Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It used to be a large seaport and is now a center for diamond cutting and polishing. It is the eighth largest city and ninth largest urban agglomeration in India. It is the administrative capital of the Surat district. The city is located 284 kilometres (176 mi) south of the state capital, Gandhinagar; 265 kilometres (165 mi) south of Ahmedabad; and 289 kilometres (180 mi) north of Mumbai. The city centre is located on the Tapti River, close to Arabian Sea.[10]

Surat was the world's 4th-fastest growing city in 2016 according to a study conducted by the City Mayors Foundation.[11] The city registered an annualised GDP growth rate of 11.5% over the seven fiscal years between 2001 and 2008.[12] Surat was awarded "best city" by the Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (ASICS) in 2013.[13] Surat is selected as the first smart IT city in India which is being constituted by the Microsoft CityNext Initiative tied up with IT services majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro.[14] The city has 2.97 million internet users, about 65% of total population.[15] Surat was selected in 2015 for an IBM Smarter Cities Challenge grant.[16][17] Surat has been selected as one of twenty Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[18] In 2017, Surat was the fourth cleanest city of India according to the Indian Ministry of Urban Development.[19]

Surat, famous for its diamond cutting and polishing is known as the Diamond City of India.[1]

Surat skyline
Surat skyline
Diamond City of India[1]
Surat is located in Gujarat
Location of Surat in Gujarat, India
Surat is located in India
Surat (India)
Coordinates: 21°10′12.864″N 72°49′51.819″E / 21.17024000°N 72.83106083°ECoordinates: 21°10′12.864″N 72°49′51.819″E / 21.17024000°N 72.83106083°E
Country India
Official LanguageGujarati
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • Body
 • MayorDr. Jagdish Patel (BJP)[2]
 • Municipal CommissionerM Thennarasan
 • Police CommissionerSatish Sharma[3]
 • Metropolis326.515 km2 (126.068 sq mi)
 • Metro
326.600 km2 (126.101 sq mi)
 • Metropolis4,467,797
 • Rank8th 2nd (in Gujarat state)
 • Density14,000/km2 (35,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro rank
 • Demonym
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
394 XXX, 395 XXX
Area code(s)91-261-XXX-XXXX
Vehicle registrationGJ-05, GJ-19, GJ-28[7]
Sex ratio1.27[8] /
Coastline35 kilometres (22 mi)
Literacy rate86.65%[9]


Sourratte int ryck vanden Grooten Mogol en Indien - Peeters Jacob - 1690
Surat in 1690
Surat city
Surat in 1877

Surat is believed to have been founded by a Brahmin named Gopi, who named the area Surajpur or Suryapur.[20] In the 12th and 15th centuries, Surat was plundered by Muslims.[20] In 1512 and again in 1530, Surat was ravaged by the Portuguese Empire. In 1514, the Portuguese traveler Duarte Barbosa described Surat as an important seaport, frequented by many ships from Malabar and various parts of the world. By 1520, the name of the city had become Surat.[20]

In 1573, Surat was conquered by the Mughals.[20] It was the most prosperous port in the Mughal empire.[21] Despite being a rich city, Surat looked like a typical "grubby" trader's town with mud-and-bamboo tenements and crooked streets, although along the riverfront there were a few mansions and warehouses belonging to local merchant princes and the establishments of Turkish, Armenian, English, French and Dutch traders. There were also hospitals for cows, horses, flies and insects run by religious Jains, which puzzled travelers.[21] Some streets were narrow while others were of sufficient width. In the evening, especially near the Bazaar (marketplace), the streets became crowded with people and merchants (including Banyan merchants) selling their goods. Surat was a populous city during the Mughal era but also had a large transient population: during the monsoon season, when ships could come and go from the ports without danger, the city's population would swell.[21] In 1612, England established its first Indian trading factory in Surat.[20] The city was sacked twice by the Maratha king Shivaji, with the first sacking occurring in 1664.[20][10] Shivaji's raids scared trade away and caused ruin to the city.[21]

Later, Surat became the emporium of India, exporting gold and cloth. Its major industries were shipbuilding and textile manufacture.[20] The coast of the Tapti River, from Athwalines to Dumas, was specially meant for shipbuilders, who were usually Rassis.[10] The city continued to be prosperous until the rise of Bombay (present-day Mumbai). Afterwards, Surat's shipbuilding industry declined and Surat itself gradually declined throughout the 18th century.[20][10] Between 1790-1, an epidemic killed 100,000 Gujaratis in Surat.[22] The British and Dutch both claimed control of the city, but in 1800, the British took control of Surat.[20][10]

By the middle of the 19th century, Surat had become a stagnant city with about 80,000 inhabitants. When India's railways opened, the city started becoming prosperous again. Silks, cottons, brocades, and objects of gold and silver from Surat became famous and the ancient art of manufacturing fine muslin was revived.[20]


Tapi river
Tapi river

Surat is a port city situated on the banks of the Tapi river. Damming of the Tapi caused the original port facilities to close; the nearest port is now in the Magadalla and Hazira area of Surat Metropolitan Region. The city is located at 21°10′N 72°50′E / 21.17°N 72.83°E.[23] It has an average elevation of 13 meters. The Surat district is surrounded by the Bharuch, Narmada, Navsari, to the west is the Gulf of Cambay and the surrounding districts. The climate is tropical and monsoon rainfall is abundant (about 2,500 mm a year). According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V (in order of increasing vulnerability to earthquakes)[24]


Surat has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen: Aw), moderated strongly by the Sea to the Gulf of Cambay. The summer begins in early March and lasts until June. April and May are the hottest months, the average maximum temperature being 37 °C (99 °F). Monsoon begins in late June and the city receives about 1,200 millimetres (47 in) of rain by the end of September, with the average maximum being 32 °C (90 °F) during those months. October and November see the retreat of the monsoon and a return of high temperatures until late November. Winter starts in December and ends in late February, with average mean temperatures of around 23 °C (73 °F), and negligible rain.

Since the 20th century, Surat has experienced some 20 floods.[25] In 1968, most parts of the city were flooded and in 1994 a flood caused a country-wide plague outbreak, Surat being the epicenter. In 1998, 30 per cent of Surat had gone under water due to flooding in Tapti river following release of water from Ukai dam located 90 km from Surat and in Aug, 2006 more than 95 per cent of the city was under Tapti river waters, killing more than 120 people, stranding tens of thousands in their homes without food or electricity and closing businesses and schools for weeks.[26][25]

Climate data for Surat, Gujarat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.3
Average high °C (°F) 30.8
Average low °C (°F) 15.2
Record low °C (°F) 4.4
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.5
Average rainy days 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 8.0 14.3 12.1 7.1 1.6 0.6 0.1 44.2
Average relative humidity (%) 57.5 56.0 55.1 62.9 71.8 79.0 86.2 86.4 82.3 70.2 62.0 61.3 69.2
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[27][28]
Source #2: (humidity)[29]


Surat growth map
Metropolitan Surat economic centers and industries map

Surat ranked 10th in India with a GDP of 2.60 lakh crore in fiscal year 2016 ($14 billion in 2010). Surat GDP in 2020 will be around $57 billion estimated by The City Mayors Foundation, an international think tank on urban affairs [3][30]

Diamond polishing

Diamond Polisher
Diamond polisher

Surat is a major hub of diamond cutting and polishing.[31] The first diamond workshops in Gujarat appeared in Surat and Navasari in the late 1950s. The major group working in this industry is people from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Because of demand in the American market from the early 1970s to the mid-1980s (with only a brief recession in 1979), Surat's diamond industry grew tremendously. Currently most of the diamond polishing workshops are running in the Varachha area of Surat, mostly by the people of the Patel community.[32]

Around the world, 8 out of 10 diamonds on the market were cut and polished in Surat. This industry earns India about US$10 billion in annual exports. A legacy of old Dutch trade links, it began after a Surti entrepreneur returned from East Africa bringing diamond cutters. The rough diamonds are mined in South Africa and other regions of the African continent, and go from here as smooth gems to Antwerp, Belgium where the international diamond trade is run mainly by Hasidic Jews and Jains from Palanpur in North Gujarat.[33]


SuratAhmedabadMumbai 020
Surat's Textile District Ring Road

Since it is known for producing textiles, including silk, Surat is known as the textile hub of the nation or the Silk City of India. It is very famous for its cotton mills and Surat Zari Craft. Surat is the biggest centre of MMF (man-made fibre) in India. It has a total of 381 dyeing and printing mills and 41,100 powerloom units. There are over a hundred thousand units and mills in total. The overall annual turnover is around 5 billion rupees. There are over 800 cloth wholesalers in Surat.[34] It is the largest manufacturer of clothes in India, and Surti dress material can be found in any state of India. Surat produces 9 million metres of fabric annually, which accounts for 60% of the total polyester cloth production in India. Now the city is focusing on increasing the exports of its textile.[35]

Information technology

There are many SME Domestic IT Companies present in Surat. MNC IT companies like IBM,[36] HCL have satellite or virtual branches in Surat. On 14 February 2014 Govt of Gujarat DST had handover STPI Surat[37][38] at Bhestan-Jiav Road, Bhestan Near Udhana-Sachin BRTS Route.

Surat city administration will demand for setting up of an Information Technology (IT) hub and an Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) on the outskirts of the city.[39]

Microsoft CityNext initiative has tied up with IT services majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro to leverage technology for sustainable growth of cities in India. The first smart IT city in India is being constituted by the Microsoft CityNext Initiative in Surat, Gujarat.[14] In 2011 Surat hosted India's first Microsoft DreamSpark Yatra (a tech event) with speakers from Microsoft Headquarters at Redmond, Washington. The event was organised by Ex-Microsoft Student Partner Samarth Zankharia.[40]

In May, 2015 Tech giant IBM has chosen Surat among 16 global locations for its smart cities programme to help them address challenges like waste management, disaster management and citizen services. Under the programme, IBM will send a team of experts to each of the chosen cities where they will spend three weeks working closely with city staff analysing data about critical issues faced by its local bodies;[41][17] the co-operation continued into 2016.[16]

Diamond Research And Mercantile City (DREAM)

The government of Gujarat plans another project near Surat similar to Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT). The Chief Minister has suggested that the government wishes to develop DREAM to have a five-seven star hotel, bank, IT, corporate trading house, entertainment zone and other facilities while the Surat Diamond Bourse (SBD) will be based there. Allotment of Khajod land for the project is convenient for the state government because they have 2,000 acres (810 ha) of available land. The Trade Centre, located near Sarsana village, will have a 100,160-square-metre (1,078,100 sq ft) pillar-less air-conditioned hall with a 90-by-35-metre (295 by 115 ft) pillar-less dome.[42][43]


Built in 1860, Surat railway station falls under the administrative control of Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways. In early 2016, the Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation rated the facility the best large station in India based on cleanliness.

The Sitilink or Surat BRTS is a bus rapid transit system in the city. It is operated by Surat Municipal Corporation and as of August 2017, had a network of 245 buses connecting major localities.[44]

Surat International Airport located in Magdalla, 11 kilometres (7 mi) southwest of Surat. It is the 2nd busiest airport in Gujarat in terms of both aircraft movements and passenger traffic. Currently airlines such as Air India, Alliance Air, AirAsia India, SpiceJet, IndiGo Airlines, Air Odisha, Ventura AirConnect provide flight services from the Surat to various major cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Goa, Jaipur. Air India Express is set to begin international flight on Surat Sharjah route very soon. Apart from main city, Surat Airport also caters to various localities of south Gujarat including Navsari, Bardoli, Valsad, Bharuch, Ankleshwar.

Surat Metro is a proposed rapid transit rail system for the city.[45]

Civic institutions

The Surat Municipal Corporation is responsible for the maintaining city's civic infrastructure as well as carrying out associated administrative duties. At present, BJP is the ruling party with a majority. Under the Provisions of Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporations Act, 1949, Section – 4, the powers have been vested in three Distinct Statutory Authorities: the General Board, the Standing Committee, and the Municipal Commissioner.

SMC office at Surat

It ranked 7 out of 21 cities for best administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3. It is the only city in India to disclose municipal budgets on a weekly basis.[46]

Science Center

Science Centre, Surat is a multi-facility complex built by the Surat Municipal Corporation in 2009, the first of its type in western India. The complex houses a science centre, museum, an art gallery, an auditorium, an amphitheatre and a planetarium.

Pandit Dindayal Upadhyay Indoor Stadium

With a seating capacity of 6800, Pandit Dindayal Upadhyay Indoor Stadium is the first of its kind in the Western Region of India. The stadium frequently organizes national and international indoor games such as volleyball, table tennis, gymnastics, handball, boxing, wrestling, badminton, basketball, and tennis. It has a central arena of size 63 m x 33 m, rooms for participants and team officials, and other essential facilities including snack bars. This is also a convenient venue for organizing cultural programs, music concerts, drama, fashion shows, seminars, and conferences and many more. The Indoor Stadium also hosted TEDxSurat 2018 on October 7, 2018 which is the largest TEDx conference of Gujarat and one of the largest TEDx conference of the world.[47]

Lalbhai Contractor Cricket Stadium

Lalbhai contractor cricket stadium has a capacity of more than 7000 and hosted several Ranji, Irani and Duleep Trophy matches. The stadium also serves as a primary destination for local budding cricketers and enthusiasts. The stadium has hosted several benefit matches for international cricketers as well.

Public safety

Surat began the 'Safe City Project' in 2011 aimed at keeping the city safe using surveillance cameras. The project was headed by Sanjay Srivastava (IPS) who was then the Joint-Commissioner of Surat Police. The 280-square-foot video wall, claimed to be the largest surveillance screen in the country, is being installed at the control room of Police Commissioner Mr. Rakesh Asthana (IPS). This will help the police view the entire city live through 10,000 CCTV cameras across the city. Surat police have decided to install 5,000 CCTV cameras at sensitive points across the city. While 1,000 cameras will be night vision cameras, 4,000 others will be simple CCTV cameras. This has been installed on PPP base with the help of the city's businessmen, city's social persons, Surat Municipal Corporation and Surat City Police. [48]


Population Growth of Surat 

According to the 2011 India census, the population of Surat is 4,462,002. Surat has an average literacy rate of 89%, higher than the national average of 79.5%: male literacy is 93%, and female literacy is 84%.[49]

Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. In Surat, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.



Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat is one of 31 National Institutes of Technology that are recognised as Institutes of National Importance by the Government of India.

Most of the regional colleges are affiliated to Veer Narmad South Gujarat University (VNSGU, named after the poet Veer Narmad), which has headquarters in the Surat Metropolitan Region. Colleges are also affiliated to SNDT, Gujarat Technological University and other universities.

Auro University has also started to provide education in Surat.[51] Indian Institute of Information Technology, Surat started in 2017.[52]


See also


  1. ^ a b Surat: India’s ‘Diamond City’ finds ways to keep its sparkle
  2. ^ "Ashmita Shiroya is Surat's New Mayor". tv9gujarati. 12 February 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  3. ^ "પોલીસ કમિશનરશ્રીની કચેરી, સુરત".
  4. ^ "Statistics for Surat Municipal Corporation". Official website of Surat Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  5. ^ World urban areas
  6. ^ "District Census Handbook - Surat" (PDF). Census of India. p. 40. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  8. ^ "Distribution of Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Sex-Ratio and Population Density". 2011 census of India. Government of India. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  9. ^ "Literacy Rates by Sext for State and District". 2011 census of India. Government of India. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  10. ^ a b c d e "History of Surat". Archived from the original on 5 January 2012.
  11. ^ "City Mayors: World's fastest growing urban areas (1)". Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  12. ^ Agencies. "GDP growth: Surat fastest, Mumbai largest". The Financial Express. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  13. ^ "Best City in India". The Times of India.
  14. ^ a b "Microsoft CityNext initiative set to the launch First smart IT city in India". Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  15. ^ "Mumbai has highest number of Internet users in India: Study". 4 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  16. ^ a b "City of Surat to Improve Citizen Services with IBM Smarter Cities Program - India". IBM News room. February 12, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  17. ^ a b "Surat, India 2015 challenge". IBM Smarter Cities. IBM. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  18. ^ "Government releases list of 20 smart cities - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  19. ^ "Full list of Swachh Survekshan 2017 Rankings: Know where your city ranks in Swachh Bharat survey". The Financial Express. 2017-05-04. Retrieved 2019-01-02.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Surat". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  21. ^ a b c d Abraham Eraly (2007). The Mughal World: Life in India's Last Golden Age. Penguin Books India. pp. 13–14. ISBN 0143102621.
  22. ^ Ghulam A. Nadri. Eighteenth-Century Gujarat: The Dynamics of Its Political Economy, 1750-1800. p. 193.
  23. ^ "Location". Falling Rain. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  24. ^ "Performance of buildings during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake" (PDF). Jag Mohan Humar, David Lau, and Jean-Robert Pierre. The Canadian Association for Earthquake Engineering. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
  25. ^ a b "What Surat learned from a preventable flood | Citiscope". Retrieved 2018-03-08.
  26. ^ "State fails to find solution to Surat floods - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
  27. ^ "Surat Climatological Table Period: 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  28. ^ "Ever Recorded Maximum temperature, Minimum temperature up to 2010, India" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  29. ^ "Surat, India". Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  30. ^ "The 150 richest cities in the world by GDP in 2020".
  31. ^ "Indian diamond cutting and polishing sector". Rough&Polished. March 6, 2013.
  32. ^ "Diamond and Patels".
  33. ^ "". Retrieved 2018-11-13. External link in |title= (help)
  34. ^ "Industries Information". Collectorate Surat District, Government of India. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  35. ^ Thomas, Melvyn R. (15 February 2015). "Surat's textile exporters eyeing US market". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  36. ^ BS Reporter (7 July 2010). "IBM opens virtual branch office in Surat". Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  37. ^ [1] Archived 20 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ [2] Archived 9 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ "SMC to seek setting up of IT hub and IIT". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  40. ^ "Microsoft Kick Starts DreamSpark Yatra 2011". Microsoft India. Microsoft. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  41. ^ "IBM picks Surat, Allahabad & Vizag among 16 global locations for smart cities project". The Economic Times. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  42. ^ "Althan, Khajod next in line for mega development". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  43. ^ "Gujarat govt plans GIFT city like project close to Surat". DeshGujarat. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  44. ^ "SMC takes over city bus, BRTS services from private operator - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  45. ^ "Narendra Modi announces state's approval to Surat Metro train project". 11 August 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  46. ^ Gumber, Anurag (6 June 2014). Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (PDF) (2nd ed.). Bangalore: Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. pp. 64–68. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  47. ^ "Surat Municipal Corporation". External link in |website= (help)
  48. ^ Business Standard (19 January 2013). "Surat to have new security system". Business Standard. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  49. ^ a b "Surat City Population Census 2011 - Gujarat". Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  50. ^ "Historical Census of India".
  51. ^ "AURO University – MBA, BBA, Hospitality Management Degree Programs, BBA+LLB, BSc IT Courses in Surat Gujarat India". Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  52. ^ IIIT research centre soon in Surat
  53. ^ Hansard: Sea Birds Preservation Bill, Lord's Committee
  54. ^ Nayak, Elina Priyadarshini (2 July 2011). "Ismail Darbar wants to serve the people of Surat - Times of India". The Times of India. Times News Network. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  55. ^ Ghai, Rajat (9 December 2007). "I am lucky:Prachi Desai - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  56. ^ Dhawan, M.L. (13 August 2000). "He was an actor for all seasons". The Tribune. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  57. ^ "Farooq Shaikh - Movies, Biography, News, Age & Photos". BookMyShow. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  58. ^ Archives, The National. "The Discovery Service". Retrieved 2018-02-27.

External links


The Cow or Sūrah al-Baqarah (Arabic: سورة البقرة‎, "The Cow") is the second and longest chapter (Surah) of the Qur'an. It consists of 286 verses, 6,201 words and 25,500 letters.

It is a Medinan surah, that is to say that it was revealed at Medina after the Hijrah, with the exception of a few verses which Muslims believe was revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage, the last Hajj of Muhammad.This is the longest Surah in the Quran. It was the first Surah to be revealed at Medina, but different verses were revealed at different times, covering quite a long period so much so that the verses with regard to riba (interest or usury) were revealed in the final days of Muhammad, after the conquest of Makkah (Maariful Quran).

Verse 281 in this chapter was the last verse of the Quran to be revealed, on the 10th of Dhul al Hijjah 10 A.H., when Muhammad was in the course of performing his last Hajj, and only 80 or 90 days later he died (Qurtubi).

Surah al-Baqarah enjoins fasting on the believer during the month of Ramadan.

Al Fātiḥah

Sūrat al-Fātiḥah (Arabic: سُورَةُ الْفَاتِحَة‎) is the first chapter (surah) of the Quran. Its seven verses (ayat) are a prayer for the guidance, lordship and mercy of God. This chapter has an essential role in Islamic prayer (salāt). The primary literal meaning of the expression "al-Fātiḥah" is "The Opener," which could refer to this Surah being "the opener of the Book" (Fātiḥat al-kitāb), to its being the first Surah recited in full in every prayer cycle (rakʿah), or to the manner in which it serves as an opening for many functions in everyday Islamic life. Some Muslims interpret it as a reference to an implied ability of the Surah to open a person to faith in God.

Batak script

The Batak script, natively known as surat Batak, surat na sampulu sia (the nineteen letters), or si-sia-sia, is a writing system used to write the Austronesian Batak languages spoken by several million people on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The script may be derived from the Kawi and Pallava script, ultimately derived from the Brahmi script of India, or from the hypothetical Proto-Sumatran script influenced by Pallava.

Battle of Surat

Battle of Surat, also known as the Sack of Surat, was a land battle that took place on January 5, 1664, near the city of Surat, Gujarat, India between Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Inayat Khan, a Mughal captain. The Marathas defeated the small Mughal force, and engaged in sacking Surat.According to James Grant Duff, a captain in the British India Regiment, Surat was attacked by Shivaji on 5 January 1664. This was a wealthy port city in Mughal empire for the sea trade of the era. The city was well populated mostly by Hindus and a few Muslims, specially the officials in the Mughal administration of the city. The attack was so sudden that the population had no chance to flee. The plunder was continued for six days, two third of the city was burned down and there was smoke in the air for many days. The loot was then transferred to Raigad fort.

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Persian: محمد بن موسى خوارزمی‎; c. 780 – c. 850), formerly Latinized as Algorithmi, was a Persian scholar who produced works in mathematics, astronomy, and geography under the patronage of the Caliph Al-Ma'mun of the Abbasid Caliphate. Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.Al-Khwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, c. 813–833 CE) presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations. One of his principal achievements in algebra was his demonstration of how to solve quadratic equations by completing the square, for which he provided geometric justifications. Because he was the first to treat algebra as an independent discipline and introduced the methods of "reduction" and "balancing" (the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation), he has been described as the father or founder of algebra. The term algebra itself comes from the title of his book (specifically the word al-jabr meaning "completion" or "rejoining"). His name gave rise to the terms algorism and algorithm. His name is also the origin of (Spanish) guarismo and of (Portuguese) algarismo, both meaning digit.

In the 12th century, Latin translations of his textbook on arithmetic (Algorithmo de Numero Indorum) which codified the various Indian numerals, introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world. The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, translated into Latin by Robert of Chester in 1145, was used until the sixteenth century as the principal mathematical text-book of European universities.In addition to his best-known works, he revised Ptolemy's Geography, listing the longitudes and latitudes of various cities and localities. He further produced a set of astronomical tables and wrote about calendaric works, as well as the astrolabe and the sundial.


Navsari is a city and 9th biggest municipality of Gujarat and the administrative headquarters Navsari District of Gujarat, India. Navsari is also the Twin City of Surat, and only 30 km south of Surat.In 2016, Navsari ranked as the 16th biggest city of Gujarat state of india by population in 2011. It used to rank 10th in 1991 to 2001. Navsari is the 25th "cleanest city of India" according to the Indian Ministry of Urban Development.

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat

The National Institute of Technology, Surat (NIT Surat), formally known as Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology or SVNIT, is an engineering institute of higher education established by the Parliament of India in 1961. It is one of 30 National Institutes of Technology in India recognized by the Government of India as an Institute of National Importance. It is the Anchor Institute for the Auto and Engineering sector and will be training the workforce.

The project is also designated as the "Center of Excellence" in water resources and flood management and is supported by the World Bank.The institute organizes annual cultural and technical festivals: MindBend (technical festival) and Sparsh (cultural festival) that attract participants from all over the country and abroad.

Surat, Iran

Surat (Persian: صورت‎, also Romanized as Şūrat) is a village in Sajjadrud Rural District, Bandpey-ye Sharqi District, Babol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,013, in 276 families.

Surat, Puy-de-Dôme

Surat is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne in central France.

Surat Airport

Surat Airport (IATA: STV, ICAO: VASU) is an International airport located in Magdalla, Surat in the western Indian state of Gujarat with a total area of 770 acres (312 ha). It is the second busiest airport in Gujarat after Ahmedabad in terms of both aircraft movements and passenger traffic. It was awarded the custom-notified status on 9 June 2018. The airport currently caters to scheduled airline services across major destinations in India as well as non schedule private aircraft and is also home to a flying training school.

Surat Kola

Surat Kola (Persian: صورت كلا‎, also Romanized as Şūrat Kolā) is a village in Dabuy-ye Jonubi Rural District, Dabudasht District, Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 243, in 63 families.

Surat Metro

The Surat Metro is a rapid transit rail system proposed for the city of Surat in the Indian state of Gujarat.

Surat Thani

Surat Thani (Thai: สุราษฎร์ธานี, pronounced [sù.râːt tʰāː.nīː]) is a city in Amphoe Mueang Surat Thani, Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand. It lies 651 km south of Bangkok. It is the capital of Surat Thani Province. The city has a population of 128,179 (2009), and an area of 68.97 square kilometers. The city's population density is 1,858.47 inhabitants per km².

Surat Thani is near the mouth of the Tapi River on the Gulf of Thailand. The city offers no major tourist attractions in itself, and is mainly known to tourists as the jumping-off point to Ko Samui, Ko Tao, and Ko Pha Ngan. It is the regional commercial center, with a seaport dealing in the main products of the province, rubber and coconuts.

Surat Thani Province

Surat Thani (Thai: สุราษฎร์ธานี, pronounced [sù.râːt tʰāː.nīː]), often shortened to Surat, is the largest of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. It lies on the western shore of the Gulf of Thailand. Surat Thani means "city of good people", a title given to the city by King Vajiravudh (Rama VI).

Surat Thani railway station

Surat Thani railway station (SRT Code: SRN) is the main railway station in Surat Thani Province, Thailand. It is on the State Railway of Thailand (SRT) Southern Line, located 635.106 km from Thon Buri railway station. The station is on the east bank of Tapi River in Tha Kham town, Phun Phin District. Surat Thani Station first opened in 1915, and was originally named Phun Phin Station. The name was later changed to "Surat Thani railway station".

Surat district

Surat is a district in the state of Gujarat India with Surat city as the administrative headquarters of this district. It is surrounded by Bharuch, Narmada (North), Navsari (South) districts and east Tapi district To the west is the Gulf of Cambay. It is the second-most advanced district in Gujarat. It had a population of 6,079,231 of which 79.68% were urban as of 2011.

On 2 October 2007 Surat district was split into two by the creation of a new Tapi district, under the Surat District Re-organisation Act 2007.

As of 2011 it is the 12th most populous district of India (out of 640), and the second most populous district of Gujarat (out of 33) after Ahmadabad.As of 2011, 79.74% of Surat's population is urban and 20.26% of its population is rural. Scheduled tribes are 14.1% of its population and scheduled castes are 2.6% of its population.

Surat railway station

Surat Railway Station (Code: ST) is an Indian railway station serving Surat, beside Gothangam, Kosad, Uttran, Udhna Junction, Bhestan, Niol and Sachin. It is under the administrative control of Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways. It is on the Ahmedabad-Vadodara-Mumbai rail route. The railway station was built in 1860.

Going north, Uttran Railway Station is the nearest railhead. Udhna Junction Railway Station is to the south of Surat.

In early 2016, the Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation rated the facility the best large station in India based on cleanliness. Railway station of Surat is on first the floor from ground.

The nearest international airport is Surat Airport.

Tapti River

The Tapti River (or Tapi) is a river in central India between the Godavari and Narmada rivers. It flows westwards over a length of 724 km (449.9 mi) before draining through the Gulf of Khambhat into the Arabian Sea. It flows through Surat, and is crossed by the Magdalla ONGC Bridge.

On August 7, 1968, before the construction of the Ukai Dam to bring its waters under control and provide hydroelectric power, the Tapti River overflowed its banks during heavy rains during the monsoon season. More than 1,000 people drowned in the flood and the city of Surat was submerged beneath 10 feet of water for several days. After the floodwaters receded, at least 1,000 more people died in Gujarat state during a cholera epidemic from the contamination of the drinking water.

The Times of India

The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group

It is the third-largest newspaper in India by circulation and largest selling English-language daily in the world according to Audit Bureau of Circulations (India). It is the oldest English-language newspaper in India still in circulation, albeit under different names since its first edition published in 1838. It is also the second-oldest Indian newspaper still in circulation after the Bombay Samachar.

Near the beginning of the 20th century, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, called The Times of India "the leading paper in Asia". In 1991, the BBC ranked The Times of India among the world's six best newspapers.It is owned and published by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., which is owned by the Sahu Jain family. In the Brand Trust Report 2012 The Times of India was ranked 88th among India's most-trusted brands. In 2017, however, the newspaper was ranked 355th.

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