Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

The Supreme Court (Welsh: Y Goruchaf Lys; sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronyms UKSC or SCOTUK) is the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom for civil cases, and for criminal cases from England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It hears cases of the greatest public or constitutional importance affecting the whole population.[2]

As authorised by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, Part 3, Section 23(1) and s. 23,[1] the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was formally established on 1 October 2009.

It assumed the judicial functions of the House of Lords, which had been exercised by the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (commonly called "Law Lords"), the 12 judges appointed as members of the House of Lords to carry out its judicial business as the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords. Its jurisdiction over devolution matters had previously been exercised by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

The current President of the Supreme Court is Baroness Hale of Richmond, and its Deputy President is Lord Reed.

The Supreme Court
of the United Kingdom
(Welsh: Y Goruchaf Lys)
Supreme court crest (official)
Established1 October 2009
CountryUnited Kingdom
LocationMiddlesex Guildhall, London, England
Composition methodAppointed by the Monarch, on the advice of the Prime Minister
Authorized byConstitutional Reform Act 2005, Part 3, Section 23(1) and s. 23 (whole section)[1]
No. of positions12
President of the Supreme Court
CurrentlyThe Baroness Hale of Richmond
Since5 September 2017
Deputy President of the Supreme Court
CurrentlyLord Reed
Since7 June 2018

Introduction

The United Kingdom has a doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, so the Supreme Court is much more limited in its powers of judicial review than the constitutional or supreme courts of some other countries. It cannot overturn any primary legislation made by Parliament.

However, it can overturn secondary legislation if, for example, that legislation is found to be ultra vires to the powers in primary legislation allowing it to be made. Further, under section 4 of the Human Rights Act 1998, the Supreme Court, like some other courts in the United Kingdom, may make a declaration of incompatibility, indicating that it believes that the legislation subject to the declaration is incompatible with one of the rights in the European Convention on Human Rights.

Such a declaration can apply to primary or secondary legislation. The legislation is not overturned by the declaration, and neither Parliament nor the government is required to agree with any such declaration. However, if they do accept a declaration, ministers can exercise powers under section 10 of the Human Rights Act to amend the legislation by statutory instrument to remove the incompatibility or ask Parliament to amend the legislation.

History

Middlesex Guildhall
The Middlesex Guildhall in London is the location of the Supreme Court

The creation of a Supreme Court for the United Kingdom was first mooted in a consultation paper published by the Department of Constitutional Affairs in July 2003.[3] Although the paper noted that there had been no criticism of the then-current Law Lords or any indication of an actual bias, it argued that the separation of the judicial functions of the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords from the legislative functions of the House of Lords should be made explicit. The paper noted the following concerns:

  1. Whether there was any longer sufficient transparency of independence from the executive and the legislature to give assurance of the independence of the judiciary.[3]
  2. The requirement for the appearance of impartiality and independence limited the ability of the Law Lords to contribute to the work of the House itself, thus reducing the value to both them and the House of their membership.[3]
  3. It was not always understood by the public that judicial decisions of "the House of Lords" were in fact taken by the Judicial Committee and that non-judicial members were never involved in the judgments. Conversely, it was felt that the extent to which the Law Lords themselves had decided to refrain from getting involved in political issues in relation to legislation on which they might later have had to adjudicate was not always appreciated.[3] The new President of the Court, Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers, has claimed that the old system had confused people and that with the Supreme Court there would for the first time be a clear separation of powers among the judiciary, the legislature and the executive.[4]
  4. Space within the House of Lords was at a constant premium and a separate supreme court would ease the pressure on the Palace of Westminster.[3]

The main argument against a new Supreme Court was that the previous system had worked well and kept costs down.[5] Reformers expressed concern that this second main example of a mixture of the legislative, judicial and executive might conflict with professed values under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Officials who make or execute laws have an interest in court cases that put those laws to the test. When the state invests judicial authority in those officials or even their day-to-day colleagues, it puts the independence and impartiality of the courts at risk. Consequently, it was hypothesised closely connected decisions of the Law Lords to debates had by friends or on which the Lord Chancellor had expressed a view might be challenged on Human Rights grounds on the basis that they had not constituted a fair trial.[6]

Lord Neuberger of Abbotsbury, later President of the Supreme Court, expressed fear that the new court could make itself more powerful than the House of Lords committee it succeeded, saying that there is a real risk of "judges arrogating to themselves greater power than they have at the moment". Lord Phillips said such an outcome was "a possibility", but was "unlikely".[7]

The reforms were controversial and were brought forward with little consultation but were subsequently extensively debated in Parliament.[8] During 2004, a select committee of the House of Lords scrutinised the arguments for and against setting up a new court.[9] The Government estimated the set-up cost of the Supreme Court at £56.9 million.[10]

As authorised by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, Part 3, Section 23(1) and s. 23 (whole section)[1], the Supreme Court was formally established on 1 October 2009. It assumed the judicial functions of the House of Lords, which had been exercised by the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (commonly called "Law Lords"), the 12 professional judges appointed as members of the House of Lords to carry out its judicial business. Its jurisdiction over devolution matters had previously been exercised by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

The first case heard by the Supreme Court was HM Treasury v Ahmed, which concerned "the separation of powers", according to Phillips, its inaugural President. At issue was the extent to which Parliament has, by the United Nations Act 1946, delegated to the executive the power to legislate. Resolution of this issue depended upon the approach properly to be adopted by the court in interpreting legislation which may affect fundamental rights at common law or under the European Convention on Human Rights.

Because of the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, the Supreme Court is much more limited in its powers of judicial review than the constitutional or supreme courts of some other countries. It cannot overturn any primary legislation made by Parliament.[11] However, it can overturn secondary legislation if, for example, that legislation is found to be ultra vires to the powers in primary legislation allowing it to be made. Further, under section 4 of the Human Rights Act 1998, the Supreme Court, like some other courts in the United Kingdom, may make a declaration of incompatibility, indicating that it believes that the legislation subject to the declaration is incompatible with one of the rights in the European Convention on Human Rights.[12] Such a declaration can apply to primary or secondary legislation. The legislation is not overturned by the declaration, and neither Parliament nor the government is required to agree with any such declaration. However, if they do accept a declaration, ministers can exercise powers under section 10 of the act to amend the legislation by statutory instrument to remove the incompatibility or ask Parliament to amend the legislation.[13]

The current President of the Supreme Court is Lady Hale, and its Deputy President is Lord Reed.[14]

Jurisdiction and powers

From the Supreme Court —

The Supreme Court is the final court of appeal in the UK for civil cases, and for criminal cases from England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It hears cases of the greatest public or constitutional importance affecting the whole population.[2]

For Scottish civil cases decided prior to September 2015, permission to appeal from the Court of Session was not required and any such case can proceed to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom if two Advocates certify that an appeal is suitable. The entry into force of the Courts Reform (Scotland) Act 2014 has essentially brought the procedure for current and future Scottish civil cases into line with England, Wales and Northern Ireland, where permission to appeal is required, either from the Court of Appeal or from a Justice of the Supreme Court itself.

The Supreme Court's focus is on cases that raise points of law of general public importance. As with the former Appellate Committee of the House of Lords, appeals from many fields of law are likely to be selected for hearing, including commercial disputes, family matters, judicial review claims against public authorities and issues under the Human Rights Act 1998.

The Supreme Court only exceptionally hears criminal appeals from the High Court of Justiciary with respect to "devolution issues".

The Supreme Court also determines "devolution issues" (as defined by the Scotland Act 1998, the Northern Ireland Act 1998 and the Government of Wales Act 2006). These are legal proceedings about the powers of the three devolved administrations—the Northern Ireland Executive and Northern Ireland Assembly, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament, and the Welsh Government and the National Assembly for Wales. Devolution issues were previously heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council and most are about compliance with rights under the European Convention on Human Rights, brought into national law by the Devolution Acts and the Human Rights Act 1998.

Ordinarily, all twelve justices do not all hear every case. Typically a case is heard by a panel of five justices, though sometimes the panel may consist of three, seven or nine members. The justices are also members of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council and spend some of their time in that capacity.

Administration

The Supreme Court has a separate administration from the other courts of the United Kingdom, with its administration is under a Chief Executive who is appointed by the Court's President.[15][16][17]

Other "supreme courts" in the United Kingdom

The High Court of Justiciary, the Court of Session, and the Office of the Accountant of Court comprise the College of Justice, and are known as "the Supreme Courts of Scotland".[18]

Prior to 1 October 2009, there were two other courts known as "the supreme court", namely the Supreme Court of England and Wales (known as "the Supreme Court of Judicature", prior to the passing and coming-into-force of the Senior Courts Act 1981), which was created in the 1870s under the Judicature Acts, and the Supreme Court of Judicature of Northern Ireland, both of which consisted of a Court of Appeal, a High Court of Justice and a Crown Court. When the provisions of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 came into force these became known as the Senior Courts of England and Wales and the Court of Judicature of Northern Ireland respectively.

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council also retains jurisdiction over certain matters. The judicial functions of the House of Lords have all been abolished, other than the trial of impeachments, a procedure which has been obsolete for 200 years.

Judges ("Justices of the Supreme Court")

The court is composed of the President and Deputy President and ten other Judges of the Supreme Court, all with the style of "Justices of the Supreme Court" under section 23(6) of the Constitutional Reform Act.[1] The President and Deputy President of the court are separately appointed to those roles.

The ten Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (Law Lords) holding office on 1 October 2009 became the first judges of the 12-member Supreme Court.[19] The 11th place on the Supreme Court was filled by Lord Clarke (formerly the Master of the Rolls), who was the first Justice to be appointed directly to the Supreme Court.[20] One of the former Law Lords, Lord Neuberger, was appointed to replace Clarke as Master of the Rolls,[21] and so did not move to the new court. Lord Dyson became the 12th and final judge of the Supreme Court on 13 April 2010.[22] In 2010, Queen Elizabeth II granted Justices who are not peers use of the title Lord or Lady, by warrant under the royal sign-manual.[23][24]

The Senior Law Lord on 1 October 2009, Lord Phillips, became the Supreme Court's first President,[25] and the Second Senior Law Lord, Lord Hope, became the first Deputy President.

On 30 September 2010 Lord Saville became the first Justice to retire,[26] followed by Lord Collins on 7 May 2011, although the latter remained as an acting Judge until the end of July 2011.

In June 2011 Lord Rodger became the first Justice to die in office, after a short illness.[27]

Acting judges

In addition to the twelve permanent Judges, the President may request other senior judges drawn from two groups to sit as "acting judges" of the Supreme Court.[28]

Appointment process

The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 makes provision for a new appointment process for Judges of the Supreme Court. A selection commission is to be formed when vacancies arise. This is to be composed of the President and Deputy President of the Supreme Court and a member of the Judicial Appointments Commission of England and Wales, the Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland and the Northern Ireland Judicial Appointments Commission. In October 2007, the Ministry of Justice announced that this appointment process would be adopted on a voluntary basis for appointments of Lords of Appeal in Ordinary.[29]

The commission selects one person for the vacancy and notifies the Lord Chancellor of its choice. The Lord Chancellor then either

  • approves the commission's selection
  • rejects the commission's selection, or
  • asks the commission to reconsider its selection.

If the Lord Chancellor approves the person selected by the commission, the Prime Minister must then recommend that person to the Monarch for appointment.[30]

New judges appointed to the Supreme Court after its creation will not necessarily receive peerages; however, they are given the courtesy title of Lord or Lady upon appointment.[23][31] The President and Deputy President are appointed to those roles rather than being the most senior by tenure in office.

List of current judges

There are 12 judges. In order of seniority, they are as follows:

Image Name Born Alma mater Invested Mandatory
retirement
Prior senior judicial roles
Baroness Brenda Hale The Baroness Hale
of Richmond

(President)
31 January 1945
(age 74)
Girton College, Cambridge 1 October 2009 31 January 2020 Lord of Appeal in Ordinary (2004–2009)
Lord Justice of Appeal (1999–2003)
Justice of the High Court, FD (1994–1999)
Lord Reed 2017 (cropped) Lord Reed
(Deputy President)
7 September 1956
(age 62)
University of Edinburgh School of Law
Balliol College, Oxford
6 February 2012 7 September 2026 Senator of the College of Justice:
Inner House (2008–2012)
Outer House (1998–2008)
Lord-Kerr (cropped) The Lord Kerr
of Tonaghmore
22 February 1948
(age 71)
Queen's University Belfast 1 October 2009 22 February 2023 Lord of Appeal in Ordinary (2009)
Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland (2004–2009)
Justice of the High Court (NI) (1993–2004)
Lord Wilson
of Culworth
9 May 1945
(age 74)
Worcester College, Oxford 26 May 2011 9 May 2020 Lord Justice of Appeal (2005–2011)
Justice of the High Court, FD (1993–2005)
Lord Carnwath of Notting Hill (cropped) Lord Carnwath
of Notting Hill
15 March 1945
(age 74)
Trinity College, Cambridge 17 April 2012 15 March 2020 Senior President of Tribunals (2007–2012)
Lord Justice of Appeal (2002–2012)
Justice of the High Court, CD (1994–2002)
Lord Hodge 19 May 1953
(age 66)
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge
University of Edinburgh School of Law
1 October 2013 19 May 2023 Senator of the College of Justice,
Outer House (2005–2013)
Lady Black
of Derwent
1 June 1954
(age 65)
Trevelyan College, Durham 2 October 2017 1 June 2024 Lady Justice of Appeal (2010–2017)
Justice of the High Court, FD (1999–2010)
David Lloyd Jones Lord Lloyd-Jones 13 January 1952
(age 67)
Downing College, Cambridge 2 October 2017 13 January 2022 Lord Justice of Appeal (2012–2017)
Justice of the High Court, QBD (2005–2012)
Lord Briggs (cropped) Lord Briggs
of Westbourne
23 December 1954
(age 64)
Magdalen College, Oxford 2 October 2017 23 December 2024 Lord Justice of Appeal (2013–2017)
Justice of the High Court, CD (2006–2013)
Lady Arden 2010 Lady Arden
of Heswall
23 January 1947
(age 72)
Girton College, Cambridge
Harvard Law School
1 October 2018 23 January 2022 Lady Justice of Appeal (2000–2018)
Justice of the High Court, CD (1993–2000)
Lord Kitchin 30 April 1955
(age 64)
Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge 1 October 2018 30 April 2025 Lord Justice of Appeal (2011–2018)
Justice of the High Court, CD (2005–2011)
Lord Sales 11 February 1962
(age 57)
Churchill College, Cambridge
Worcester College, Oxford
11 January 2019 11 February 2032 Lord Justice of Appeal (2014-2018)
Justice of the High Court, CD (2008-2014)

Building

Bench and inscription outside UK Supreme Court, "Lines for the Supreme Court" by Andrew Motion
Bench and inscription outside UK Supreme Court, "Lines for the Supreme Court" by Andrew Motion
Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Court 1 Interior, London, UK - Diliff
Court 1 in the Supreme Court building

The court is housed in Middlesex Guildhall—which it shares with the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council—in the City of Westminster.

The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 gave time for a suitable building to be found and fitted out before the Law Lords moved out of the Houses of Parliament, where they had previously used a series of rooms in the Palace of Westminster.[32]

After a lengthy survey of suitable sites, including Somerset House, the Government announced that the new court would be at the Middlesex Guildhall, in Parliament Square, Westminster. That decision was examined by the Constitutional Affairs Committee,[33] and the grant of planning permission by Westminster City Council for refurbishment works was challenged in a judicial review by the conservation group SAVE Britain's Heritage.[34] It was also reported that English Heritage had been put under great pressure to approve the alterations.[35] Feilden + Mawson, supported by Foster & Partners, were the appointed architects.[36]

The building had been used as the Middlesex Quarter Sessions House, adding later its County Council chamber, and lastly as a Crown Court.

Badge

UK Supreme Court badge 2
The emblem with stylised depictions of the four floral emblems.

The official badge of the Supreme Court was granted by the College of Arms in October 2008.[37] It comprises both the Greek letter omega (representing finality) and the symbol of Libra (symbolising the scales of justice), in addition to the four floral emblems of the United Kingdom: a Tudor rose, representing England, conjoined with the leaves of a leek, representing Wales; a flax blossom for Northern Ireland; and a thistle, representing Scotland.[38]

Two adapted versions of its official badge are used by the Supreme Court. One features the words "The Supreme Court" and the letter omega in black (in the official badge granted by the College of Arms, the interior of the Latin and Greek letters are gold and white, respectively), and displays a simplified version of the crown (also in black) and larger, stylised versions of the floral emblems; this modified version of the badge is featured on the new Supreme Court website,[39] as well as in the forms that will be used by the Supreme Court.[40] A further variant omits the crown entirely and is featured prominently throughout the building.[41]

Another emblem is formed from a more abstract set of depictions of the four floral emblems and is used in the carpets of the Middlesex Guildhall designed by Sir Peter Blake, creator of such works as the cover of The Beatles' 1967 album, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.[42][43]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (c. 4), Part 3, Section 23". The National Archives (United Kingdom). 24 March 2005. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  2. ^ a b "The Supreme Court". The Registry, the Supreme Court (The Registry of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom). 12 January 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Constitutional Reform: A Supreme Court for the United Kingdom". Department of Constitutional Affairs. July 2003.
  4. ^ "New Supreme Court opens with media barred". The Daily Telegraph. London. 1 October 2009. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2010. For the first time, we have a clear separation of powers between the legislature, the judiciary and the executive in the United Kingdom. This is important. It emphasises the independence of the judiciary, clearly separating those who make the law from those who administer it.
  5. ^ Wakeham report 2000, Chapter 9, Recommendation 57.
  6. ^ "The Supreme Court is an unnecessary attack on the constitution". The Daily Telegraph. London. 1 October 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2010. The Government argued that there must be a separation in order to comply with Article Six of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees a fair trial.
  7. ^ Rozenberg, Joshua (8 September 2009). "Fear over UK Supreme Court impact". BBC News.
  8. ^ See A Le Sueur, 'From Appellate Committee to Supreme Court: A Narrative', chap 5 in L. Blom-Cooper, G. Drewry and B. Dickson (eds),The Judicial House of Lords (Oxford University Press, 2009); Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17/2009. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1374357
  9. ^ "Lords Select Committee on the Constitutional Reform Bill First Report".
  10. ^ "Written Answer of the Ministry of Justice to question posed by Lord Steinberg (Col. WA102". Lords Hansard. 26 March 2008.
  11. ^ "Britain's new Supreme Court". Times Literary Supplement, 2 September 2009
  12. ^ Court, The Supreme. "FAQs- The Supreme Court". www.supremecourt.uk. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  13. ^ Mental Health Act 1983 (Remedial) Order 2001, Naval Discipline Act 1957 (Remedial) Order 2004 and Marriage Act 1949 (Remedial) Order 2007.
  14. ^ Court, The Supreme. "Biographies of the Justices – The Supreme Court". www.supremecourt.uk. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  15. ^ Court, The Supreme. "Mark Ormerod to be Supreme Court's Chief Executive - The Supreme Court". www.supremecourt.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  16. ^ Court, The Supreme. "Executive Team - The Supreme Court". www.supremecourt.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  17. ^ UK Parliament. Constitutional Reform Act 2005 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
  18. ^ "Scottish Court Service: An Introduction" (PDF). Scottish Court Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2008. The Supreme Courts are made up of the Court of Session, the High Court of Justiciary and the Accountant of Court's Office
  19. ^ Constitutional Reform Act 2005, section 24
  20. ^ "Justice of the UK Supreme Court". London, United Kingdom: 10 Downing Street. 20 April 2009. Archived from the original on 8 April 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  21. ^ Frances Gibb (23 July 2009). "Lord Neuberger named Master of the Rolls". The Times. London. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  22. ^ Frances Gibb (23 March 2010). "New Supreme Court justice – Sir John Dyson".
  23. ^ a b "No. 59746". The London Gazette. 1 April 2011. pp. 6177–6178.
  24. ^ "Press release: Courtesy titles for Justices of the Supreme Court" (PDF). Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
  25. ^ "Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers appointed as senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary". Archived from the original on 5 September 2008.
  26. ^ Rozenberg, Joshua (24 June 2010). "Vacancy in the supreme court – and age could be a deciding factor - Joshua Rozenburg". the Guardian. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  27. ^ "Supreme Court judge dies aged 66". 27 June 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  28. ^ Constitutional Reform Act 2005, section 38
  29. ^ "Supreme Court – new appointments process". Ministry of Justice. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
  30. ^ Constitutional Reform Act 2005, sections 25–31
  31. ^ "Courtesy titles for Justices of the Supreme Court" (PDF). Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  32. ^ "Truly the Supremes? Reflections on the New Court, UKSC Blog". Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
  33. ^ "Minutes of Oral Evidence Taken before the Constitutional Affairs Committee 17 April 2007". Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  34. ^ "The Queen on the application of Save Britain's Heritage v. Westminster City Council". High Court (Administrative Court). Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  35. ^ Binney, Marcus (22 June 2006). "Lord Falconer's supreme blunder". The Times. London. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
  36. ^ "Questions to the Department for Constitutional Affairs, 15 January 2007 (Col. 877W)". Commons Hansard.
  37. ^ "The College of Arms Newsletter". College of Arms. December 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2009.
  38. ^ "New artwork: Supreme Court emblem". The Supreme Court. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  39. ^ "The Supreme Court". The Supreme Court. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
  40. ^ https://www.supremecourt.uk/docs/sc001_0409x1.pdf
  41. ^ "In pictures: UK Supreme Court". BBC News. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
  42. ^ "Inside the UK Supreme Court". BBC News. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
  43. ^ "THE WIDER VIEW: Inside the imposing interior of Britain's new £36m Supreme Court". Daily Mail. London. 2 August 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2009.

Further reading

External links

Coordinates: 51°30′01″N 0°07′41″W / 51.50028°N 0.12806°W

2009 Judgments of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

This is a complete list of the judgments given by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom between the court's opening on 1 October 2009 and the end of that year. Most of the cases were heard in the House of Lords before judgments were given in the new Supreme Court. The court heard 17 cases during this time; they are listed in order of each case's Neutral citation number.

The table lists judgments made by the court and the opinions of the judges in each case. Judges are treated as having concurred in another's judgment when they either formally attach themselves to the judgment of another or speak only to acknowledge their concurrence with one or more judges. Any judgment which reaches a conclusion which differs from the majority on one or more major points of the appeal has been treated as dissent.

Because every judge in the court is entitled to hand down a judgment, it is not uncommon for groups of judges to reach the same conclusion (i.e. whether to allow or dismiss the appeal) in materially different ways, for example if a panel of 9 judges heard a case with 4 judges dismissing the appeal, 3 finding for the appellant on one point and 2 on another - the table should show 5 judges as the majority and the 4 judges who actually held the more mainstream view as dissenting. The table also does not reflect how significantly judges differed, or how much of a contribution a paticualar judge made to the overall judgment.

2010 Judgments of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

This is a list of the judgments given by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in 2010 and statistics associated thereupon. Since the Supreme Court began its work on 1 October 2009, this year was its first full year of operation. In total, 58 cases were heard in 2010.

The table lists judgments made by the court and the opinions of the judges in each case. Judges are treated as having concurred in another's judgment when they either formally attach themselves to the judgment of another or speak only to acknowledge their concurrence with one or more judges. Any judgment which reaches a conclusion which differs from the majority on one or more major points of the appeal has been treated as dissent.

Because every judge in the court is entitled to hand down a judgment, it is not uncommon for 'factions' to be formed who reach the same conclusion in different ways, or for all members of the court to reach the same conclusion in different ways. The table does not reflect this.

2011 Judgments of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

This is a list of the judgments given by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in the year 2011. They are ordered by Neutral citation.

The table lists judgments made by the court and the opinions of the judges in each case. Judges are treated as having concurred in another's judgment when they either formally attach themselves to the judgment of another or speak only to acknowledge their concurrence with one or more judges. Any judgment which reaches a conclusion which differs from the majority on one or more major points of the appeal has been treated as dissent.

Because every judge in the court is entitled to hand down a judgment, it is not uncommon for 'factions' to be formed who reach the same conclusion in different ways, or for all members of the court to reach the same conclusion in different ways. The table does not reflect this.

2012 Judgments of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

This is a list of the judgments given by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in the year 2012. They are ordered by Neutral citation.

The table lists judgments made by the court and the opinions of the judges in each case. Judges are treated as having concurred in another's judgment when they either formally attach themselves to the judgment of another or speak only to acknowledge their concurrence with one or more judges. Any judgment which reaches a conclusion which differs from the majority on one or more major points of the appeal has been treated as dissent.

All dates are for 2012 unless expressly stated otherwise.

2013 Judgments of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

This is a list of the 81 judgments given by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in the year 2013. They are ordered by neutral citation.

The table lists judgments made by the court and the opinions of the judges in each case. Judges are treated as having concurred in another's judgment when they either formally attach themselves to the judgment of another or speak only to acknowledge their concurrence with one or more judges. Any judgment which reaches a conclusion that differs from the majority on one or more major points of the appeal has been treated as dissent.

All dates are for 2013 unless expressly stated otherwise.

2014 Judgments of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

This is a list of the judgments given by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in the year 2014. They are ordered by neutral citation.

In 2014 Lord Neuberger was the President of the Supreme Court, Lady Hale was the Deputy President.

The table lists judgments made by the court and the opinions of the judges in each case. Judges are treated as having concurred in another's judgment when they either formally attach themselves to the judgment of another or speak only to acknowledge their concurrence with one or more judges. Any judgment which reaches a conclusion that differs from the majority on one or more major points of the appeal has been treated as dissent.

All dates are for 2014 unless expressly stated otherwise.

2017 Judgments of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

This is a list of the judgments given by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in the year 2017. 5 cases have been decided as of 25 January 2017 and these are ordered by neutral citation.

In 2017 Lord Neuberger is the President of the Supreme Court, Lady Hale is the Deputy President.

The table lists judgments made by the court and the opinions of the judges in each case. Judges are treated as having concurred in another's judgment when they either formally attach themselves to the judgment of another or speak only to acknowledge their concurrence with one or more judges. Any judgment which reaches a conclusion which differs from the majority on one or more major points of the appeal has been treated as dissent.

All dates are for 2017 unless expressly stated otherwise.

Brenda Hale, Baroness Hale of Richmond

Brenda Marjorie Hale, Baroness Hale of Richmond, , known as Lady Hale (born 31 January 1945) is a British judge and the current President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

In 2004, she joined the House of Lords as a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. She is the only woman to have been appointed to this position. She served as a Law Lord until 2009 when she, along with the other Law Lords, transferred to the new Supreme Court. She served as Deputy President of the Supreme Court from 2013 to 2017.

On 5 September 2017, Hale was appointed as President of the Supreme Court, and was sworn in on 2 October 2017. She is the third person and first woman to serve the role, which was established in 2009. Hale is one of three women to have been appointed to the Supreme Court (alongside Lady Black and Lady Arden).

Since July 30 2018, Hale has been a non-permanent judge of the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong. Alongside Beverley McLachlin, she is the first woman to serve in that court.

Hale is Honorary President of the Cambridge University Law Society.

David Hope, Baron Hope of Craighead

James Arthur David Hope, Baron Hope of Craighead, (born 27 June 1938) is a retired Scottish judge who served as the first Deputy President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom from 2009 until his retirement in 2013, having previously been the Second Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. In 2015, he became the Convenor of the Crossbench peers in the House of Lords.

David Neuberger, Baron Neuberger of Abbotsbury

David Edmond Neuberger, Baron Neuberger of Abbotsbury, PC, GBS, HonFRS (; born 10 January 1948) is an English judge. He served as President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom from 2012 to 2017. He was a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary until the House of Lords' judicial functions were transferred to the new Supreme Court in 2009, at which point he became Master of the Rolls, the second most senior judge in England and Wales. Neuberger was appointed to the Supreme Court in 2012. He also serves as a Non-Permanent Judge of the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal.

Deputy President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

The Deputy President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the second most senior judge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, after the President of the Supreme Court. The office is equivalent to the now-defunct position of Second Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, also known previously as the Second Senior Law Lord, who was the second highest-ranking Lord of Appeal in Ordinary.

The office is currently held by the Lord Reed, having succeeded Lord Mance on his retirement in June 2018.

By Royal Warrant of Queen Elizabeth II published on 1 October 2009, a place for the Deputy President of the Supreme Court in the order of precedence was established: the Deputy President of the Supreme Court ranks after the Master of the Rolls and before the other Justices of the Supreme Court.

John Dyson, Lord Dyson

John Anthony Dyson, Lord Dyson, (born 31 July 1943) is a former British judge and barrister. He was Master of the Rolls and Head of Civil Justice, the second most senior judge in England and Wales, from 2012 to 2016, and a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2012. He was the first justice to be appointed who was not a peer.

Jonathan Mance, Baron Mance

Jonathan Hugh Mance, Baron Mance, (born 6 June 1943) is a British judge and former Deputy President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

Judges of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

The Judges of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom include the President, the Deputy President, and Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The Supreme Court is the highest in the whole of the United Kingdom for civil matters, and for criminal matters from the United Kingdom jurisdictions of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. Judges are appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister, who receives recommendations from a selection commission. The number of judges is set by s.23(2) Constitutional Reform Act 2005, which established the Court, but may be increased by the Queen through an Order in Council under s.23(3). There are currently 12 positions: one President, one Deputy President, and 10 Justices. Judges of the Court who are not already peers are granted the style Lord or Lady for life.

List of judges of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

This is a list of judges of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom since its creation on 1 October 2009 upon the transfer to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom of the judicial functions of the House of Lords.

The court comprises a President, a Deputy President and 10 (puisne) Justices, for a total of 12 judges, of which — by convention — nine are from England, two from Scotland, and one from Northern Ireland. At the court's creation, 10 judges were appointed from the House of Lords, and one was appointed directly to it. The remaining initial vacancy was filled by Lord Dyson six months later. Two of the original judges remain on the court.

Nick Phillips, Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers

Nicholas Addison Phillips, Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers (called Nick; born 21 January 1938) is a British lawyer and former senior English judge.

Phillips served as the inaugural President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, holding office between October 2009 and October 2012. He is also the last Senior Law Lord and the first Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales to be head of the English judiciary when that function was transferred from the Lord Chancellor in April 2006. Before his chief justiceship, he was Master of the Rolls from 2000 to 2005. He sits as a crossbencher.

Patrick Hodge, Lord Hodge

Patrick Stewart Hodge, Lord Hodge, PC (born 19 May 1953), is a Scottish lawyer and Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

The President of the Supreme Court is the president of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The office is equivalent to the now-defunct position of Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, also known as the Senior Law Lord, who was the highest ranking among the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (the judges who exercised the judicial functions of the House of Lords).

The current President is Lady Hale, since 2 October 2017.

Robert Walker, Baron Walker of Gestingthorpe

Robert Walker, Baron Walker of Gestingthorpe, PC (born 17 March 1938) is an English barrister and former Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. He also serves as a Non-Permanent Judge of the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal.He sits in the House of Lords as a crossbencher.

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