Surfing

Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which usually carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily found in the ocean, but can also be found in lakes or rivers in the form of a standing wave or tidal bore. However, surfers can also utilize artificial waves such as those from boat wakes and the waves created in artificial wave pools.

Synchronised surfing,Manly beach, New South Wales, 1938-46 (6519242455)
Synchronized surfing, Manly Beach, New South Wales, Australia, 1938–46

The term surfing refers to the act of riding a wave, regardless of whether the wave is ridden with a board or without a board, and regardless of the stance used. The native peoples of the Pacific, for instance, surfed waves on alaia, paipo, and other such craft, and did so on their belly and knees. The modern-day definition of surfing, however, most often refers to a surfer riding a wave standing up on a surfboard; this is also referred to as stand-up surfing.

Another prominent form of surfing is body boarding, when a surfer rides a wave on a bodyboard, either lying on their belly, drop knee, or sometimes even standing up on a body board. Other types of surfing include knee boarding, surf matting (riding inflatable mats), and using foils. Body surfing, where the wave is surfed without a board, using the surfer's own body to catch and ride the wave, is very common and is considered by some to be the purest form of surfing.

Three major subdivisions within stand-up surfing are stand-up paddling, long boarding and short boarding with several major differences including the board design and length, the riding style, and the kind of wave that is ridden.

In tow-in surfing (most often, but not exclusively, associated with big wave surfing), a motorized water vehicle, such as a personal watercraft, tows the surfer into the wave front, helping the surfer match a large wave's speed, which is generally a higher speed than a self-propelled surfer can produce. Surfing-related sports such as paddle boarding and sea kayaking do not require waves, and other derivative sports such as kite surfing and windsurfing rely primarily on wind for power, yet all of these platforms may also be used to ride waves. Recently with the use of V-drive boats, Wakesurfing, in which one surfs on the wake of a boat, has emerged. The Guinness Book of World Records recognized a 78 foot (23.8 m) wave ride by Garrett McNamara at Nazaré, Portugal as the largest wave ever surfed.[1]

Surfing
Surfer at the Cayucos Pier, Cayucos, CA
A surfer at the Cayucos Pier, Cayucos, California
Highest governing bodyWorld Surf League (WSL), International Surfing Association (ISA)
Characteristics
Mixed genderYes, separate competitions
Presence
Country or regionWorldwide
OlympicWill debut in deeefee2020
Surfing on the Gold Coast
Surfing on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

Origins and history

For hundreds of years, surfing was a central part of ancient Polynesian culture. Surfing may have first been observed by British explorers at Tahiti in 1767. Samuel Wallis and the crew members of HMS Dolphin who were the first Britons to visit the island in June of that year. Another candidate is the botanist Joseph Banks[2] being part of the first voyage of James Cook on HMS Endeavour, who arrived on Tahiti on 10 April 1769. Lieutenant James King was the first person to write about the art of surfing on Hawaii when he was completing the journals of Captain James Cook upon Cook's death in 1779.

When Mark Twain visited Hawaii in 1866 he wrote,

In one place we came upon a large company of naked natives, of both sexes and all ages, amusing themselves with the national pastime of surf-bathing.[3]

References to surf riding on planks and single canoe hulls are also verified for pre-contact Samoa, where surfing was called fa'ase'e or se'egalu (see Augustin Krämer, The Samoa Islands[4]), and Tonga, far pre-dating the practice of surfing by Hawaiians and eastern Polynesians by over a thousand years.

In July 1885, three teenage Hawaiian princes took a break from their boarding school, St. Mathew’s Hall in San Mateo, and came to cool off in Santa Cruz, California. There, David Kawānanakoa, Edward Keliʻiahonui and Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole surfed the mouth of the San Lorenzo River on custom-shaped redwood boards, according to surf historians Kim Stoner and Geoff Dunn.[5]

George Freeth (8 November 1883 – 7 April 1919) is often credited as being the "Father of Modern Surfing". He is thought to have been the first modern surfer.

In 1907, the eclectic interests of the land baron Henry E. Huntington brought the ancient art of surfing to the California coast. While on vacation, Huntington had seen Hawaiian boys surfing the island waves. Looking for a way to entice visitors to the area of Redondo Beach, where he had heavily invested in real estate, he hired a young Hawaiian to ride surfboards. George Freeth decided to revive the art of surfing, but had little success with the huge 16-foot hardwood boards that were popular at that time. When he cut them in half to make them more manageable, he created the original "Long board", which made him the talk of the islands. To the delight of visitors, Freeth exhibited his surfing skills twice a day in front of the Hotel Redondo. Another native Hawaiian, Duke Kahanamoku, spread surfing to both the U.S. and Australia, riding the waves after displaying the swimming prowess that won him Olympic gold medals in 1912 and 1920.

In 1975, professional contests started.[6] That year Margo Oberg became the first female professional surfer.[6]

Surf waves

A surfer in the air
A surfer wipes out
Surfer in Santa cruz 11-8-9 -1
A surfer inside the barrel of a wave
Surfers at Mavericks
A large wave breaking

Swell is generated when the wind blows consistently over a large area of open water, called the wind's fetch. The size of a swell is determined by the strength of the wind and the length of its fetch and duration. Because of this, surf tends to be larger and more prevalent on coastlines exposed to large expanses of ocean traversed by intense low pressure systems.

Local wind conditions affect wave quality since the surface of a wave can become choppy in blustery conditions. Ideal conditions include a light to moderate "offshore" wind, because it blows into the front of the wave, making it a "barrel" or "tube" wave. Waves are Left handed and Right Handed depending upon the breaking formation of the wave.

Waves are generally recognized by the surfaces over which they break.[7] For example, there are Beach breaks, Reef breaks and Point breaks.

The most important influence on wave shape is the topography of the seabed directly behind and immediately beneath the breaking wave. The contours of the reef or bar front become stretched by diffraction. Each break is different since each location's underwater topography is unique. At beach breaks, sandbanks change shape from week to week. Surf forecasting is aided by advances in information technology. Mathematical modeling graphically depicts the size and direction of swells around the globe.

Swell regularity varies across the globe and throughout the year. During winter, heavy swells are generated in the mid-latitudes, when the North and South polar fronts shift toward the Equator. The predominantly Westerly winds generate swells that advance Eastward, so waves tend to be largest on West coasts during winter months. However, an endless train of mid-latitude cyclones cause the isobars to become undulated, redirecting swells at regular intervals toward the tropics.

East coasts also receive heavy winter swells when low-pressure cells form in the sub-tropics, where slow moving highs inhibit their movement. These lows produce a shorter fetch than polar fronts, however, they can still generate heavy swells since their slower movement increases the duration of a particular wind direction. The variables of fetch and duration both influence how long wind acts over a wave as it travels since a wave reaching the end of a fetch behaves as if the wind died.

During summer, heavy swells are generated when cyclones form in the tropics. Tropical cyclones form over warm seas, so their occurrence is influenced by El Niño & La Niña cycles. Their movements are unpredictable.

Surf travel and some surf camps offer surfers access to remote, tropical locations, where tradewinds ensure offshore conditions. Since winter swells are generated by mid-latitude cyclones, their regularity coincides with the passage of these lows. Swells arrive in pulses, each lasting for a couple of days, with a few days between each swell.

The availability of free model data from the NOAA has allowed the creation of several surf forecasting websites.

Wave intensity

Wavemodel
The geometry of tube shape can be represented as a ratio between length and width.

Tube shape is defined by length to width ratio. A perfectly cylindrical vortex has a ratio of 1:1. Other forms include:

  • Square: <1:1
  • Round: 1-2:1
  • Almond: >2:1

Tube speed is defined by angle of peel line.

  • Fast: 30°
  • Medium: 45°
  • Slow: 60°
Wave intensity table
Fast Medium Slow
Square The Cobra Teahupoo Shark Island
Round Speedies, Gnaraloo Banzai Pipeline
Almond Lagundri Bay, Superbank Jeffreys Bay, Bells Beach Angourie Point

Artificial reefs

The value of good surf in attracting surf tourism has prompted the construction of artificial reefs and sand bars. Artificial surfing reefs can be built with durable sandbags or concrete, and resemble a submerged breakwater. These artificial reefs not only provide a surfing location, but also dissipate wave energy and shelter the coastline from erosion. Ships such as Seli 1 that have accidentally stranded on sandy bottoms, can create sandbanks that give rise to good waves.[8]

An artificial reef known as Chevron Reef was constructed in El Segundo, California in hopes of creating a new surfing area. However, the reef failed to produce any quality waves and was removed in 2008. In Kovalam, South West India, an artificial reef has, however, successfully provided the local community with a quality lefthander, stabilized coastal soil erosion, and provided good habitat for marine life.[9] ASR Ltd., a New Zealand-based company, constructed the Kovalam reef and is working on another reef in Boscombe, England.

Artificial waves

Surf IMG 0949 (3120282731)
Surfing a stationary, artificial wave in Southern California

Even with artificial reefs in place, a tourist's vacation time may coincide with a "flat spell", when no waves are available. Completely artificial Wave pools aim to solve that problem by controlling all the elements that go into creating perfect surf, however there are only a handful of wave pools that can simulate good surfing waves, owing primarily to construction and operation costs and potential liability. Most wave pools generate waves that are too small and lack the power necessary to surf. The Seagaia Ocean Dome, located in Miyazaki, Japan, was an example of a surfable wave pool. Able to generate waves with up to 10-foot faces, the specialized pump held water in 20 vertical tanks positioned along the back edge of the pool. This allowed the waves to be directed as they approach the artificial sea floor. Lefts, Rights, and A-frames could be directed from this pump design providing for rippable surf and barrel rides. The Ocean Dome cost about $2 billion to build and was expensive to maintain.[10] The Ocean Dome was closed in 2007. In England, construction is nearing completion on the Wave,[11] situated near Bristol, which will enable people unable to get to the coast to enjoy the waves in a controlled environment, set in the heart of nature.

There are two main types of artificial waves that exist today. One being artificial or stationary waves which simulate a moving, breaking wave by pumping a layer of water against a smooth structure mimicking the shape of a breaking wave. Because of the velocity of the rushing water the wave and the surfer can remain stationary while the water rushes by under the surfboard. Artificial waves of this kind provide the opportunity to try surfing and learn its basics in a moderately small and controlled environment near or far from locations with natural surf.

Another artificial wave can be made through use of a wave pool such as Kelly Slater's Wave Co.[12] and NLand Surf Park[13] in Austin, TX. These wave pools strive to make a wave that replicates a real ocean wave more than the stationary wave does. In 2018, the first professional surfing tournament in a wave pool was held.[14]

Surfers and surf culture

Surfers represent a diverse culture based on riding the waves. Some people practice surfing as a recreational activity while others make it the central focus of their lives. Surfing culture is most dominant in Hawaii and California because these two states offer the best surfing conditions. However, waves can be found wherever there is coastline, and a tight-knit yet far-reaching subculture of surfers has emerged throughout America. Some historical markers of the culture included the woodie, the station wagon used to carry surfers' boards, as well as boardshorts, the long swim shorts typically worn while surfing. Surfers also wear wetsuits in colder regions.

The sport is also a significant part of Australia's eastern coast sub-cultural life, especially in New South Wales, where the weather and water conditions are most favourable for surfing.

During the 1960s, as surfing caught on in California, its popularity spread through American pop culture. Several teen movies, starting with the Gidget series in 1959, transformed surfing into a dream life for American youth. Later movies, including Beach Party (1963), Ride the Wild Surf (1964), and Beach Blanket Bingo (1965) promoted the California dream of sun and surf. Surf culture also fueled the early records of the Beach Boys.

The sport of surfing now represents a multibillion-dollar industry especially in clothing and fashion markets. The World Surf League (WSL) runs the championship tour, hosting top competitors in some of the best surf spots around the globe. A small number of people make a career out of surfing by receiving corporate sponsorships and performing for photographers and videographers in far-flung destinations; they are typically referred to as freesurfers. Sixty-six surfboarders on a 42-foot surfboard set a record in Huntington Beach, California for most people on a surfboard at one time. Dale Webster consecutively surfed for 14,641 days, making it his main life focus.

When the waves were flat, surfers persevered with sidewalk surfing, which is now called skateboarding. Sidewalk surfing has a similar feel to surfing and requires only a paved road or sidewalk. To create the feel of the wave, surfers even sneak into empty backyard swimming pools to ride in, known as pool skating. Eventually, surfing made its way to the slopes with the invention of the Snurfer, later credited as the first snowboard. Many other board sports have been invented over the years, but all can trace their heritage back to surfing.

Many surfers claim to have a spiritual connection with the ocean, describing surfing, the surfing experience, both in and out of the water, as a type of spiritual experience or a religion.[15]

Maneuvers

Mavericks and surfer
A surfer at Mavericks
Big wave breaking in Santa Cruz
A surfer going for the tube
Catching waves at a surfing contest on the North Shore of Oahu, Hawaii.

Standup surfing begins when the surfer paddles toward shore in an attempt to match the speed of the wave (The same applies whether the surfer is standup paddling, bodysurfing, boogie-boarding or using some other type of watercraft, such as a waveski or kayak.). Once the wave begins to carry the surfer forward, the surfer stands up and proceeds to ride the wave. The basic idea is to position the surfboard so it is just ahead of the breaking part (whitewash) of the wave. A common problem for beginners is being able to catch the wave at all.

Surfers' skills are tested by their ability to control their board in difficult conditions, riding challenging waves, and executing maneuvers such as strong turns and cutbacks (turning board back to the breaking wave) and carving (a series of strong back-to-back maneuvers). More advanced skills include the floater (riding on top of the breaking curl of the wave), and off the lip (banking off the breaking wave). A newer addition to surfing is the progression of the air whereby a surfer propels off the wave entirely up into the air, and then successfully lands the board back on the wave.

The tube ride is considered to be the ultimate maneuver in surfing. As a wave breaks, if the conditions are ideal, the wave will break in an orderly line from the middle to the shoulder, enabling the experienced surfer to position themselves inside the wave as it is breaking. This is known as a tube ride. Viewed from the shore, the tube rider may disappear from view as the wave breaks over the rider's head. The longer the surfer remains in the tube, the more successful the ride. This is referred to as getting tubed, barreled, shacked or pitted. Some of the world's best known waves for tube riding include Pipeline on the North shore of Oahu, Teahupoo in Tahiti and G-Land in Java. Other names for the tube include "the barrel", and "the pit".

Hanging ten and hanging five are moves usually specific to long boarding. Hanging Ten refers to having both feet on the front end of the board with all of the surfer's toes off the edge, also known as nose-riding. Hanging Five is having just one foot near the front, with five toes off the edge.

Cutback: Generating speed down the line and then turning back to reverse direction.

Floater: Suspending the board atop the wave. Very popular on small waves.

Top-Turn: Turn off the top of the wave. Sometimes used to generate speed and sometimes to shoot spray.

Airs/Aerials: These maneuvers have been becoming more and more prevalent in the sport in both competition and free surfing. An air is when the surfer can achieve enough speed and approach a certain type of section of a wave that is supposed to act as a ramp and launch the surfer above the lip line of the wave, “catching air”, and landing either in the transition of the wave or the whitewash when hitting a close-out section.

Airs can either be straight airs or rotational airs. Straight airs have minimal rotation if any, but definitely no more rotation than 90 degrees. Rotational airs require a rotation of 90 degrees or more depending on the level of the surfer.

Types of rotations:

  • 180 degrees – called an air reverse, this is when the surfer spins enough to land backwards, then reverts to their original positional with the help of the fins. This rotation can either be done frontside or backside, and can spin right or left.
  • 360 degrees – this is a full rotation air or “full rotor” where the surfer lands where they started or more, as long as they do not land backwards. When this is achieved front side on a wave spinning the opposite of an air reverse is called an alley oop.
  • 540 degrees – the surfer does a full rotation plus another 180 degrees, and can be inverted or spinning straight, few surfers have been able to land this air.
  • Backflip – usually done with a double grab, this hard to land air is made for elite level surfers.
  • Rodeo flip – usually done backside, it is a backflip with a 180 rotation, and is actually easier than a straight backflip.
  • Grabs – a surfer can help land an aerial maneuver by grabbing the surfboard, keeping them attached to the board and keeping the board under their feet. Common types of grabs include:
    • Indy – a grab on the surfers (inside rail going frontside, outside rail going backside) with their back hand.
    • Slob – a grab on the surfers (inside rail going frontside, outside rail going backside) with their front hand.
    • Lien – A grab on the surfers (outside rail frontside, inside rail going backside) with their front hand.
    • Stalefish – A grab on the surfers (outside rail frontside, inside rail backside) with their back hand.
    • Double grab – A grab on the surfers inside and outside rail, the inside rail with the back hand and the outside rail with the front hand.

Terms

The Glossary of surfing includes some of the extensive vocabulary used to describe various aspects of the sport of surfing as described in literature on the subject.[16][17] In some cases terms have spread to a wider cultural use. These terms were originally coined by people who were directly involved in the sport of surfing.

Learning

Many popular surfing destinations have surf schools and surf camps that offer lessons. Surf camps for beginners and intermediates are multi-day lessons that focus on surfing fundamentals. They are designed to take new surfers and help them become proficient riders. All-inclusive surf camps offer overnight accommodations, meals, lessons and surfboards. Most surf lessons begin with instruction and a safety briefing on land, followed by instructors helping students into waves on longboards or "softboards". The softboard is considered the ideal surfboard for learning, due to the fact it is safer, and has more paddling speed and stability than shorter boards. Funboards are also a popular shape for beginners as they combine the volume and stability of the longboard with the manageable size of a smaller surfboard.[18] New and inexperienced surfers typically learn to catch waves on softboards around the 7–8 foot funboard size. Due to the softness of the surfboard the chance of getting injured is substantially minimized.

Typical surfing instruction is best performed one-on-one, but can also be done in a group setting. The most popular surf locations offer perfect surfing conditions for beginners, as well as challenging breaks for advanced students. The ideal conditions for learning would be small waves that crumble and break softly, as opposed to the steep, fast-peeling waves desired by more experienced surfers. When available, a sandy seabed is generally safer.

Surfing can be broken into several skills: Paddling strength, Positioning to catch the wave, timing, and balance. Paddling out requires strength, but also the mastery of techniques to break through oncoming waves (duck diving, eskimo roll). Take-off positioning requires experience at predicting the wave set and where they will break. The surfer must pop up quickly as soon as the wave starts pushing the board forward. Preferred positioning on the wave is determined by experience at reading wave features including where the wave is breaking.[19] Balance plays a crucial role in standing on a surfboard. Thus, balance training exercises are a good preparation. Practicing with a Balance board or swing boarding helps novices master the art.

The repetitive cycle of paddling, popping up, and balancing requires stamina, explosivity, and near-constant core stabilization. Having a proper warm up routine can help prevent injuries.[20]

Equipment

Waxing a surfboard
Waxing a surfboard

Surfing can be done on various equipment, including surfboards, longboards, Stand Up Paddle boards (SUP's), bodyboards, wave skis, skimboards, kneeboards, surf mats and macca's trays. Surfboards were originally made of solid wood and were large and heavy (often up to 12 ft or 3.7 m long and 150 lb or 68 kg). Lighter balsa wood surfboards (first made in the late 1940s and early 1950s) were a significant improvement, not only in portability, but also in increasing maneuverability.

Most modern surfboards are made of fiberglass foam (PU), with one or more wooden strips or "stringers", fiberglass cloth, and polyester resin (PE). An emerging board material is epoxy resin and Expanded Polystyrene foam (EPS) which is stronger and lighter than traditional PU/PE construction. Even newer designs incorporate materials such as carbon fiber and variable-flex composites in conjunction with fiberglass and epoxy or polyester resins. Since epoxy/EPS surfboards are generally lighter, they will float better than a traditional PU/PE board of similar size, shape and thickness. This makes them easier to paddle and faster in the water. However, a common complaint of EPS boards is that they do not provide as much feedback as a traditional PU/PE board. For this reason, many advanced surfers prefer that their surfboards be made from traditional materials.

Other equipment includes a leash (to stop the board from drifting away after a wipeout, and to prevent it from hitting other surfers), surf wax, traction pads (to keep a surfer's feet from slipping off the deck of the board), and fins (also known as skegs) which can either be permanently attached (glassed-on) or interchangeable. Sportswear designed or particularly suitable for surfing may be sold as boardwear (the term is also used in snowboarding). In warmer climates, swimsuits, surf trunks or boardshorts are worn, and occasionally rash guards; in cold water surfers can opt to wear wetsuits, boots, hoods, and gloves to protect them against lower water temperatures. A newer introduction is a rash vest with a thin layer of titanium to provide maximum warmth without compromising mobility. In recent years, there have been advancements in technology that have allowed surfers to pursue even bigger waves with added elements of safety. Big wave surfers are now experimenting with inflatable vests or colored dye packs to help decrease their odds of drowning.[21]

1999 - Surf à Waikiki Beach Honolulu Hawaï
Longboards at Waikiki beach

There are many different surfboard sizes, shapes, and designs in use today. Modern longboards, generally 9 to 10 feet (2.7 to 3.0 m) in length, are reminiscent of the earliest surfboards, but now benefit from modern innovations in surfboard shaping and fin design. Competitive longboard surfers need to be competent at traditional walking manoeuvres, as well as the short-radius turns normally associated with shortboard surfing. The modern shortboard began life in the late 1960s and has evolved into today's common thruster style, defined by its three fins, usually around 6 to 7 feet (1.8 to 2.1 m) in length. The thruster was invented by Australian shaper Simon Anderson.

Midsize boards, often called funboards, provide more maneuverability than a longboard, with more flotation than a shortboard. While many surfers find that funboards live up to their name, providing the best of both surfing modes, others are critical.

"It is the happy medium of mediocrity," writes Steven Kotler. "Funboard riders either have nothing left to prove or lack the skills to prove anything."[22]

There are also various niche styles, such as the Egg, a longboard-style short board targeted for people who want to ride a shortboard but need more paddle power. The Fish, a board which is typically shorter, flatter, and wider than a normal shortboard, often with a split tail (known as a swallow tail). The Fish often has two or four fins and is specifically designed for surfing smaller waves. For big waves there is the Gun, a long, thick board with a pointed nose and tail (known as a pin tail) specifically designed for big waves.

The physics of surfing

Can you see the surfer? (33988985575)
The Praia do Norte, Nazaré (North Beach) was listed on the Guinness World Records for the biggest waves ever surfed.

The physics of surfing involves the physical oceanographic properties of wave creation in the surf zone, the characteristics of the surfboard, and the surfer's interaction with the water and the board.

Wave formation

Ocean waves are defined as a collection of dislocated water parcels that undergo a cycle of being forced past their normal position and being restored back to their normal position.[23] Wind caused ripples and eddies form waves that gradually gain speed and distance (fetch). Waves increase in energy and speed, and then become longer and stronger.[24] The fully developed sea has the strongest wave action that experiences storms lasting 10-hours and creates 15 meter wave heights in the open ocean.[23]

The waves created in the open ocean are classified as deep-water waves. Deep-water waves have no bottom interaction and the orbits of these water molecules are circular; their wavelength is short relative to water depth and the velocity decays before the reaching the bottom of the water basin.[23] Deep waves have depths greater than ½ their wavelengths. Wind forces waves to break in the deep sea.

Deep-water waves travel to shore and become shallow water waves. Shallow water waves have depths less than ½ of their wavelength. Shallow wave's wavelengths are long relative to water depth and have elliptical orbitals. The wave velocity effects the entire water basin. The water interacts with the bottom as it approaches shore and has a drag interaction. The drag interaction pulls on the bottom of the wave, causes refraction, increases the height, decreases the celerity (or the speed of the wave form), and the top (crest) falls over. This phenomenon happens because the velocity of the top of the wave is greater than the velocity of the bottom of the wave.[23]

The surf zone is place of convergence of multiple waves types creating complex wave patterns. A wave suitable for surfing results from maximum speeds of 5 meters per second. This speed is relative because local onshore winds can cause waves to break.[24] In the surf zone, shallow water waves are carried by global winds to the beach and interact with local winds to make surfing waves.[24][25]

Different onshore and off shore wind patterns in the surf zone create different types of waves. Onshore winds cause random wave breaking patterns and are more suitable for experienced surfers.[24][25] Light offshore winds create smoother waves, while strong direct offshore winds cause plunging or large barrel waves.[24] Barrel waves are large because the water depth is small when the wave breaks. Thus, the breaker intensity (or force) increases, and the wave speed and height increase.[24] Off shore winds produce non-surfable conditions by flattening a weak swell. Weak swell is made from surface gravity forces and has long wavelengths.[24][26]

Wave conditions for surfing

Surfing waves can be analyzed using the following parameters: breaking wave height, wave peel angle (α), wave breaking intensity, and wave section length. The breaking wave height has two measurements, the relative heights estimated by surfers and the exact measurements done by physical oceanographers. Measurements done by surfers were 1.36 to 2.58 times higher than the measurements done by scientists. The scientifically concluded wave heights that are physically possible to surf are 1 to 20 meters.[24]

The wave peel angle is one of the main constituents of a potential surfing wave. Wave peel angle measures the distance between the peel-line and the line tangent to the breaking crest line. This angle controls the speed of the wave crest. The speed of the wave is an addition of the propagation velocity vector (Vw) and peel velocity vector (Vp), which results in the overall velocity of the wave (Vs).[24]

Wave breaking intensity measures the force of the wave as it breaks, spills, or plunges (a plunging wave is termed by surfers as a “barrel wave”). Wave section length is the distance between two breaking crests in a wave set. Wave section length can be hard to measure because local winds, non-linear wave interactions, island sheltering, and swell interactions can cause multifarious wave configurations in the surf zone.[24]

The parameters breaking wave height, wave peel angle (α), and wave breaking intensity, and wave section length are important because they are standardized by past oceanographers who researched surfing; these parameters have been used to create a guide that matches the type of wave formed and the skill level of surfer.[24]

Table 1: Wave Type and Surfer Skill Level[24]
Skill Level Peel angle (degrees) Wave height (meters) Section speed (meters/second) Section Length (meters) General Locations of Waves
Beginner 60-70 2.5 10 25 Low Gradient Breaks; Atlantic Beach, Florida
Intermediate 55 2.5 20 40 Bells Beach, Australia; New Zealand
Competent 40-50 3 20 40-60 Kirra Point; Burleigh Heads, Australia
Top Amateur 30 3 20 60 Bingin; Padang Padang, Bali
Top World Surfer >27 3 20 60 Pipeline, Hawaii; Shark Island, Australia; Pipes, Encinitas

Table 1 shows a relationship of smaller peel angles correlating with a higher skill level of surfer. Smaller wave peel angles increase the velocities of waves. A surfer must know how to react and paddle quickly to match the speed of the wave to catch it. Therefore, more experience is required to catch a low peel angle waves. Also, more experienced surfers can handle longer section lengths, increased velocities, and higher wave heights.[24] Different locations offer different types of surfing conditions for each skill level. For example: Surfing in Indonesia.

Surf breaks

A surf break is an area with an obstruction or an object that causes a wave to break. Surf breaks entail multiple scale phenomena. Wave section creation has micro-scale factors of peel angle and wave breaking intensity. The micro-scale components influence wave height and variations on wave crests. The mesoscale components of surf breaks are the ramp, platform, wedge, or ledge that may be present at a surf break. Macro-scale processes are the global winds that initially produce offshore waves. Types of surf breaks are headlands (point break), beach break, river/estuary entrance bar, reef breaks, and ledge breaks.[24]

Headland (point break)

A headland or point break interacts with the water by causing refraction around the point or headland. The point absorbs the high frequency waves and long period waves persist, which are easier to surf. Examples of locations that have headland or point break induced surf breaks are Dunedin (New Zealand), Raglan, Malibu (California), Rincon (California), and Kirra (Australia).[24]

Beach break

A beach break happens where waves break from offshore waves, and onshore sandbars and rips. Wave breaks happen successively at beach breaks. Example locations are Tairua and Aramoana Beach (New Zealand) and the Gold Coast (Australia).[24]

River or estuary entrance bar

A river or estuary entrance bar creates waves from the ebb tidal delta, sediment outflow, and tidal currents. An ideal estuary entrance bar exists in Whangamata Bar, New Zealand.[24]

Reef break

A reef break is conducive to surfing because large waves consistently break over the reef. The reef is usually made of coral, and because of this, many injuries occur while surfing reef breaks. However, the waves that are produced by reef breaks are some of the best in the world. Famous reef breaks are present in Padang Padang (Indonesia), Pipeline (Hawaii), Uluwatu (Bali), and Teahupo'o (Tahiti).[24][27]

Ledge break

A ledge break is formed by steep rocks ledges that makes intense waves because the waves travel through deeper water then abruptly reach shallower water at the ledge. Shark Island, Australia is a location with a ledge break. Ledge breaks create difficult surfing conditions, sometimes only allowing body surfing as the only feasible way to confront the waves.[24]

Jetties and their impacts on wave formation in the surf zone

Jetties are added to bodies of water to regulate erosion, preserve navigation channels, and make harbors. Jetties are classified into four different types and have two main controlling variables: the type of delta and the size of the jetty.[28]

Type 1 jetty

The first classification is a type 1 jetty. This type of jetty is significantly longer than the surf zone width and the waves break at the shore end of the jetty. The effect of a Type 1 jetty is sediment accumulation in a wedge formation on the jetty. These waves are large and increase in size as they pass over the sediment wedge formation. An example of a Type 1 jetty is Mission Beach, San Diego, California. This 1000-meter jetty was installed in 1950 at the mouth of Mission Bay. The surf waves happen north of the jetty, are longer waves, and are powerful. The bathymetry of the sea bottom in Mission Bay has a wedge shape formation that causes the waves to refract as they become closer to the jetty.[28] The waves converge constructively after they refract and increase the sizes of the waves.

Type 2 jetty

A type 2 jetty occurs in an ebb tidal delta, a delta transitioning between high and low tide. This area has shallow water, refraction, and a distinctive seabed shapes that creates large wave heights.[28]

An example of a type 2 jetty is called "The Poles" in Atlantic Beach, Florida. Atlantic Beach is known to have flat waves, with exceptions during major storms. However, "The Poles" has larger than normal waves due to a 500-meter jetty that was installed on the south side of the St. Johns. This jetty was built to make a deep channel in the river. It formed a delta at "The Poles". This is special area because the jetty increases wave size for surfing, when comparing pre-conditions and post-conditions of the southern St. Johns River mouth area.[28]

The wave size at "The Poles" depends on the direction of the incoming water. When easterly waters (from 55°) interact with the jetty, they create waves larger than southern waters (from 100°). When southern waves (from 100°) move toward "The Poles", one of the waves breaks north of the southern jetty and the other breaks south of the jetty. This does not allow for merging to make larger waves. Easterly waves, from 55°, converge north of the jetty and unite to make bigger waves.[28]

Type 3 jetty

A type 3 jetty is in an ebb tidal area with an unchanging seabed that has naturally created waves. Examples of a Type 3 jetty occurs in “Southside” Tamarack, Carlsbad, California.[28]

Type 4 jetty

A type 4 jetty is one that no longer functions nor traps sediment. The waves are created from reefs in the surf zone. A type 4 jetty can be found in Tamarack, Carlsbad, California.[28]

Rip currents

Rip currents are fast, narrow currents that are caused by onshore transport within the surf zone and the successive return of the water seaward.[29][30] The wedge bathymetry makes a convenient and consistent rip current of 5–10 meters that brings the surfers to the “take off point” then out to the beach.[28]

Oceanographers have two theories on rip current formation. The wave interaction model assumes that two edges of waves interact, create differing wave heights, and cause longshore transport of nearshore currents. The Boundary Interaction Model assumes that the topography of the sea bottom causes nearshore circulation and longshore transport; the result of both models is a rip current.[29]

Rip currents can be extremely strong and narrow as they extend out of the surf zone into deeper water, reaching speeds of 1–2 feet per second to 8 feet per second.[30][31] The water in the jet is sediment rich, bubble rich, and moves rapidly.[30] The rip head of the rip current has long shore movement. Rip currents are common on beaches with mild slopes that experience sizeable and frequent oceanic swell.[31]

The vorticity and inertia of rip currents have been studied. From a model of the vorticity of a rip current done at Scripps Institute of Oceanography, it was found that a fast rip current extends away from shallow water, the vorticity of the current increases, and the width of the current decreases.[31][32] This model also acknowledges that friction plays a role and waves are irregular in nature.[32] From data from Sector-Scanning Doppler Sonar at Scripps Institute of Oceanography, it was found that rip currents in La Jolla, CA lasted several minutes, reoccurred one to four times per hour, and created a wedge with a 45° arch and a radius 200–400 meters.[30]

On the surfboard

A long surfboard, 3 meters (10 feet) causes more friction with the water; therefore, it will be slower than a smaller lighter board (6 feet). Longer boards are good for beginners who need help balancing. Smaller boards are good for more experienced surfers who want to have more control and maneuverability.[26]

When practicing the sport of surfing, the surfer paddles out past the wave break to wait for a wave. When a surfable wave arrives, the surfer must paddle extremely fast to match the velocity of the wave so the wave can accelerate him or her.[26]

When the surfer is at wave speed, the surfer must quickly pop up, stay low, and stay toward the front of the wave to become stable and prevent falling as the wave steepens. The acceleration is less toward the front than toward the back. The physics behind the surfing of the wave involves the horizontal acceleration force (Fsinθ) and the vertical force (Fcosθ=mg). Therefore, the surfer should lean forward to gain more speed, and lean on back foot to brake. Also, to increase the length of the ride of the wave, the surfer should travel parallel to the wave crest.[26]

Notable locations

  • See Category:Surfing locations.

Dangers

Drowning

Surfing, like all water sports, carries the inherent risk of drowning.[33] Anyone at any age can learn to surf, but should have at least intermediate swimming skills. Although the board assists a surfer in staying buoyant, it can become separated from the user.[34] A leash, attached to the ankle or knee, can keep a board from being swept away, but does not keep a rider on the board or above water. In some cases, possibly including the drowning of professional surfer Mark Foo, a leash can even be a cause of drowning by snagging on a reef or other object and holding the surfer underwater.[35] By keeping the surfboard close to the surfer during a wipeout, a leash also increases the chances that the board may strike the rider, which could knock him or her unconscious and lead to drowning. A fallen rider's board can become trapped in larger waves, and if the rider is attached by a leash, he or she can be dragged for long distances underwater.[35] Surfers should be careful to remain in smaller surf until they have acquired the advanced skills and experience necessary to handle bigger waves and more challenging conditions. However, even world-class surfers have drowned in extremely challenging conditions.[36]

Collisions

Surfer in santa cruz 14
A surfer exiting a closeout

Under the wrong set of conditions, anything that a surfer's body can come in contact with is a potential hazard, including sand bars, rocks, small ice, reefs, surfboards, and other surfers.[37] Collisions with these objects can sometimes cause injuries such as cuts and scrapes and in rare instances, death.

A large number of injuries, up to 66%,[38] are caused by collision with a surfboard (nose or fins). Fins can cause deep lacerations and cuts, as well as bruising. While these injuries can be minor, they can open the skin to infection from the sea; groups like Surfers Against Sewage campaign for cleaner waters to reduce the risk of infections. Local bugs and disease can be risk factors when surfing around the globe.[39]

Falling off a surfboard or colliding with others is commonly referred to as a wipeout.

Marine life

Rip Current Warning Sign
A Rip Current warning sign

Sea life can sometimes cause injuries and even fatalities. Animals such as sharks,[40] stingrays, Weever fish, seals and jellyfish can sometimes present a danger.[41] Warmer-water surfers often do the "stingray shuffle" as they walk out through the shallows, shuffling their feet in the sand to scare away stingrays that may be resting on the bottom.[42]

Rip currents

Rip currents are water channels that flow away from the shore. Under the wrong circumstances these currents can endanger both experienced and inexperienced surfers. Since a rip current appears to be an area of flat water, tired or inexperienced swimmers or surfers may enter one and be carried out beyond the breaking waves. Although many rip currents are much smaller, the largest rip currents have a width of forty or fifty feet. However, by paddling parallel to the shore, a surfer can easily exit a rip current. Alternatively, some surfers actually ride on a rip current because it is a fast and effortless way to get out beyond the zone of breaking waves.[43]

Seabed

The seabed can pose a risk for surfers. If a surfer falls while riding a wave, the wave tosses and tumbles the surfer around, often in a downwards direction. At reef breaks and beach breaks, surfers have been seriously injured and even killed, because of a violent collision with the sea bed, the water above which can sometimes be very shallow, especially at beach breaks or reef breaks during low tide. Cyclops, Western Australia, for example is one of the biggest and thickest reef breaks in the world, with waves measuring up to 10 meters (33 feet) high, but the reef below is only about 2 meters (6.6 feet) below the surface of the water.

Microorganisms

A January 2018 study by the University of Exeter called the "Beach Bum Survey" found surfers and bodyboarders to be three times as likely as non-surfers to harbor antibiotic-resistant E. coli and four times as likely to harbor other bacteria capable of easily becoming antibiotic resistant. The researchers attributed this to the fact that surfers swallow roughly ten times as much seawater as swimmers.[44][45]

Ear damage

Surfers should use ear protection such as ear plugs to avoid surfer's ear, inflammation of the ear or other damage. Surfer's ear is where the bone near the ear canal grows after repeated exposure to cold water, making the ear canal narrower. The narrowed canal makes it harder for water to drain from the ear. This can result in pain, infection and sometimes ringing of the ear. If surfer's ear develops it does so after repeated surfing sessions. Yet, damage such as inflammation of the ear can occur after only surfing once. This can be caused by repeatedly falling off the surfboard into the water and having the cold water rush into the ears, which can exert a damaging amount of pressure. Those with sensitive ears should therefore wear ear protection, even if they are not planning to surf very often.[46]

Gallery

Surfing 33 2007

Beginner surfer in Pacific Beach, California

Surfing 6 2008

Surfer in Pacific Beach, California

Surfing 3 2007

A day of big surf in La Jolla, California

Surf IMG 0442-1 (3119237302)

Big surf in La Jolla, California

Surf IMG 8762 (3120236985)

Very big surf in La Jolla, California

Surfing 45 2007

Oops, La Jolla, California

See also

References

  1. ^ "Surfer rides World Record 78-foot wave". BBC News. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  2. ^ Fleming, F. (c. 2005). Off the Map: Tales of Endurance and Exploration, p. 154. Atlantic Monthly Press.
  3. ^ Twain, Mark (2007). Roughing It. Lawrence, Kansas: Digireads.com Publishing. p. 264. ISBN 9781420930283.
  4. ^ Krämer, Augustin (2000). The Samoa Islands. ISBN 9780824822194. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  5. ^ Geoffrey Dunn; Kim Stoner (31 March 2010). "Riders of the Sea Spray". goodtimes.sc. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Woman of the Year". Surfing Walk of Fame. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  7. ^ The Bluffer's Guides, The Bluffer's Guide to Surfing, Oval Books, 2008.
  8. ^ Clayton Truscott (23 September 2009). "Seli 1: One Year On". ZigZag. Online Publishers Association South Africa. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  9. ^ TNN (20 May 2010). "India's first artificial reef to protect Kovalam". The Times Of India. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  10. ^ Duncan Scott (8 November 2000). "MADE IN JAPAN Unlike its counterparts, Miyazaki's Ocean Dome wavepool is for real". Surfline. Surfline/Wavetrak, Inc. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  11. ^ "Sustainable inland surfing destinations". The Wave Bristol. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  12. ^ "Kelly Slater Wave Company". Kelly Slater Wave Company. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  13. ^ "NLand Surf Park - The only surfing destination of its kind in North America". NLand Surf Park. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  14. ^ Rose, Brent (10 May 2018). "Is The First Pro Surfing Contest In A Wave Pool The Sport's Future, Or Its Bastardization?". Deadspin. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  15. ^ "The Spirituality Of Surfing: Finding Religion Riding The Waves". huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  16. ^ Finney, Ben; Houston, James D. (1996). "Appendix A – Hawaiian Surfing terms". Surfing – A History of the Ancient Hawaiian Sport. Rohnett, CA: Pomegranate Artbooks. pp. 94–97. ISBN 978-0-87654-594-2.
  17. ^ Guisado, Raul (2003). "Appendix A – Glossary of Surfing Lingo". The Art of Surfing: A Training Manual for the Developing and Competitive Surfer. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press. pp. 165–0170. ISBN 978-0-7627-2466-6.
  18. ^ Kristian Hansen (20 November 2017). "How to surf; learn to surf in one day". hvsboardsport.com. Hvs Boardsport. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  19. ^ "The quick guide on how to surf". learnhowtosurf.info. Archived from the original on 31 August 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  20. ^ "Warm Up So You Don't Wipe Out". Men's Health. 1 August 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  21. ^ Surfer (15 September 2014). "Bigger and Better". Surfer Magazine. Surfer Magazine. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  22. ^ Kotler, Steven (13 June 2006). West of Jesus: Surfing, Science, and the Origins of Belief. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-59691-051-5.
  23. ^ a b c d Talley, Lynne D. (2011). "Chapter 8. Gravity Waves, Tides, and Coastal Oceanography". Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction. Academic Press. pp. 223–244. ISBN 978-0-08-093911-7.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Scarfe, Bradley E.; Terry R. Healy, and Hamish G. Rennie (2009). "Research-Based Surfing Literature for Coastal Management and the Science of Surfing—A Review". Journal of Coastal Research. 25 (3): 539–557. doi:10.2112/07-0958.1.
  25. ^ a b Madsen, P.A.; O.R. Sørensen, and H.A. Schäffer (1997). "Surf zone dynamics simulated by a Boussinesq type model. Part I. Model description of cross-shore motion of regular waves". Coastal Engineering. 32 (4): 255–287. doi:10.1016/S0378-3839(97)00028-8.
  26. ^ a b c d Edge, Ronald (2001). "Surf Physics". The Physics Teacher. 39 (5): 272–277. Bibcode:2001PhTea..39..272E. doi:10.1119/1.1375464.
  27. ^ HURT, GAREK. "THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BEACH BREAKS, POINT BREAKS, AND REEF BREAKS". Degree 33 Surfboards. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Scarfe, B.E.; M.H.S. Elwany, K.P. Black, and S.T. Mead (7 March 2003). "Categorizing the Types of Surfing Breaks around Jetty Structures". Scripps Institution of Oceanography Technical Report: 1–8.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. ^ a b Dalrymple, Robert A. (1978). "Rip Currents and Their Causes". Coastal Engineering. 1 (16): 1414–1427.
  30. ^ a b c d Smith, Jerome A.; John L. Largier (1995). "Observations of nearshore circulation: Rip currents" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 100 (C6): 10967–10975. Bibcode:1995JGR...10010967S. doi:10.1029/95JC00751. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 September 2015.
  31. ^ a b c Bowen, Anthony J. (1969). "Rip Currents: Theoretical Investigations" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 74 (23): 5467–5477. Bibcode:1969JGR....74.5467B. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.463.6097. doi:10.1029/JC074i023p05467. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2010.
  32. ^ a b Arthur, Robert S. (1962). "A Note on the Dynamics of Rip Currents". Journal of Geophysical Research. 67 (7): 2777–2779. Bibcode:1962JGR....67.2777A. doi:10.1029/JZ067i007p02777.
  33. ^ "Is Surfing Dangerous?". HVS Boarsport. 1 January 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  34. ^ "Ocean Safety". Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  35. ^ a b "Sony Pictures Classics: Riding Giants". Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  36. ^ Borte, Jason. "Mark Foo Biography". Surfline. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  37. ^ "Dangers – Hard Bottoms". Surfing San Diego. Site Tutor Inc. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  38. ^ "Dangers of Surfing". Surfboard Shack. Surfboard Shack. 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  39. ^ Mike Lewis (2 November 2010). "ANDY IRONS PASSES AWAY, CAUSE UNDER INVESTIGATION". Transworld Business. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  40. ^ "Unprovoked White Shark Attacks on Surfers". Shark Research Committee. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  41. ^ "Surf Dangers Animals". Archived from the original on 20 April 2007.
  42. ^ "Doing the 'Stingray Shuffle'". ABC News. 5 September 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  43. ^ "Surfing's hidden dangers". BBC News. 7 September 2001. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
  44. ^ Anne F.C. Leonard, Lihong Zhang, Andrew J. Balfour, Ruth Garside, Peter M. Hawkey, Aimee K. Murray, Obioha C. Ukoumunne, William H. Gaze (14 January 2018). "Exposure to and colonisation by antibiotic-resistant E. coli in UK coastal water users: Environmental surveillance, exposure assessment, and epidemiological study (Beach Bum Survey)" (PDF). Environment International. Retrieved 15 January 2018.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  45. ^ University of Exeter (14 January 2018). "Surfers three times more likely to have antibiotic-resistant bacteria in guts". Eurekalert. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  46. ^ "Surfer's Ear – An Inconvenient Truth". MSW. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2018.

Further reading

External links

Big wave surfing

Big wave surfing is a discipline within surfing in which experienced surfers paddle into or are towed onto waves which are at least 20 feet (6.2 m) high, on surf boards known as "guns" or towboards. Sizes of the board needed to successfully surf these waves vary by the size of the wave as well as the technique the surfer uses to reach the wave. A larger, longer board allows a rider to paddle fast enough to catch the wave and has the advantage of being more stable, but it also limits maneuverability and surfing speed.In 1992, big wave surfers such as Laird Hamilton and Darrick Doerner introduced a cross over sport called tow-in surfing. While many riders still participate in both sports, they remain very distinct activities. This type of surfing involves being towed into massive waves by jet ski, allowing for the speed needed to successfully ride. Tow in surfing also revolutionized board size, allowing surfers to trade in their unwieldy 12 ft. boards in favor of light, 7 ft boards that allowed for more speed and easier maneuverability in waves over 30 ft. By the end of the 1990s, tow in surfing allowed surfers to ride waves exceeding 50 ft.

Crowd surfing

Crowd surfing, also known as body surfing, is the process in which a person is passed overhead from person to person (often during a concert), transferring the person from one part of the venue to another. The "crowd surfer" is passed above everyone's heads, with everyone's hands supporting the person's weight.

At most concerts and festivals the crowd surfer will be passed towards a barrier in front of the stage by the crowd, where they will be pulled off and put on their feet by the security stewards. Then, they will be sent back to the side or rear of the crowd at the end of the barrier or they may be ejected from the venue (depending on the policy enforced).

Crowd surfing generally occurs only towards the front of an audience where the crowd is dense enough to support a person's body. It is most popular at metal, punk, rock, rave and indie concerts.

In order to get above everyone's heads, a person can be given a boost, in which one person picks up another to launch them over the people's heads, or they can stage dive.

This has been known to happen to unwilling participants who have been boosted up by others by surprise, in which case, those participants may also be ejected.

International Surfing Association

The International Surfing Association (ISA) is the world governing authority for surfing, SUP racing, SUP surfing, bodyboarding, and all other wave riding activities. The ISA is recognized by the International Olympic Committee.

Kelly Slater

Robert Kelly Slater (born February 11, 1972) is an American professional surfer, author, actor, model, environmental activist, businessman, and innovator, most well known for his unprecedented 11 world surfing championships.

Kiteboarding

Kiteboarding is an action sport combining aspects of wakeboarding, snowboarding, windsurfing, surfing, paragliding, skateboarding and sailing into one extreme sport. A kiteboarder harnesses the power of the wind with a large controllable power kite to be propelled across the water, land, or snow.

Compared to the other sailing sports, kiteboarding is both among the less expensive (including equipment) and the more convenient. It is also unique in that it harvests the wind energy from a much larger atmosphere volume, comparing to sail size.

Lake surfing

Lake surfing is surfing on any lake with sufficient surface area for wind to produce waves. As with ocean surfing, ideal wave conditions are when the wind switches offshore. However, when this occurs over a lake the waves generated by previous onshore wind subside relatively quickly. This means lake surfers have a shorter window of opportunity to surf ideal waves. Lake surfers are often out during and experiencing the same storm that creates the waves whereas ocean surfers are more often surfing on swell produced by storms hundreds of miles away and that may have taken days to reach shore. In addition to making it more difficult to manage surfboards, high winds can make the face of a wave and water surface rough. Increased wave frequency due to shorter fetch results in less rest between waves and sets of waves. This can make it necessary to paddle out through waves because there may not be a long enough pause between sets to paddle out between them.

Though not significant enough to necessitate surfboard design changes, the reduced buoyancy of fresh water results in increased drag when paddling. Lake surfers enjoy water that is fresh ("sweet" as opposed to salty) and do not have to worry about the dangers from marine life (e.g. sharks, jellyfish, etc.) that ocean surfers may have to contend with.

Lakes where surfing is possible include the Great Lakes on the United States–Canada border and Lake Tahoe on the California–Nevada border.

Proxy server

In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource available from a different server and the proxy server evaluates the request as a way to simplify and control its complexity. Proxies were invented to add structure and encapsulation to distributed systems.

Shaka sign

The shaka sign, sometimes known as "hang loose," is a gesture of friendly intent often associated with Hawaii and surf culture. It consists of extending the thumb and smallest finger while holding the three middle fingers curled, and gesturing in salutation while presenting the front or back of the hand; the hand may be rotated back and forth for emphasis. While the shaka sign has spread internationally from its Hawaiian cultural roots to surf culture and beyond, the hand gesture also bears a variety of meaning in different contexts and regions of the world.

Standup paddleboarding

Stand up paddle surfing and stand up paddle boarding (SUP) is an offshoot of surfing that originated in Hawaii. Unlike traditional surfing where the rider sits until a wave comes, stand up paddle boarders stand on their boards and use a paddle to propel themselves through the water. The sport was documented in a 2013 report that identified it as the outdoor sporting activity with the most first-time participants in the United States that year. Variations include flat water paddling for outdoor recreation, fitness, or sightseeing, racing on lakes, large rivers and canals, surfing on ocean waves, paddling in river rapids (whitewater SUP), Paddle board yoga and even fishing.

Stand up paddlers wear a variety of wet suits and other clothing, depending on water and air temperature since most of their time is spent standing on the board.

A related, traditional sport, paddleboarding, is done kneeling on a board and paddling with the hands, similar to a butterfly swimming stroke. The term “kooks" is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to stand up paddle surfing.

Historian and writer Steve West claimed that the contemporary notion of stand up paddle boarding, if attributed to the Waikiki Beach Boys of Oahu during the 1960s, considers that outrigger canoeing should be recognised as the direct link between the idea of standing on a board and propelling it with a canoe paddle, since the individual SUP skills (board riding and paddling) already existed, used by people who had traditionally grown up learning them.

Surf culture

Surf culture includes the people, language, fashion, and lifestyle surrounding the sport of surfing. The history of surfing began with the ancient Polynesians. That initial culture directly influenced modern surfing, which began to flourish and evolve in the early 20th century, with its popularity spiking during the 1950s and 1960s (principally in Hawaii, Australia, and California). It has affected music, fashion, literature, film, art, and youth jargon in popular culture. The number of surfers throughout the world continues to increase as the culture spreads.

Surfers' desire for the best possible waves to ride make them dependent on conditions that may change rapidly, given the unpredictable nature of weather events and their effect on the surface of the ocean. Because surfing was limited by the geographical necessity of an ocean coastline with beaches, the culture of beach life often influenced surfers and vice versa. The staff of Surfer Magazine, founded in the 1960s when surfing had gained popularity with teenagers, used to say that if they were hard at work and someone yelled "Surf's up!" the office would suddenly empty. Localism or territorialism is a part of the development of surf culture in which individuals or groups of surfers claim certain key surfing spots as their own.Aspects of 1960s surf culture in Southern California, where it was first popularized, include the woodie, bikinis and other beach wear, such as boardshorts or baggies, and surf music. Surfers developed the skateboard to be able to "surf" on land; and a number of other boardsports.

Surf film

Surf movies fall into three distinct genres:

the surfing documentary - targeting the surfing enthusiast

the 1960s beach party films - targeting the broader community

fictional feature films with a focus on the reality of surfing

Surf music

Surf music is a subgenre of rock music associated with surf culture, particularly as found in Southern California. It was especially popular from 1962 to 1964 in two major forms. The first is instrumental surf, distinguished by reverb-drenched electric guitars played to evoke the sound of crashing waves, largely pioneered by Dick Dale and the Del-Tones. The second is vocal surf, which took elements of the original surf sound and added vocal harmonies, a movement led by the Beach Boys.Dick Dale developed the surf sound from instrumental rock, where he added Middle Eastern and Mexican influences, a spring reverb, and the rapid alternate picking characteristics. His regional hit "Let's Go Trippin'" (1961) launched the surf music craze, inspiring many others to take up the approach.

The genre reached national exposure when it was represented by vocal groups such as the Beach Boys and Jan and Dean. Dale is quoted on such groups: "They were surfing sounds [with] surfing lyrics. In other words, the music wasn't surfing music. The words made them surfing songs. ... That was the difference ... the real surfing music is instrumental."At the height of its popularity, surf music rivaled girl groups and Motown for top American popular music trends. It is sometimes referred to interchangeably with the California Sound. During the later stages of the surf music craze, many of its groups started to write songs about cars and girls; this was later known as hot rod rock.

Surfboard

A surfboard is an elongated platform used in surfing. Surfboards are relatively light, but are strong enough to support an individual standing on them while riding an ocean wave. They were invented in ancient Hawaii, where they were known as papa he'e nalu in the Hawaiian language, they were usually made of wood from local trees, such as koa, and were often over 460 cm (15 ft) in length and extremely heavy. Major advances over the years include the addition of one or more fins (skegs) on the bottom rear of the board to improve directional stability, and numerous improvements in materials and shape.

Modern surfboards are made of polyurethane or polystyrene foam covered with layers of fiberglass cloth, and polyester or epoxy resin. The result is a light and strong surfboard that is buoyant and maneuverable. The Polystyrene surfboard was invented by Reginald Sainsbury of Wilcove, Torpoint in the early 1960s whilst working for the Poron Insulation company, Millbrook, Cornwall who were looking to expand into the leisure industry. Recent developments in surfboard technology have included the use of carbon fiber and kevlar composites, as well as experimentation in biodegradable and ecologically friendly resins made from organic sources. Each year, approximately 400,000 surfboards are manufactured.

Surfest

Surfest is an annual surfing competition held in Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. Surfest began in 1985 as an initiative of Newcastle City Council, and at the time, was the world's richest surfing competition. The event runs for thirteen days, and from the 2007 event, has been held at Merewether Beach, having been held between Newcastle Beach and South Newcastle Beach in the past.

Surfest adopted a festival-style approach in 2015, with smaller, more official events held on surrounding beaches in the lead up to the main event.

Windsurfing

Windsurfing is a surface water sport that combines elements of surfing and sailing. It consists of a board usually 2 to 2.5 metres (6 ft 7 in to 8 ft 2 in) long, with displacements typically between 45 and 150 litres (9.9 and 33.0 imp gal; 12 and 40 US gal), powered by wind on a sail. The rig is connected to the board by a free-rotating universal joint and consists of a mast, boom and sail.

On “short” boards The sail area generally ranges from 1.5 to 12 square metres (16 to 129 sq ft) depending on the conditions, the skill of the sailor, the type of windsurfing being undertaken and the weight of the person windsurfing. On long boards, upon which the sport was first popularized -sail areas and board lengths are typically larger and the athleticism required is much less.

Many credit S. Newman Darby with the origination of windsurfing by 1964 on the Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, United States when he invented the "Darby sailboard", which he did not patent due to limited financial resources and inadequate legal advice. His main focus of his “Darby Industries” was to sell plans such that any school age child could build one for under $50. Rather than building personal wealth, his focus was to introduce youth to the sport of sailing in even very shallow water. In 1964, Darby began selling his sailboards. A promotional article by Darby was published in the August 1965 edition of Popular Science magazine.Darby told me in the presence of his wife Naomi, that the mechanical universal joint picture was removed in editing due to magazine “space considerations”. I believe this was a “pivotable” error, like many others in the Darby story. He told me he did not think it was important as he preferred the more simple rope universal joint anyway. This was Darby- Artistic, practical, minimalist, gracious,- always inventive, and his wife, Naomi was the first ever sailboarder.

While Darby's "sailboard" incorporated a pivoting rig, it was "square rigged" or “kite rigged” and was subject to the associated limitations. The sailboard was operated with the sailor's back to the lee side of a kite-shaped sail. Darby's article stated that "...you can learn to master a type of maneuvering that's been dead since the age of the picturesque square riggers"

Windsurfing straddles both the laid-back culture of surf sports and the more rules-based environment of sailing. Windsurfing offers experiences that are outside the scope of other sailing craft designs. Windsurfers can perform jumps, inverted loops, spinning maneuvers, and other "freestyle" moves that cannot be matched by any sailboat. Windsurfers were the first to ride the world's largest waves, such as Jaws on the island of Maui, and, with very few exceptions, it was not until the advent of tow-in surfing that waves of that size became accessible to surfers on more traditional surfboards. Extreme waves aside, many expert windsurfers will ride the same waves as surfers do (wind permitting).

At one time referred to as "surfing's ginger haired cousin" by the sport's legendary champion, Robby Naish, windsurfing has long struggled to present a coherent image of the sport to outsiders. As a result of attempts to claim the word "windsurfer" as a trademark, participants have been encouraged to use different names to describe the sport, including "sailboarding" and "boardsailing". The term "windsurfing" has persisted as the accepted name for the sport, and the word "windsurfer" persists for both participants and equipment.

Windsurfing is predominately undertaken on a non-competitive basis. Organised competition does take place at all levels across the world, including in the Olympics. Typical formats for competitive windsurfing include Formula Windsurfing, speed sailing, slalom, course racing, wave sailing, superX, and freestyle.

The boom of the 1980s led windsurfing to be recognized as an Olympic sport in 1984. That same year saw the first international professional tour and the first year of the Aloha Classic event at Ho'okipa on Maui's north shore. The Windsurfing boom continued and expanded into the 1990's with the Professional side of the sport becoming immensely popular across global media. Windsurfing had a larger global media presence than Surfing during these years. This popularity attracted significant sponsorship deals which in turn further promoted the sport with extensive paid advertising.

Many of the world's top riders, particularly the European riders, became wealthy and very famous athletes.

Windsurfing's popularity across global media saw a decline toward the end of the 1990s. This has been attributed to many possible problems within the sport including licensing battles, equipment becoming too specialized, requiring excessive expertise, the splintering of Windsurfing into various niche groups around the world and splintering of the fundamentals as constant reinvention of technology challenged what it was to be 'a windsurfer'. On top of these internal issues there was a coinciding drop in major sponsor support, directly caused by the steady introduction of international bans on cigarette advertising during the 1990's. Cigarette industry advertising had become the dominant source of sponsorship support during the early and mid 1990's boom years for the professional level of Windsurfing. With the internationally legislated withdrawal of these large companies, the money spent on promoting the sport and paying for add space declined steeply and Windsurfing receded from public view across global advertising and media generally.

After some lean years in the early 2000's, the sport has seen a steady revival. New beginner-friendly designs have become available and new corporate sponsors have emerged to once again invest in advertising and promoting the sport to align corporate values and interests for marketing.

The sport of Windsurfing is one of constant re-invention, innovation and of pioneers in water sports generally. With the advent of kitesurfing, created by windsurfers, many avid windsurfers took up the similar sport for some variety after many years on the traditional windsurfer style equipment. More recently 'foiling' has become a major new interest among many windsurfers. As of 2019, longer, wider boards that are easier to sail are coming back and engaging a new generation. The sense of what it is to be 'a Windsurfer' or 'a surfer' is also changing as watermen like Kai Lenny break down barriers.

Women's surfing

The earliest recorded incidence of women's surfing concerns the mythical Kelea. Kelea was born of royalty in Maui, it is believed she out-surfed riders of both genders. A few centuries later in the mid-late 1800s, Thrum’s Hawaiian Annual reported that women in ancient Hawaii surfed in equal numbers and frequently better than men. Women's surfing in Australia has a popular following amongst female participants.

In the Muslim world many women are taking up surfing.Women’s surfing has increased in popularity over the last 50 years.

World Surf League

The World Surf League (WSL) is the governing body for professional surfers and is dedicated to showcasing the world's best talent in a variety of progressive formats. The World Surf League was previously known as the Association of Surfing Professionals (ASP) from 1983 to 2014. The organization was founded in 1976 by Fred Hemmings and Randy Rarick.In 2013, the ASP was acquired by ZoSea, backed by Paul Speaker, Terry Hardy, and Dirk Ziff. At the start of the 2015 season, the ASP changed its name to the World Surf League (WSL). Sophie Goldschmidt was appointed as WSL CEO on July 19, 2017. Paul Speaker had stepped down as CEO on January 11, 2017, and Dirk Ziff acted as the interim WSL CEO until Goldschmidt's appointment.

As of December 2017, the WSL had more than 6.5 million Facebook fans, surpassing more established sports such as the National Hockey League, the Association of Tennis Professionals and Major League Soccer. Sports Business Journal reported that 28 million hours of WSL digital video content were consumed during the 2017 season, making WSL the third most watched sport online, behind NFL and NBA.In January 2018, Forbes reported that the WSL had signed an exclusive deal for digital broadcast rights, with Facebook, worth $30 million over two years.

World Surfing Championship

The World Surfing Championship (in spanish: Campeonato Mundial de Surf ISA) at the ISA World Surfing Games its organized by the world governing body for surfing sport, the International Surfing Association (ISA), which is recognized by the International Olympic Committee.The 2014 edition took place at Punta Rocas, Peru, it was also celebrating 50 years of ISA world surf Champions

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs, such as https://www.example.com/), which may be interlinked by hypertext, and are accessible over the Internet. The resources of the WWW may be accessed by users by a software application called a web browser.

English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. He wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN in 1991, first to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and then to the general public in August 1991. The World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet.Web resources may be any type of downloaded media, but web pages are hypertext media that have been formatted in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Such formatting allows for embedded hyperlinks that contain URLs and permit users to navigate to other web resources. In addition to text, web pages may contain images, video, audio, and software components that are rendered in the user's web browser as coherent pages of multimedia content.

Multiple web resources with a common theme, a common domain name, or both, make up a website. Websites are stored in computers that are running a program called a web server that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer. Website content can be largely provided by a publisher, or interactively where users contribute content or the content depends upon the users or their actions. Websites may be provided for a myriad of informative, entertainment, commercial, governmental, or non-governmental reasons.

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