In heraldry, supporters, sometimes referred to as attendants, are figures or objects usually placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up.

Early forms of supporters are found in medieval seals. However, unlike the coronet or helmet and crest, supporters were not part of early medieval heraldry. As part of the heraldic achievement, they first become fashionable towards the end of the 15th century, but even in the 17th century were not necessarily part of the full heraldic achievement (being absent, for example, in Siebmachers Wappenbuch of 1605).

The figures used as supporters may be based on real or imaginary animals, human figures, and in rare cases plants or other inanimate objects, such as the pillars of Hercules of the coat of arms of Spain. Often, as in other elements of heraldry, these can have local significance, such as the fisherman and the tin miner granted to Cornwall County Council, or a historical link; such as the lion of England and unicorn of Scotland in the two variations of the Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom. The arms of nutritionist John Boyd-Orr use two 'garbs' (wheat sheaves) as supporters; the arms of USS Donald Cook, missiles; the arms of the state of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil, trees.[1] Letters of the alphabet are used as supporters in the arms of Valencia, Spain. Human supporters can also be allegorical figures, or, more rarely, specifically named individuals.[2]

There is usually one supporter on each side of the shield, though there are some examples of single supporters placed behind the shield, such as the imperial eagle of the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire. The arms of the Congo provide an extremely unusual example of two supporters issuing from behind the shield.[3] While such single supporters are generally eagles[4] with one or two heads, there are other examples, including the cathedra in the case of some Canadian cathedrals.[5] At the other extreme and even rarer, the Scottish chief Dundas of that Ilk had three supporters: two conventional red lions and the whole supported by a salamander. The coat of arms of Iceland even has four supporters.[6]

The context of the application of supporters may vary, although entitlement may be considered conditioned by grant of a type of augmentation of honour by admission in orders of chivalry or by heraldic authorities, such as in the case of traditional British heraldry.

Seal Berlin 1280
Seal of the city of Berlin (1280), showing the Brandenburg coat of arms flanked by two bears
Standesscheibe of Solothurn, c. 1520, with two lions as supporters
Coa HenryVI MasterJohn
Early example of the Royal Arms of England with lion and dragon as supporters, from a painting of Edward VI dated c. 1547


Animal supporters are, by default, as close to rampant as possible, if the nature of the supporter allows it (this does not need to be mentioned in the blazon), though there are some blazoned exceptions. An example of whales 'non-rampant' is the arms of the Dutch municipality of Zaanstad.[7]

Regional development and entitlement

Older writers trace origins of supporters to their usages in tournaments, where the shields of the combatants were exposed for inspection, and guarded by their servants or pages disguised in fanciful attire. However, medieval Scottish seals afford numerous examples in which the 13th and 14th century shields were placed between two creatures resembling lizards or dragons. Also, the seal of John, Duke of Normandy, eldest son of the King of France, before 1316 bears his arms as; France ancient, a bordure gules, between two lions rampant away from the shield, and an eagle with expanded wings standing above it.


In Canada, Companions of the Order of Canada, Commanders of the Order of Military Merit, Commanders of the Royal Victorian Order: people granted the style the Right Honourable, and corporations are granted the use of supporters on their coats of arms.[8][9] Further, on his retirement from office as Chief Herald, Robert Watt was granted supporters as an honour.[10]


In France, writers made a distinctive difference on the subject of supporters, giving the name of Supports to animals, real or imaginary, thus employed; while human figures or angels similarly used are called Tenants (i.e. 'holders'). Trees and other inanimate objects which are sometimes used are called Soutiens.

New Zealand

Knights Grand Companion and Principal Companions of the New Zealand Order of Merit are granted the use of heraldic supporters.[11]

United Kingdom

Originally, in England, supporters were regarded as little more than mere decorative and artistic appendages.

In the United Kingdom, supporters are typically an example of special royal favour, granted at the behest of the sovereign.[12] Hereditary supporters are normally limited to hereditary peers, certain members of the Royal Family, and to some chiefs of Scottish clans. Non-hereditary supporters are granted to life peers, Knights and Ladies of the Order of the Garter and Order of the Thistle, Knights and Dames Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Order of St Michael and St George, Royal Victorian Order and Order of the British Empire, and Bailiffs and Dames Grand Cross of the Order of St John. Knights banneret were also granted non-hereditary supporters, but no such knight has been created since the time of Charles I.

Supporters may also be granted to corporations which have a royal charter.


Brasão do Rio Grande do Norte

Two trees in the coat of arms of Rio Grande do Norte.

Escut de València

The two L's in the coat of arms of Valencia (city) mark it as 'doubly loyal'.

Kraków - Kościół św. Barbary - Wspornik

An angel is the single supporter of this Kraków sculpture of the arms of Poland.

Coat of arms of Zaanstad

'Falling' whales support the arms of Zaanstad

Greater coat of arms of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe

Flags are the supporters in the arms of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe

Nałęcz Kaziemierza Raczyńskiego

Flags and cannons are the supporters in the arms of Kazimierz Raczyński

Escudo de España (mazonado)

The coat of arms of Spain is supported by columns representing the Pillars of Hercules.

Austria Bundesadler

The coat of arms of Austria has one supporter, an eagle, which bears the escutcheon on its breast. This arrangement is common where eagles and other birds are used as supporters, as in the Great Seal of the United States and the coat of arms of Russia.

Coat of Arms of New York

The allegorical figures Liberty and blindfolded Justice support a shield on the flag of the State of New York

COA Novi Beograd (big).jpeg

The coat of arms of the Municipality of New Belgrade is supported by two swallows.

Ferm arms

Badgers on the arms of County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland.

Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom

Royal arms of the United Kingdom (as used in England, Northern Ireland and Wales) has lion supporter (for England) in the dexter and unicorn supporter (for Scotland) in the sinister.

Coat of arms of Malaysia

Coat of Arms of Malaysia which has two tigers as the supporters.

Coat of Arms of Margaret Thatcher, The Baroness Thatcher (1995–2013)

Arms of Margaret Thatcher, with Isaac Newton and a Royal Navy Admiral as supporters.

Iceland-Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Iceland is the only Nation to feature 4 supporters. Each supporter represents a protector and intercardinal direction. The bull is the protector of northwestern Iceland. The eagle or griffin is the protector of northeastern Iceland. The dragon is the protector of southeastern Iceland. The rock-giant is the protector of southwestern Iceland.

See also


  1. ^ "Rio Grande do Norte - Brasão de Rio Grande do Norte (coat of arms, crest)". Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  2. ^ "Flags of the World — Blumenau, Santa Catarina(Brazil)". Archived from the original on 25 July 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  3. ^ "Heraldry of the world - Congo_(Brazzaville)". Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  4. ^ e.g. Perth & Kinross District Council (Scotland) at Heraldry of the World
  5. ^ General, The Office of the Secretary to the Governor. "Saint Paul's Cathedral [Civil Institution]". Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  6. ^ Iceland at Heraldry of the World
  7. ^ Zaanstad at Heraldry of the World
  8. ^ A Canadian Heraldric Primer, p. 9
  9. ^ McCreery, Christopher (2008). On Her Majesty's Service: Royal Honours and Recognition in Canada. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 76. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  10. ^ "Organizing The Term Paper – mbmpl". Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Statutes of the New Zealand Order of Merit (1996), article 50". Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  12. ^ Charles Boutell and Arthur Charles Fox-Davies (2003). English Heraldry. Kessinger. p. 238. ISBN 0-7661-4917-X.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
1826 United States elections

The 1826 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President John Quincy Adams's term. Members of the 20th United States Congress were chosen in this election. The election took place during a transitional period between the First Party System and the Second Party System. With the Federalist Party no longer active as a major political party, the major split in Congress was between supporters of Adams and supporters of Andrew Jackson, who Adams had defeated in the 1824 Presidential election.

In the House, Jackson supporters picked up several seats, taking the majority from the faction supporting Adams. Andrew Stevenson, a supporter of Jackson who would later join the Democratic Party, won election as Speaker of the House.

In the Senate, supporters of Jackson picked up one seat, retaining their majority.

Achievement (heraldry)

An achievement, armorial achievement or heraldic achievement (historical: hatchment) in heraldry is a full display or depiction of all the heraldic components to which the bearer of a coat of arms is entitled. An achievement comprises not only the arms themselves displayed on the Escutcheon, the central element, but also the following elements surrounding it:

Crest placed atop a:

Torse (or Cap of Maintenance as a special honour)


Helm of appropriate variety; if holder of higher rank than a baronet, issuing from a:

Coronet or Crown (not used by baronets), of appropriate variety.

Supporters (if the bearer is entitled to them, generally in modern usage not baronets), which may stand on a Compartment)

Motto, if possessed

Order, if possessed

Badge, if possessed


In heraldry, an armiger is a person entitled to use a heraldic achievement (e.g., bear arms, an "armour-bearer") either by hereditary right, grant, matriculation, or assumption of arms. Such a person is said to be armigerous.

Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, family, state, organization or corporation.

The Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, and since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, and therefore its genealogy across time.

David Lindsay, 2nd Lord Lindsay

David Lindsay, 2nd Lord Lindsay of the Byres (died 1490) was a Scottish lord of parliament and supporter of King James III of Scotland.


An environmentalist is a supporter of the goals of the environmental movement, "a political and ethical movement that seeks to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment through changes to environmentally harmful human activities". An environmentalist is engaged in or believes in the philosophy of environmentalism.

Environmentalists are sometimes referred to using informal or derogatory terms such as "greenie" and "tree-hugger".


A jockstrap (also known as a jock, strap, cup, supporter, or athletic supporter) is an undergarment for protecting the testes and penis during cycling, contact sports or other vigorous physical activity. A jockstrap consists of a waistband (usually elastic) with a support pouch for the genitalia and two elastic straps affixed to the base of the pouch and to the left and right sides of the waistband at the hip. The pouch, in some varieties, may be fitted with a pocket to hold an abdominal guard (impact resistant cup, box) to protect the testicles and the penis from injury.

José Padilla (prisoner)

José Padilla (born October 18, 1970), also known as Abdullah al-Muhajir ( (listen) ahb-DUL-ə ahl moo-HAH-jeer) or Muhajir Abdullah, is a United States citizen from Brooklyn, New York, who was convicted in federal court of aiding terrorists.

Padilla was arrested in Chicago on May 8, 2002, on suspicion of plotting a radiological bomb ("dirty bomb") attack. He was detained as a material witness until June 9, 2002, when President George W. Bush designated him an enemy combatant and, arguing that he was not entitled to trial in civilian courts, had him transferred to a military prison in South Carolina. Padilla was held for three and a half years as an enemy combatant. Upon pressure and lawsuits from civil liberties groups, he was transferred to a civilian jail in 2006.

In August 2007, a federal jury found him guilty of conspiring to commit murder and fund terrorism. Government officials had earlier claimed Padilla was suspected of planning to build and explode a "dirty bomb" in the United States, but he was never charged with this crime. He was initially sentenced to 17 years in prison, which was increased on appeal to 21 years. His lawsuits against the military for allegedly torturing him were rejected by the courts for lack of merit and jurisdictional issues.

K. Pannai Sethuram

K. Pannai Sethuram was born on 19 May 1940 in Periyakulam to poor parents. He was the 2nd child. He is a qualified lawyer by profession and he joined ADMK in 1975. As he was the student wing President and Periyakulam ADMK General Secretary, he was appointed by MGR in 1976. He was a MLA Candidate in 1977 Periyakulam Constituency. Later, he won and MGR offered him the post of the industrial minister but he denied the offer. After that, ethurum was not offered any MLA seat. He was a supporter of OPS when OPS was the CM of TN.

Liaison officer

A liaison officer is a person who liaises between two organizations to communicate and coordinate their activities. Generally, liaison officers are used to achieve the best utilization of resources or employment of services of one organization by another. Liaison officers often provide technical or subject matter expertise of their parent organization. Usually an organization embeds a liaison officer into another organization to provide face-to-face coordination.


A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization. Mottos are usually found predominantly in written form (unlike slogans, which may also be expressed orally), and may stem from long traditions of social foundations, or from significant events, such as a civil war or a revolution. A motto may be in any language, but Latin has been widely used, especially in the Western world.

Roy Beggs

John Robert Beggs (born 20 February 1936), commonly known as Roy Beggs, is a Northern Ireland politician.

Beggs was educated at Ballyclare High School, followed by Stranmillis College, to study teacher training. After his training Beggs became a teacher at Larne High School and had risen to be deputy principal before leaving the profession upon his election to the Westminster Parliament.He first entered politics in 1973 as a councillor for Larne Borough Council. for the Democratic Unionist Party. He was suspended from the party in 1981 after taking part in a council visit to Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council local authority in the South. he moved to the Ulster Unionist Party and was re-elected in 1981 as a 'loyalist'. He joined the UUP in 1982 and has retained his council seat to date, serving several terms as Mayor of Larne from 1978 until 1983. In 1982 he was elected to the Northern Ireland Assembly representing North Antrim.In 1983 he was selected for the new East Antrim in the 1983 general election. With most expecting the DUP to win the seat, he became the new MP in the surprise result. He held the position until the 2005 general election when he was defeated by Sammy Wilson of the DUP. He was UUP Education Spokesman from 1986 up to and including his last few years in Parliament when he also served as Deputy Leader and Chief Whip of the Ulster Unionist Parliamentary Party.Beggs was known as one of the more hard-line members of the UUP, being vociferous in his Euroscepticism and his suspicions about the Belfast Agreement - initially involving himself in Union First (a group within the Ulster Unionist Party opposed to the Agreement), although in his final two years in Parliament he appeared publicly supportive of the Agreement and of leader David Trimble. A renowned opponent of "progressive" teaching methods and supporter of corporal punishment in schools he was closely associated with the pro-3Rs Campaign for Real Education and the Freedom Association, as well as his support for the History Curriculum Association's unsuccessful attempts to secure the inclusion of key events, personalities and developments of British History into the school history curriculum and have pupils assessed on their ability to acquire facts and knowledge rather than empathise from a range of psychological perspectives. A strong supporter of maintaining Northern Ireland's grammar schools, he attacked proposals to abolish academic selection in post-primary education in Northern Ireland, whilst also opposing the introduction of tuition fees for university students claiming that the latter discouraged many from entering higher education.

Beggs was also a strong supporter of the Orange Order during their stand-off over Drumcree Church and in 1995 took part in a blockade of the port of Larne as part of a show of solidarity. Beggs was charged with Public Order offences for his involvement and was fined £1,350. In March 2001, he apologised in the House of Commons for failing to register a local business interest.He lives in Larne and operates a farm and owns a landfill site. He is also the Chairman of the North Eastern Education and Library Board, as well as continuing his council work. He has four children. His son, Roy Jr. is a member of the Northern Ireland Assembly.


A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim. In the abstract, this position is royalism. It is distinct from monarchism, which advocates a monarchical system of government, but not necessarily a particular monarch. Most often, the term royalist is applied to a supporter of a current regime or one that has been recently overthrown to form a republic.

In the United Kingdom, today the term is almost indistinguishable from "monarchist" because there are no significant rival claimants to the throne. Conversely, in 19th-century France, a royalist might be either a Legitimist, Bonapartist, or an Orléanist, all being monarchists.

Saab Safari

Saab MFI-15 Safari, also known as the Saab MFI-17 Supporter, is a propeller-powered basic trainer aircraft used by several air forces.

Samuel Clesson Allen

Samuel Clesson Allen (January 5, 1772 – February 8, 1842) was a U.S. politician from Massachusetts during the first third of the 19th century. He began his career as a member of the Federalist Party, but later became a staunch supporter of Democratic presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren.

Allen was born in Bernardston, Massachusetts and schooled in nearby New Salem. He was descended from Edward Allen (1640–1696), who was born in England and settled in the Connecticut Colony. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1794, and was ordained as a Congregational minister. After serving three years in the pulpit, Allen began to study law, and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1800.

Allen began his career in politics in 1806, when he was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He served in the House until 1810, then served in the Massachusetts Senate from 1812 to 1815. A year after leaving the state senate, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he sat as a Federalist from 1817 to 1829. He was a noted supporter of the John Quincy Adams administration.

After returning to Massachusetts, Allen became affected by the plight of western Massachusetts farmers and laborers, whose lives were being upended by industrialization. As a result of his observations and concerns, Allen became a vocal supporter of the Massachusetts Workingmen's Party, and was the party's unsuccessful nominee for state governor in 1833 and 1834.

Allen died in Northfield, Massachusetts, and was buried in Bernardston.


A scarf, plural scarves, is a piece of fabric worn around the neck for warmth, sun protection, cleanliness, fashion, or religious reasons. They can be made in a variety of different materials such as wool, linen or cotton. It is a common type of neckwear.


A sekitori (関取) is a rikishi (sumo wrestler) who is ranked in one of the top two professional divisions: makuuchi and jūryō.

The name literally translates to having taken the barrier, as only a relatively small fraction of those who enter professional sumo achieve sekitori status.

Currently there are 70 rikishi in these divisions. The benefits of being a sekitori compared to lower ranked wrestlers are significant and include:

to receive a salary and bonus (those in the lower divisions merely receive an allowance)

to have one's own supporters' club

to wear high quality men's kimono and other items of attire

to have a private room in the training stable

to be able to get married and live away from the training stable

to have junior rikishi to effectively act as their personal servants

to wear a silk mawashi with stiffened cords (called sagari) in tournament bouts

to participate in the ring entrance ceremony and wear a keshō-mawashi

to wear the more elaborate ōichō chonmage hairstyle in competition and on formal occasions

to become an elder in the Sumo Association if one is sekitori for long enough

Supporters' Shield

The Supporters' Shield is an annual award given to the Major League Soccer team with the best regular season record, as determined by the MLS points system. The Supporters' Shield has been annually awarded at the MLS Supporters' Summit since 1999, and has been recognized as a major trophy by the league. It echoes the practice of the top European leagues in which the team with the best record is the champion. Since 2006, the Supporters' Shield winner has earned a berth in the CONCACAF Champions League.

D.C. United and LA Galaxy, with four Supporters' Shields each, have won the most shields of any MLS team. New York Red Bulls are the 2018 holders of the Supporters' Shield winning it for the third time.

Supporters' groups

Supporters' groups or supporters' clubs are independent fan clubs or campaign groups in sport, mostly association football.

Supporters' groups in continental Europe are generally known as ultras which derives from the Latin word ultrā, meaning beyond in English, with the implication that their enthusiasm is 'beyond' the normal. In English-speaking nations, these groups are generally known as "supporters' groups". Most groups in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia call themselves "supporters' groups", however some do self identify as ultras, particularly in communities with large Spanish, French, or Italian speaking populations. In Mexico exist porras, while in South America are called either hinchada (plural of hincha, word in Spanish that was first used in Uruguay to refer to a fan or supporter in singular) and, exclusively in Brazil, torcida (plural of torcedor, that means 'supporter' in Portuguese) and fanaticada (plural of 'fan' in Portuguese). All this terms currently are most commonly used to refer to the whole crowd of a team in the stadium and not only the groups into those crowds that lead the chants and display of choreographies and flags.

This groups in particular are barras bravas in most part of Latin America and torcidas organizadas in Brazil (where also exist barras bravas, but are less in comparison). Both (but especially barras bravas) are organised supporters' groups not only focused on support their team and intimidate rivals, but also on provoking violence against opposing fans or defending (themselves and the rest of their club' supporters) from police repression or attacks of rival groups.

Supporters' groups and ultras are renowned for their fanatical vocal support in large groups, defiance of the authorities, and the display of banners at stadiums, which are used to create an atmosphere to intimidate opposing players and supporters, as well as encouraging their own team.



See also:

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See also


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