rivers such as the Ganges, socialization and group singing.[89]

Dances

The repertoire of classical Indian dances such as the Bharatanatyam include poses that signify rays of light beaming towards all of the universe, as a form of homage to Surya.[90]

Surya Namaskar

Surya Namaskar sculpture at IGIA T3
Sculpture depicting 12 asana's of Surya Namaskara A in Terminal T3 at IGIA Airport, New Delhi, India, created by Nikhil Bhandari.[91]

Sūrya namaskāra literally means sun salutation. It is a Yoga warm up routine based on a sequence of gracefully linked asanas.[92] The nomenclature refers to the symbolism of Sun as the soul and the source of all life. It is relatively a modern practice that developed in the 20th century.[93] A yogi may develop a personalized yoga warm up routine as surya-namaskar to precede his or her asana practice.[94]

The Gayatri Mantra is associated with Surya (Savitr). The mantra's earliest appearance is in the hymn 3.62.10 of the Rigveda.[95]

Let us meditate on that excellent glory of the divine vivifying Sun,
May he enlighten our understandings.

— Gayatri mantra, Translated by Monier Monier-Williams[96][97]

Gallery

8th century Surya on chariot in ceiling at Virupaksha Shaivism temple, Pattadakal Hindu monuments Karnataka 1

8th century ceiling carving of Surya at Pattadakal Virupaksha Hindu temple.

WLANL - 23dingenvoormusea - Suryabeeldje

Surya statue

Suryadeva

Surya with consorts Saranyu and Chhaya

6 images Makar Sankranti collage

Surya festival Makar Sankranti

See also

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Further reading

External links

List of silent films from South India

A list of South Indian silent films made between 1916–1932 in Madras Presidency , British Raj.

M. S. Narayana

M. S. Narayana (16 April 1951 – 23 January 2015) was a popular and highly respected comedian in Telugu films. He died on 23 January 2015 due to multiple organ failure in Hyderabad.

Naa Peru Surya, Naa Illu India

Naa Peru Surya, Naa Illu India (transl. My Name is Surya, My Home is India) is a 2018 Indian Telugu-language action drama film written and directed by Vakkantham Vamsi in his directorial debut. Produced by Sirisha and Sridhar Lagadapati under the banner Ramalakshmi Cine Creations, it stars Allu Arjun and Anu Emmanuel in the lead roles, along with Arjun Sarja, Boman Irani, R. Sarathkumar, Thakur Anoop Singh, Nadhiya, Vennela Kishore, Pradeep Rawat, and Rao Ramesh, among others, in supporting roles. The film released on 4 May 2018 with mixed reviews from critics.

Naga Chaitanya

Naga Chaitanya Akkineni is an Indian film Actor known for his work in Telugu cinema. He debuted in the 2009 film Josh, directed by newcomer Vasu Varma and produced by Dil Raju. Josh was an average grosser. Prior to the release of his first film, he signed his second film with Indira Productions, directed by Gautham Menon. This film Ye Maaya Chesave co-starring Samantha Akkineni released in 2010, and was a critical and commercial success. His next film Sukumar's 100% Love, co-starring Tamannaah was a super success. This was soon followed by the flop Dhada, co-starring Kajal Aggarwal and Bejawada. Chaitanya also appeared in the movie Autonagar Surya. 2014 saw him in the blockbuster Manam. In 2016, he starred in two films, the hit romance drama Premam, co-starring Shruti Haasan, and the average running thriller Sahasam Swasaga Sagipo. In 2017, he starred in Rarandoi Veduka Chudham, which became his highest grosser of the year. In 2019, he starred in the blockbuster romantic drama Majili alongside his wife Samantha Akkineni.

Pranayama

Prāṇāyāma is the Hatha yoga practice of breath control.

S. J. Surya

S. Justin Selvaraj, known by his stage name S. J. Surya is an Indian film director, screenwriter, actor, music composer and producer who has worked in the Tamil, Telugu and Hindi film industries. He sought to become an actor but ended up directing, assisting Vasanth and Sabapathy.

Surya made his directorial debut with Vaali in 1999 whose success catapulted him to stardom. His other notable films include Kushi (2000), New (2004), Anbe Aaruyire (2005) and Isai (2015). He made his acting debut with New and went on to act in films like Kalvanin Kadhali (2006), Thirumagan (2007), Vyabari (2007) and has also worked as Antagonist in Spyder (2017) and Mersal (2017).

SCTV (Indonesia)

Surya Citra TV (SCTV) is an Indonesian free-to-air television network. It was launched on 24 August 1990 in Surabaya, East Java as Surabaya Citra Televisi, broadcasting to the city and its surrounding area. At first, the programming was similar to that of RCTI, using some of their news programs until they could produce their own. On 1 August 1993, SCTV obtained a national license and eventually moved its operations to Jakarta, changing its name to Surya Citra Televisi. Its main offices are located in Central Jakarta, with studios in West Jakarta. It is owned by Surya Citra Media, part of the technology solution company Emtek.

On 18 February 2011, the commissioners of its parent companies Indosiar and SCTV agreed to a merger, although this was subject to government approval due to both companies going public.

Solar dynasty

According to the Puranic literature, the Solar dynasty or the Ikshvaku dynasty was a dynasty founded by the legendary king Ikshvaku. The dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa ("Solar dynasty") and along with Lunar dynasty comprises one of the main lineages of the Kshatriya Varna. Lord Rama belonged to the Ikshavaku dynasty. Twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankara belonged to this dynasty. Rishabha is present in both Hindu as well as Jain mythology. Both refers to the same person. According to the Buddhist texts, Prince Siddhartha belonged to this dynasty.

The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Mandhatri , Muchukunda , Ambarisha , Bharata Chakravartin, Bahubali, Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara, Raghu, Rama and Pasenadi. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts, Mahasammata, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty, who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.

Sun TV Network

Sun TV Network is an Indian mass media company headquartered in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is a part of Sun Group and is Asia's largest TV network. Established on 14 April 1993 by Kalanithi Maran, it owns a variety of television channels and radio stations in multiple languages. Its flagship channel is Sun TV, which was the first fully privately owned Tamil channel in India. Sun Group has owned Hyderabad-based IPL team Sunrisers Hyderabad since 2012.

Suriya

Saravanan Sivakumar, known by his stage name Suriya, (born 23 July 1975) is an Indian film actor, producer, and television presenter, best known for his work in Tamil cinema. After making his debut in Nerukku Ner (1997), Suriya landed his breakthrough role in Nandha (2001) and then had his first major commercial success with the thriller Kaakha Kaakha (2003). Following award-winning performances of a conman in Pithamagan (2003) and a hunchback in Perazhagan (2004), Suriya played a patient suffering from anterograde amnesia in the 2005 blockbuster Ghajini. He rose to stardom with dual roles of a father and son in Gautham Menon's semi-autobiographical Vaaranam Aayiram (2008). His status as an action star was established with roles of a smuggler in Ayan (2009), and an aggressive cop in the Singam trilogy. Suriya has also found success with science fiction films like 7aum Arivu (2011) and 24 (2016). As of 2017, he has won three Tamil Nadu State Film Awards and four Filmfare Awards South.

Suriya is the eldest son of Tamil film actor Sivakumar and his younger brother Karthi is also an actor. Suriya married co-star Jyothika in 2006, after having been together for several years. In 2008, he began Agaram Foundation, which funds for various philanthropic activities. The year 2012 marked his debut as a television presenter with the Star Vijay game show Neengalum Vellalam Oru Kodi, the Tamil version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?. In 2013, Suriya founded the production house 2D Entertainment.

Surya Bonaly

Surya Bonaly (born 15 December 1973) is a French former competitive figure skater. She is a three-time World silver medalist (1993–1995), a five-time European champion (1991–1995), the 1991 World Junior Champion, and a nine-time French national champion (1989–1997).

Bonaly is the only Olympic figure skater to land a backflip on only one blade; she performed it at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

Surya Das

Surya Das (born Jeffrey Miller in 1950) is an American lama in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. He is a poet, chantmaster, spiritual activist, author of many popular works on Buddhism, meditation teacher and spokesperson for Buddhism in the West. He has long been involved in charitable relief projects in the Third World and in interfaith dialogue. Surya Das is a Dharma heir of Nyoshul Khenpo Rinpoche, a Nyingma master of the non-sectarian Rime movement, with whom he founded the Dzogchen Center and Dzogchen retreats in 1991. His name, which means "Servant of the Sun" in a combination of Sanskrit (sūrya) and Hindi (das, from the Sanskrit dāsa), was given to him in 1972 by the Hindu guru Neem Karoli Baba.

Surya Movies

Surya Movies is a full-time Malayalam and Tamil movie pay television channel from Sun TV Network which is based in Kochi / Chennai, Kerala, India. This 24-hour channel primarily airs movies. It was launched in 2005 as Kiran TV, which was earlier a music channel. The channel was made a full-time movie channel after which a new channel (named Surya Music) was started. On 15 March 2017, the channel was renamed as Surya Movies.

The channel airs Malayalam movies, Tamil movies, Bollywood and Hollywood movies (dubbed in Malayalam) and plays songs from Malayalam and Tamil films regularly.

Surya Namaskār

Surya Namaskar (Sanskrit: सूर्यनमस्कार IAST: Sūrya Namaskār), Salute to the Sun or Sun Salutation, is a practice in yoga as exercise incorporating a sequence of some twelve gracefully linked asanas. The asana sequence was first recorded as yoga in the early 20th century, though similar exercises were in use in India before that, for example among wrestlers. The basic sequence involves moving from a standing position into Downward and Upward Dog poses and then back to the standing position, but many variations are possible. The set of 12 asanas is dedicated to the Hindu God Surya. In some Indian traditions, the positions are each associated with a different mantra.

Variant sequences called Chandra Namaskar (Moon Salutation) have also been created.

Surya Sen

Surya Sen, also called Surjya Sen (Bengali: সূর্য সেন, Surjo Sen) (22 March 1894 – 12 January 1934) was a Bengali Indian revolutionary who was influential in the Indian independence movement against British rule in India and is best known for leading the 1930 Chittagong armoury raid in Chittagong in British India (now in Bangladesh).

Sen was a school teacher by profession and was popularly known as Master Da ("da" is a honorific suffix in Bengali language). He was influenced by the nationalist ideals in 1916 while he was a student of B.A. in Behrampore College. In 1918, he was selected as president of the Indian National Congress's Chittagong branch.Surya Sen was known for recruiting a group of young and passionate revolutionaries known as the Chittagong group including Anant Singh, Ganesh Ghosh and Lokenath Baul, who fought against the British stationed in Chittagong.He was an active participant in the Non-cooperation movement and was later arrested and imprisoned for 2 years from 1926 to 1928 for his revolutionary activities. A brilliant and inspirational organizer, Sen was fond of saying "Humanism is a special virtue of the revolutionary." After the Chittagong raid in 1930 and a fierce battle where over 80 British troops and 12 revolutionaries were killed, Sen and other surviving revolutionaries dispersed into small groups and hid in neighbouring villages, launching raids on government personnel and property. Sen was arrested on 16 April 1933, tried and was hanged on the 12 January 1934. Many of his fellow revolutionaries were also caught and sentenced to long periods of imprisonment.

Surya Siddhanta

The Surya Siddhanta is the name of a Sanskrit treatise in Indian astronomy from the late 4th-century or early 5th-century CE. The text survives in several versions, was cited and extensively quoted in a 6th-century CE text by Varahamihira, was likely revised for several centuries under the same title. It has fourteen chapters. A 12th-century manuscript of the text was translated into English by Burgess in 1860.The Surya Siddhanta describes rules to calculate the motions of various planets and the moon relative to various constellations, diameters of various planets, and calculates the orbits of various astronomical bodies. The text asserts, according to Markanday and Srivatsava, that the earth is of a spherical shape. It treats earth as stationary globe around which sun orbits, and makes no mention of Uranus, Neptune or Pluto. It calculates the earth's diameter to be 8,000 miles (modern: 7,928 miles), diameter of moon as 2,400 miles (actual ~2,160) and the distance between moon and earth to be 258,000 miles (actual ~238,000). The text is known for some of earliest known discussion of sexagesimal fractions and trigonometric functions.The Surya Siddhanta is one of the several astronomy-related Hindu texts that likely was influenced by ancient pre-Ptolemy Greek ideas. It represents a functional system that made reasonably accurate predictions. The text was influential on the solar year computations of the luni-solar Hindu calendar.

Surya TV

Surya TV is an Indian pay television channel that was launched in 1998. It is the second privately-owned television channel in Malayalam-language, which began to air after Asianet. The channel is part of Sun TV Network, which is headquartered at Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

On 16 March 2017, Surya TV became the third Malayalam-language channel to launch a high-definition simulcast feed broadcasting at 1080i.

Suryavamsam

Suryavamsam (English: The noble lineage) is a 1997 Indian Tamil family drama film directed by Vikraman. The film stars Sarath Kumar, Devayani and Raadhika in the lead roles. The film's score and soundtrack are composed by S. A. Rajkumar. It was one of the biggest blockbusters of the year 1997. It was subsequently remade into Telugu under the same title starring Daggubati Venkatesh, Surya Vamsha in Kannada starring Vishnuvardhan and Sooryavansham in Hindi starring Amitabh Bachchan.

Vaaranam Aayiram

Vaaranam Aayiram (lit. Thousand Elephants) is a 2008 Indian Tamil musical romantic drama film written and directed by Gautham Vasudev Menon. Suriya plays dual lead roles as father and son, with Simran, Divya Spandana and Sameera Reddy. The film had been under production since late 2006, and was released worldwide on 14 November 2008. It was dubbed and released in Telugu as Surya s/o Krishnan and in Hindi as Suriya Ka Yaarana released in 2018 on Rishtey cineplex.

The film illustrates the theme of how a father often came across his son's life as a hero and inspiration, whose death was deeply mourned in the end. As a tribute to the father of the director, the film opened in several countries with critical acclaim. The film was produced by Venu Ravichandran and has musical score by Harris Jayaraj, making Vaaranam Aayiram his final project with Gautham Menon before the formal break-up of their partnership, which was eventually resumed 7 years later, in Yennai Arindhaal (2015). It won many awards including the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil. The film was also a commercial success, eventually becoming the biggest hit in Suriya's career at that time.

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