The fictional character Superman, an American comic book superhero in DC Comics publications, has appeared in various films almost since his inception. He debuted in cinemas in a series of animated shorts beginning in 1941, and then starred in two movie serials in 1948 and 1950. An independent studio, Lippert Pictures, released the first Superman feature film, Superman and the Mole Men, starring George Reeves, in 1951. Ilya and Alexander Salkind and Pierre Spengler purchased the Superman film rights in 1974. After numerous scripts, Richard Donner was hired to direct the film, filming Superman (1978) and Superman II (1980) simultaneously. Donner had already shot eighty percent of Superman II with Christopher Reeve before it was decided to finish shooting the first film. The Salkinds fired Donner after Superman's release and commissioned Richard Lester as the director to finish Superman II. Lester also returned for Superman III (1983), and the Salkinds further produced the 1984 spin-off Supergirl before selling the rights to Cannon Films, resulting in the poorly reviewed Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1987). Ilya Salkind commissioned a fifth Superman script before Warner Bros. acquired the rights entirely in 1993.
Over the course of eleven years, Warner Bros. would develop and then cancel Tim Burton's Superman Lives, which would have starred Nicolas Cage, Wolfgang Petersen's Batman vs. Superman, and the J. J. Abrams scripted Superman: Flyby, which went between directors Joseph "McG" Nichols and Brett Ratner. The studio hired Bryan Singer to take over the films in 2004, releasing Superman Returns in 2006, which starred newcomer Brandon Routh. Donner's director's cut for Superman II was also released that year. Despite positive reviews, Warner Bros. was disappointed with the financial performance of Superman Returns, and canceled Singer's proposed sequel. The studio nearly went into production of a Justice League film with George Miller directing and D. J. Cotrona as Superman, but it was shelved in 2008 and the film series was rebooted in 2013 with Man of Steel, directed by Zack Snyder with Henry Cavill starring as Superman. Snyder and Cavill worked together again in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and Justice League.
|Film||U.S. release date||Director(s)||Superman portrayed by||Story by||Screenwriter(s)||Producer(s)||Distributor|
|Superman||January 5, 1948||Spencer Gordon Bennet
|Kirk Alyn||Lewis Clay, Royal K. Cole, Arthur Hoerl,
George H. Plympton and Joseph F. Poland
|Sam Katzman||Columbia Pictures|
|Atom Man vs. Superman||July 20, 1950||Spencer Gordon Bennet||David Mathews,|
George H. Plympton and Joseph F. Poland
|Superman and the Mole Men||November 23, 1951||Lee Sholem||George Reeves||Richard Fielding||Barney A. Sarecky||Lippert Pictures Inc.|
|Superman||December 15, 1978||Richard Donner||Christopher Reeve||Mario Puzo||Mario Puzo, David Newman, Leslie Newman and Robert Benton||Pierre Spengler||Warner Bros.|
|Superman II||June 19, 1981||Richard Lester
Richard Donner (uncredited)
|Mario Puzo, David Newman, Leslie Newman and|
Tom Mankiewicz (creative consultant)
|Superman III||June 17, 1983||Richard Lester||David Newman and Leslie Newman||Ilya Salkind and|
|Superman IV: The Quest for Peace||July 24, 1987||Sidney J. Furie||Lawrence Konner, Mark Rosenthal
and Christopher Reeve
|Lawrence Konner and Mark Rosenthal||Menahem Golan and Yoram Globus|
|Superman Returns||June 28, 2006||Bryan Singer||Brandon Routh||Michael Dougherty, Dan Harris and Bryan Singer||Michael Dougherty & Dan Harris||Jon Peters, Bryan Singer and Gilbert Adler|
|Man of Steel||June 14, 2013||Zack Snyder||Henry Cavill||David S. Goyer and Christopher Nolan||David S. Goyer||Christopher Nolan, Charles Roven, Emma Thomas and Deborah Snyder|
|Batman v Superman:Dawn of Justice||March 25, 2016||Zack Snyder and
David S. Goyer
|Chris Terrio and David S. Goyer||Deborah Snyder and Charles Roven|
|Justice League||November 17, 2017||Zack Snyder, Joss Whedon and
|Chris Terrio||Charles Roven, Deborah Snyder, Jon Berg, Geoff Johns|
Superman first appeared in cinemas in a series of 17 theatrical animated shorts from between 1941 and 1943. They were released by Paramount Pictures. Of those seventeen, nine were produced by Fleischer Studios and further eight by its successor, Famous Studios.
Superman and the Mole Men is a 1951 superhero film starring George Reeves as Superman and Phyllis Coates as Lois Lane. The film was produced by Barney Sarecky and directed by Lee Sholem with the original screenplay by Richard Fielding (a pseudonym for Robert Maxwell and Whitney Ellsworth). Shot on a low budget, it served as a trial run for the syndicated TV series Adventures of Superman, for which it became a pilot two-part episode titled "The Unknown People".
In 1973, producer Ilya Salkind convinced his father Alexander to buy the rights to Superman. They hired Mario Puzo to pen a two-film script, and negotiated with Steven Spielberg to direct, though Alexander Salkind rejected him as Jaws went over budget. Marlon Brando and Gene Hackman signed on to play Jor-El and Lex Luthor respectively, and Guy Hamilton was hired to direct. However, Brando was faced with an obscenity lawsuit in Italy over Last Tango in Paris, and Hamilton was unable to shoot in England as he had violated his tax payments. The Salkinds hired Richard Donner to direct the film. Donner hired Tom Mankiewicz to polish the script, giving it a serious feel with Christ-like overtones. Christopher Reeve was cast as Superman, having initially failed to impress the Salkinds before bulking up. Brando meanwhile, despite spending less than two weeks on the shoot, and not even reading the script until then, earned $3.7 million up front, plus 11.75% of the gross profits from the film. The film was a success both critically and commercially, being released during the Christmas season of 1978; it did not have much competition, leading the producers to believe that this was one factor in the film's success.
Shooting of the two films was marred by Donner's bad relationship with the Salkinds, with Richard Lester acting as mediator. With the film going over-budget, the filmmakers decided to temporarily cease production of II and move that film's climax into the first film. Despite Superman's success, Donner did not return to finish Superman II, and it was completed with Lester, who gave the film a more tongue-in-cheek tone. The Salkinds also cut Brando for financial reasons, while John Williams quit as composer due to turning his attention to other projects. Superman II was another financial and critical success, despite stiff competition with Raiders of the Lost Ark in the same year. In 2006, after receiving many requests for his own version of Superman II, Richard Donner and producer Michael Thau produced their own cut of the film and released it on November 28, 2006. The new version of the film received positive response from critics and the stars of the original film.
For the third installment, Ilya Salkind wrote a treatment that expanded the film's scope to a cosmic scale, introducing the villains Brainiac and Mister Mxyzptlk, as well as Supergirl. The original outline featured a father-daughter relationship between Brainiac and Supergirl, and a romance between Superman and Supergirl, even though the two are cousins in the comics. Warner Bros. rejected it and created their own Superman III film that co-starred Richard Pryor as computer wizard Gus Gorman, who under the manipulation of a millionaire magnate, creates a form of Kryptonite that turns the Man of Steel into an evil self. The retooled script pared Brainiac down into the film's evil "ultimate computer". Despite the film's success, fans were disappointed with the film, in particular with Pryor's performance diluting the serious tone of the previous films, as well as controversy over the depiction of the evil Superman. Salkind's rejected proposal was later released online in 2007.
Upon gaining the rights for the film Superman, Alexander Salkind and his son, Ilya Salkind, also purchased the rights to the character of Superman's cousin Supergirl. Supergirl was released in 1984 as a spin-off of the Reeve films; Reeve was slated to have a cameo but he ultimately backed out of the production. It stars Helen Slater in her first motion picture in the title role, while Faye Dunaway (who received top billing) played the primary villain, Selena; the film also featured Marc McClure reprising his role as Jimmy Olsen. Even though the film performed poorly at the box office, Helen Slater was nominated for a Saturn Award.
Cannon Films picked up an option for a fourth Superman/Reeve film, with Reeve reprising the role due to his interest in the film's topic regarding nuclear weapons. However, Cannon decided to cut the budget of Superman IV: The Quest for Peace from $35 million to $15 million, with poor special effects and heavy re-editing, which contributed to the film's poor reception. Warner Bros. decided to give the series a break following the negative reception of the last two Superman films.
Before the failure of Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, Cannon Films considered producing a fifth film with Albert Pyun as director. Cannon's bankruptcy resulted in the film rights reverting to Ilya and Alexander Salkind. Ilya Salkind wrote the story for Superman V (also known as Superman: The New Movie) with Superboy writers Cary Bates and Mark Jones in the early-1990s. The story had Superman dying and resurrecting in the shrunken, bottled Krypton city of Kandor. The premise of Superman's death and rebirth coincidentally predated "The Death of Superman". Salkind, Bates and Jones developed two drafts of the script, with Christopher Reeve set to reprise the title role.
With the success of "The Death of Superman" comic book storyline, Warner Bros. purchased the film rights of Superman from the Salkinds in 1993, and hired producer Jon Peters to develop a new Superman film. Peters in turn hired Jonathan Lemkin to write a new script.:188 Major toy companies insisted on seeing Lemkin's screenplay before the deadline of the 1993 American International Toy Fair.:188
Lemkin's script, titled Superman Reborn, featured Lois Lane and Clark Kent with relationship troubles, and Superman's battle with Doomsday. When Superman professes his love to Lois, his life force jumps between them just as he dies, giving Lois a virgin birth. Their child, who grows 21-years-old in three weeks, becomes the resurrected Superman and saves the world.:188–189 Warner Bros. did not like the script because of the similar underlying themes with Bruce Wayne's obligations of heroism found in Batman Forever.:189
Peters hired Gregory Poirier to rewrite the script.:189 Poirer's December 1995 script had Brainiac creating Doomsday, infused with "Kryptonite blood". Superman has romance problems with Lois Lane and visits a psychiatrist before he is killed by Doomsday. An alien named Cadmus, a victim of Brainiac, steals his corpse. Superman is resurrected and teams with Cadmus to defeat Brainiac. Powerless, Superman wears a robotic suit until his powers, which, according to the script, are a mental discipline called "Phin-yar", return.:189 At Peter's request, Poirier had Superman wear an all-black suit at the end of the script.:189 Other villains included Parasite and Silver Banshee. Poirier's script impressed Warner Bros., but Kevin Smith was hired to rewrite. Smith thought that Poirier's script did not respect the Superman mythos properly.:189
Kevin Smith pitched Peters his story outline in late 1996, and was allowed to write the screenplay under certain conditions. Peters did not want Superman to fly,:190 arguing that Superman would "look like an overgrown Boy Scout." Smith wrote Superman flying as "a red-and-blue blur in flight, creating a sonic boom every time he flew. Peters also wanted Superman to fight a giant spider in the third act.:190 Smith accepted the terms, realizing that he was being hired to execute a preordained idea.:190 Smith was also forced to write a scene involving Brainiac fighting a polar bear at the Fortress of Solitude.:190 The Star Wars 20th anniversary re-release in theaters also prompted Peters to commission a "space dog" that Brainiac could present to Luthor purely for merchandising appeal and toy sales. Peters also insisted that Brainiac's robot assistant L-Ron was to be voiced by Dwight Ewell, calling the character, "a gay R2-D2 with attitude."
Smith's script, titled Superman Lives, had Brainiac sending Doomsday to kill Superman, as well as blocking out the sun to make Superman powerless, as Superman is fueled by sunlight. Brainiac teams up with Lex Luthor, but Superman is resurrected by a Kryptonian robot, the Eradicator. Brainiac wishes to possess the Eradicator and its technology. Powerless, the resurrected Superman is sheathed in a robotic suit formed from the Eradicator itself until his powers return, courtesy of sunbeams, and defeats Brainiac. Smith's casting choices included Ben Affleck as Clark Kent/Superman, Linda Fiorentino as Lois Lane, Jack Nicholson as Lex Luthor, Famke Janssen as Mercy, John Mahoney as Perry White, David Hyde Pierce as the Eradicator, Jason Lee as Brainiac and Jason Mewes as Jimmy Olsen. Affleck would go on to portray Batman in the DC Extended Universe, beginning with Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice in 2016.
Robert Rodriguez was offered the chance to direct, but turned down the offer due to his commitment on The Faculty, despite liking Smith's script.:191 Smith originally suggested Tim Burton to direct his script, and Burton signed on with a pay-or-play contract of $5 million. Warner Bros. originally planned on a theatrical release date for summer 1998, the 60th anniversary of the character's debut in Action Comics. Nicolas Cage, a comic book fan, signed on as Superman with a $20 million pay-or-play contract, believing he could "reconceive the character.":192 Peters felt Cage could "convince audiences he [Superman] came from outer space." Burton explained Cage's casting would be "the first time you would believe that nobody could recognize Clark Kent as Superman, he [Cage] could physically change his persona." Kevin Spacey was approached for the role of Lex Luthor, while Christopher Walken was Burton's choice for Brainiac, a role also considered for Jim Carrey and Gary Oldman. Sandra Bullock, Courteney Cox and Julianne Moore had been approached for Lois Lane, while Chris Rock was cast as Jimmy Olsen. Michael Keaton confirmed his involvement, but when asked if he would be reprising his role as Batman from Burton's Batman films, he would only reply, "Not exactly."
Filming was originally set to begin in early 1998. In the summer of 1997, Superman Lives entered pre-production,:193 with an art department employed under production designer Rick Heinrichs. Burton hired Wesley Strick to rewrite Smith's script. Smith was disappointed, stating, "The studio was happy with what I was doing. Then Tim Burton got involved, and when he signed his pay-or-play deal, he turned around and said he wanted to do his version of Superman. So who is Warner Bros. going back to? The guy who made Clerks, or the guy who made them half a billion dollars on Batman?":193 When Strick read Smith's script, he was annoyed with the fact that "Superman was accompanied/shadowed by someone/something called the Eradicator.":193 He also felt that "Brainiac's evil plot of launching a disk in space to block out the sun and make Superman powerless was reminiscent of an episode of The Simpsons, with Mr. Burns doing the Brainiac role.":193 However, after reading The Death and Return of Superman, Strick was able to understand some of the elements of Smith's script. Strick's rewrite featured Superman as an existentialist, thinking of himself to be an outsider on Earth. Superman is threatened by Brainiac and Lex Luthor, who later amalgamate into "Lexiac," described by Strick as "a schizo/scary mega-villain.":193 Superman is later resurrected by the power of 'K,' a natural force representing the spirit of Krypton, as he defeats Lexiac.:193
Art designer Sylvain Despretz claimed the art department was assigned to create something that had little or nothing to do with the Superman comic book, and also explained that Peters "would bring kids in, who would rate the drawings on the wall as if they were evaluating the toy possibilities. It was basically a toy show.":196 Peters saw a cover of National Geographic, containing a picture of a skull, going to art department workers, telling them he wanted the design for Brainiac's space ship to have the same image. Burton gave Despretz a concept drawing for Brainiac, which Despretz claims was "a cone with a round ball on top, and something that looked like an emaciated skull inside. Imagine you take Merlin's hat, and you stick a fish bowl on top, with a skull in it.":196 Concept artist Rolf Mohr said in an interview he designed a suit for the Eradicator for a planned scene in which it transforms into a flying vehicle.
Burton chose Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as his primary filming location for Metropolis,:197 while start dates for filming were pushed back. A minor piece of the Krypton set was constructed but then destroyed, and Cage had even attended a costume fitting. The studio was also considering changing the title Superman Lives back to Superman Reborn. Deeming Wesley Strick's script too expensive, Warner Bros. enlisted the help of Dan Gilroy to rewrite it into something more economically feasible. Gilroy lowered the $190 million budget set by Strick's draft to $100 million. However, the studio was still less willing to fast track production, due to financial reasons with other film properties, having Gilroy turn in two drafts. Ultimately, Warner Bros. chose to put the film on hold in April 1998, and Burton left to direct Sleepy Hollow. At this point in production, Warner Bros had spent $30 million on developing the film.:198 Burton, citing various differences with Peters and the studio, said, "I basically wasted a year. A year is a long time to be working with somebody that you don't really want to be working with."
Disappointed by the lack of progress on the film's production, aspiring screenwriter/comic book fan Alex Ford was able to have a script of his (titled Superman: The Man of Steel) accepted at the studio's offices in September 1998. Ford pitched his idea for a film series consisting of seven installments, and his approach impressed Warner Bros. and Peters, though he was later given a farewell due to creative differences. Ford said, "I can tell you they don't know much about comics. Their audience isn't you and me who pay $7.00. It's for the parents who spend $60 on toys and lunchboxes. It is a business, and what's more important, the $150 million at the box office or the $600 million in merchandising?"
With Gilroy's script, Peters offered the director's position to Michael Bay, Shekhar Kapur and Martin Campbell though they all turned down the offer. Brett Ratner turned down the option in favor of The Family Man. Simon West and Stephen Norrington were reportedly top contenders as well. In June 1999, William Wisher, Jr. was hired to write a new script, and Cage assisted on story elements. Cage dropped out of the project in June 2000, while Wisher turned in a new script in August 2000, reported to have contained similar elements with The Matrix. Oliver Stone was then approached to direct Wisher's script, but declined. Peters offered Will Smith the role of Superman, but the actor turned it down over ethnicity concerns. The film's backstory was covered in the 2015 documentary film The Death of "Superman Lives": What Happened?. Kevin Smith directed the ninth episode of the second season of Supergirl, which was titled "Supergirl Lives" as homage to "Superman Lives".
In November 2016, Kevin Smith said that he was open to having the Superman Lives script be adapted as an animated film, with Nicolas Cage voicing Superman and Michael Rooker voicing Lex Luthor. In October 2017, Batman vs. Two-Face writer Michael Jelenic stated that he originally pitched an animated film based on Smith's Superman Lives script, saying that Warner Bros seriously considered it for a long time. According to Jelenic, Cage would have loved to voice Superman in the film, but the idea never materialized and his pitch was abandoned. Cage was ultimately cast to voice Superman in the animated film Teen Titans Go! To the Movies based on the Teen Titans Go! TV show, which was released on July 27, 2018.
Although it was widely reported that McG had become attached to Attanasio's script, in February 2002, J. J. Abrams was hired to write a new screenplay. It would ignore "The Death of Superman" storyline, and instead, it would reboot the film series with an origin story, going under the title of Superman: Flyby. The project had gone as far as being greenlit, but McG dropped out in favor of Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle. The studio approached Wolfgang Petersen to direct Abrams' script; however, in August 2001, Andrew Kevin Walker pitched Warner Bros. an idea titled Batman vs. Superman, attaching Petersen as director. Abrams' script was put on hold, while Akiva Goldsman was hired to rewrite Walker's draft which was codenamed Asylum.
Goldsman's draft, dated June 21, 2002, introduced Bruce Wayne attempting to shake all of the demons in his life after his five-year retirement from crimefighting. Dick Grayson, Alfred Pennyworth, and Commissioner Gordon are all dead. Meanwhile, Clark Kent is down on his luck and in despair after his divorce from Lois Lane. Clark serves as Bruce's best man at his wedding to the beautiful and lovely Elizabeth Miller. After Elizabeth is killed by the Joker at the honeymoon, Bruce is forced to don the Batsuit once more, tangling a plot which involves Lex Luthor, while Clark begins a romance with Lana Lang in Smallville and tries to pull Bruce back. In return, Bruce blames Clark for her death, and the two go against one another. Part of the script took place in Smallville, where Clark goes into exile with Lana Lang. However, Lex Luthor is held to be responsible for the entire plot of Batman and Superman destroying each other. The two decide to team up and stop Luthor. Christian Bale, who was being considered for the lead in Darren Aronofsky's Batman: Year One adaptation at the time, was simultaneously approached by Peterson for the Superman role. Peterson confirmed in a 2010 interview the only other actor he approached for Superman was Josh Hartnett. Warner Bros. canceled development to focus on individual Superman and Batman projects after Abrams submitted another draft for Superman: Flyby. Christopher Nolan would later cast Bale as Batman the following year in Batman Begins. In the opening scene of I Am Legend, a large banner displays the Superman symbol within the Batman symbol in Times Square. It is meant as an in-joke by writer Akiva Goldsman, who wrote scripts for Batman vs. Superman and I Am Legend.
Turning in his script in July 2002, J. J. Abrams' Superman: Flyby was an origin story that included Krypton besieged by a civil war between Jor-El and his corrupt brother Kata-Zor. Before Kata-Zor sentences Jor-El to prison, Kal-El is launched to Earth to fulfill a prophecy. Adopted by Jonathan and Martha Kent, he forms a romance with Lois Lane in the Daily Planet. However, Lois is more concerned with exposing Lex Luthor, written as a government agent obsessed with UFO phenomena. Clark reveals himself to the world as Superman, bringing Kata-Zor's son, Ty-Zor, and three other Kryptonians to Earth. Superman is defeated and killed, and visits Jor-El (who committed suicide on Krypton while in prison) in Kryptonian heaven. Resurrected, he returns to Earth and defeats the four Kryptonians. The script ends with Superman flying off to Krypton in a spaceship.
Brett Ratner was hired to direct in September 2002, originally expressing an interest in casting an unknown for the lead role, while filming was to start sometime in late 2003. Christopher Reeve joined as project consultant, citing Tom Welling, who portrayed the teenage Clark Kent in Smallville, as an ideal candidate. Reeve added "the character is more important than the actor who plays him, because it is an enduring mythology. It definitely should be an unknown." Ratner approached Josh Hartnett, Jude Law, Paul Walker and Brendan Fraser for Superman, but conceded that finding a famous actor for the title role had proven difficult because of contractual obligations to appear in sequels. "No star wants to sign that, but as much as I've told Jude and Josh my vision for the movie, I've warned them of the consequences of being Superman. They'll live this character for 10 years because I'm telling one story over three movies and plan to direct all three if the first is as successful as everyone suspects." Hartnett in particular was offered $100 million for a three-picture deal. Walker explained that "I could have made a gazillion dollars on that franchise. I could probably have bought my own fleet of jets or my own island. You know what? I don't need it." David Boreanaz, Victor Webster and Ashton Kutcher auditioned, along with Keri Russell as Lois Lane, but Kutcher decided not to pursue the role, citing scheduling conflicts with That '70s Show, the Superman curse and fear of typecasting, while Boreanaz had to back out due to obligations with Angel. James Marsden stated in a 2006 interview that at one point he was approached by Ratner. Although it was never formally announced, Matt Bomer confirmed he was in the running for the lead role, being Ratner's preferred choice at the time. Bomer would later voice the character in the 2013 animated film Superman: Unbound. Amy Adams had also auditioned for Lois Lane, and would eventually win the role eight years later when she was cast in Man of Steel.
Superman: Flyby was being met with a budget exceeding $200 million, not including money spent on Superman Reborn, Superman Lives, and Batman vs. Superman, but Warner Bros. was still adamant for a summer 2004 release date. Christopher Walken was in negotiations for Perry White, while Ratner wanted to cast Anthony Hopkins as Jor-El, and Ralph Fiennes as Lex Luthor, two of his cast members in Red Dragon. Joel Edgerton turned down a chance to audition as Superman in favor of the villain Ty-Zor, before Ratner dropped out of the project in March 2003, blaming casting delays, and aggressive feuds with producer Jon Peters.
McG returned as director in 2003, while Fraser continued to express interest, but had fears of typecasting. ESC Entertainment was hired for visual effects work, with Kim Libreri as visual effects supervisor and Stan Winston designing a certain "prototype suit". McG approached Shia LaBeouf for Jimmy Olsen, with an interest to cast an unknown for Superman, Scarlett Johansson as Lois Lane and Johnny Depp for Lex Luthor. The director confirmed in a 2012 interview that Robert Downey, Jr. had been cast as Lex Luthor. Neal H. Moritz and Gilbert Adler were set to produce the film. McG also commissioned Josh Schwartz to rewrite the Abrams script. He wanted to shoot in Canada, which would have cost $25 million more than WB's preferred Australian locale. McG also shot test footage with several candidates, including Jason Behr, Henry Cavill, Jared Padalecki, and Michael Cassidy before leaving, blaming budgetary concerns and filming locations. He opted to shoot in New York City and Canada, but Warner Bros. wanted Sydney. McG felt "it was inappropriate to try to capture the heart of America on another continent." He later admitted it was his fear of flying. Abrams lobbied for the chance to direct his script, but Warner Bros. replaced McG with Bryan Singer in July 2004, resulting in Superman Returns, that was released in 2006.
In August 2013, Geoff Johns mentioned that Warner Bros. was considering turning unproduced scripts and screenplays into original animated films and had expressed interest in making an animated adaptation of the Flyby screenplay.
Following the departure of Ratner and McG, Bryan Singer, who was said to be a childhood fan of Richard Donner's film, was approached by Warner Bros. He accepted, abandoning two films already in pre-production, X-Men: The Last Stand (which, coincidentally, would come to be directed by Ratner) and a remake of Logan's Run. The film uses the events of Superman and, to less of a degree, Superman II as backstory, while completely ignoring the events of Superman III and Superman IV: The Quest for Peace. Singer's story tells of Superman's return to Earth following a five-year search for survivors of Krypton. He discovers that in his absence Lois Lane has given birth to a son and become engaged. Singer chose to follow Donner's lead by casting relatively unknown Brandon Routh as Superman, who resembled Christopher Reeve somewhat, and more high-profile actors in supporting roles, such as Kevin Spacey as Lex Luthor. Singer brought his entire crew from X2 to work on the film. Via digitally-enhanced archive footage, the late Marlon Brando appeared in the film as Jor-El. Superman Returns received positive reviews and grossed approximately $391 million worldwide.
In February 2006, four months before the release of Superman Returns, Warner Bros. announced a summer 2009 theatrical release date for a sequel, with Bryan Singer returning as director. Brandon Routh, Kate Bosworth, Kevin Spacey, Sam Huntington, Frank Langella, and Tristan Lake Leabu were expected to reprise their roles, however, with the release of Superman Returns in July 2006, Warner Bros. was hesitant on moving forward with development. Warner Bros. President Alan F. Horn explained that Superman Returns was a very successful film, but that it "should have done $500 million worldwide. We should have had perhaps a little more action to satisfy the young male crowd." Singer reacted incredulously to the studio complaints, saying, "That movie made $400 million! I don't know what constitutes under-performing these days ..." Filming was supposed to start in March 2008; no screenplay was ever written, but Singer would have titled it Man of Steel, with an interest in Darkseid as the main villain. Singer stressed that it would have been more action-packed than Superman Returns. while writer Michael Dougherty was interested in using Brainiac. "In my mind, if the Kryptonians really were a space-faring race ... it would only make sense that there would've been colonies and off-planet missions ... other Kryptonians making their way to Earth seemed like a pretty big one. It wouldn't necessarily be evil right off the bat. That's too easy and cliché ... I think it'd be interesting to see how these other Kryptonians show up, land and have all these powers and [have to learn] how to adapt to them."
Warner Bros. commissioned husband and wife duo Michele and Kieran Mulroney to write a script for a Justice League film in February 2007, halting development for the Superman Returns sequel. The Justice League script was submitted to Warner Bros. the following June, which prompted the studio to immediately fast track production. Singer went on to film Valkyrie the following month, and George Miller signed to direct Justice League: Mortal in September 2007. The script would have featured a different Superman in a separate continuity from Singer's film; Routh was not approached to reprise his role for Justice League: Mortal, which ended up going to D. J. Cotrona. The film nearly went into production in March 2008, but the Australian Film Commission denied Warner Bros. their 40 percent tax rebate and Cotrona's options eventually expired. With Justice League: Mortal canceled, Singer renewed his interest in the Superman sequel that same month, stating that it was in early development. Paul Levitz, president of DC Comics, still expected Routh to reprise the title role, but Routh's contract for a sequel expired in 2009. "Superman Returns didn't quite work as a film in the way that we wanted it to," Warner Bros. President of Production Jeff Robinov admitted in August 2008. "It didn't position the character the way he needed to be positioned. Had Superman worked in 2006, we would have had a movie for Christmas of this year or 2009. Now the plan is just to reintroduce Superman without regard to a Batman and Superman movie at all."
In June 2008, Warner Bros. took pitches from comic book writers, screenwriters and directors on how to restart the Superman film series. During story discussions for The Dark Knight Rises in 2008, David S. Goyer, aware that Warner Bros. was planning a Superman reboot, told Christopher Nolan his idea on how to present Superman in a modern context. Impressed with Goyer's concept, Nolan pitched the idea to the studio in February 2010, who hired Nolan to produce and Goyer to write based on the financial and critical success of The Dark Knight. Nolan admired Singer's work on Superman Returns for its connection to Richard Donner's version, and previously used the 1978 film as casting inspiration for Batman Begins. Zack Snyder was hired as the film's director in October 2010. Principal photography started in August 2011 in West Chicago, Illinois, before moving to Vancouver and Plano, Illinois. The film stars Henry Cavill as Clark Kent/Kal-El/Superman, Amy Adams as Lois Lane, Michael Shannon as General Zod, Diane Lane as Martha Kent, Kevin Costner as Jonathan Kent, Laurence Fishburne as Perry White, and Russell Crowe as Jor-El.
David S. Goyer and Zack Snyder are set to write and direct a sequel to Man of Steel, respectively. Christopher Nolan is also expected to return as producer, albeit in a lesser role than he had in the first film. On June 16, 2013, The Wall Street Journal reported that the studio is possibly planning to release the sequel in 2014. Warner Bros. announced that Superman and Batman will unite in a new film which will be the follow-up to Man of Steel, set for release in 2015. Goyer stated at the Superman 75th Anniversary Panel at 2013 San Diego Comic-Con International, that Batman and Superman would face off, and titles under consideration are Superman Vs Batman and Batman Vs Superman. On August 22, 2013, it was announced that Ben Affleck was cast as Batman. On December 4, 2013, it was reported that Gal Gadot was cast as Wonder Woman.
On January 17, 2014, it was announced that the film had been delayed from its original July 17, 2015 release date to March 25, 2016, in order to give the filmmakers "time to realize fully their vision, given the complex visual nature of the story". On January 31, 2014, Jesse Eisenberg and Jeremy Irons were cast as Lex Luthor and Alfred Pennyworth, respectively. In an official press release, Snyder described the casting of Eisenberg as Luthor by stating, "Having Jesse in the role allows us to explore that interesting dynamic, and also take the character in some new and unexpected directions."
Shortly after filming had finished for Man of Steel, Warner Bros hired Will Beall to script a new Justice League film in June 2012. With the release of Man of Steel in June 2013, Goyer was hired to write a new Justice League script, with the Beall draft being scrapped. In April 2014, it was announced that Zack Snyder would also be directing Goyer's Justice League script. Warner Bros. was reportedly courting Chris Terrio to rewrite Justice League the following July, after having been impressed with his rewrite of Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. In October 2014, Warner Bros. announced the film would be released in two parts as the fifth and ninth installments of the shared universe, with Part One releasing in 2017, and Part Two in 2019. Snyder will direct both films with Henry Cavill set to reprise his role as Superman.
In October 2014, a Man of Steel sequel was announced with an intended release between 2016 and 2020. In August 2015, Jon Schnepp revealed to DC Movie News on the Popcorn Network that the studio are rumored to have George Miller as the director for the sequel. In June 2016, Russel Crowe confirmed that a Man of Steel trilogy was originally planned before it was scrapped due to the announcement of Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. In August 2016, The Wrap reported that the studio had announced that the sequel was in development as a top priority for the studio and getting the character right for audiences was of tantamount importance. The news of a standalone Superman film were later confirmed by Dany Garcia, Henry Cavill's manager. While promoting Arrival, Amy Adams confirmed work has begun on the screenplay. Shortly after the release of Justice League, Cavill revealed he is under contract to play Superman for one more film.
|Character||Christopher Reeve series||Superman Returns||DC Extended Universe|
|Superman||Superman II||Superman III||Superman IV: The Quest for Peace||Man of Steel||Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice||Justice League||Shazam!|
|Christopher Reeve||Christopher Reeve||Brandon Routh||Henry Cavill||Henry Cavill||Ryan HadleyUC|
|Jeff EastY||Aaron SmolinskiYA|
|Aaron SmolinskiY||Stephan BenderY||Dylan SprayberryY|
|Elizabeth SweetmanUY||Cooper TimberlineY|
|Lois Lane||Margot Kidder||Kate Bosworth||Amy Adams|
|Lex Luthor||Gene Hackman||Gene Hackman||Kevin Spacey||Jesse Eisenberg||Jesse EisenbergC|
|Jor-El||Marlon Brando||Marlon BrandoA||Marlon BrandoA||Russell Crowe|
|Lara Lor-Van||Susannah York||Susannah YorkV||Ayelet Zurer|
|Jonathan Kent||Glenn Ford||Glenn FordP||Kevin Costner||Kevin CostnerC||Kevin CostnerP|
|Martha Kent||Phyllis Thaxter||Eva Marie Saint||Diane Lane|
|Perry White||Jackie Cooper||Frank Langella||Laurence Fishburne|
|Jimmy Olsen||Marc McClure||Sam Huntington||Michael Cassidy|
|General Dru-Zod||Terence Stamp||Michael Shannon||Michael ShannonCS|
|Lana Lang||Diane Sherry||Annette O'Toole||Jadin Gould||Emily Peterson|
|Brad Wilson||Brad Flock||Gavan O'Herlihy|
|Ursa / Faora||Sarah Douglas||Antje Traue|
|Eve Teschmacher||Valerie Perrine|
|Jenny Jurwich||Rebecca Buller|
|Calvin Swanwick||Harry Lennix|
|Carrie Ferris||Christina Wren|
|Father Leone||Coburn Goss|
|Glen Woodburn||Chad Krowchuk|
|Bibbo Bibbowski||Jack Larson||Bruce Bohne|
|Pete Ross||Jack FoleyY||Josheph Cranford|
|President of the United States||E. G. Marshall||Robert Beatty||Patrick WilsonV|
|Ben Affleck||Ben Affleck||Bill DeanV|
|Alfred Pennyworth||Jeremy Irons|
A Marlon Brando's scenes as Jor-El were entirely cut from the theatrical release of Superman II, but were later restored when the film was re-released in 2006 under the name, Superman II: The Richard Donner Cut.
B The corpse of the now-deceased General Zod also appears in the film in a crucial role, however, Michael Shannon did not film any scenes for the film and his corpse was created using the physique of fitness model Greg Plitt and a head-shot of Shannon.
Superman IV: The Quest for Peace
Man of Steel
Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice
indicates that the film in the series is currently playing
|Film||Release date||Box office gross||Ref(s)|
|North America||North American
gross when adjusted
December 15, 1978
|Superman II||June 19, 1981||December 4, 1980||$108,185,706||$328,970,186||$82.2 million||$190,385,706|||
June 17, 1983
|Supergirl||November 21, 1984||July 19, 1984||$14,296,438||$34,477,220||
|Superman IV: The Quest for Peace||
July 24, 1987
June 28, 2006
|Man of Steel||
June 14, 2013
|Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice||
March 25, 2016
|Justice League||November 17, 2017||October 26, 2017||$229,000,000||$234,067,472||$428,900,000||$657,900,000|
|Superman||94% (65 reviews)||86 (11 reviews)||N/A|
|Superman II||85% (47 reviews)||87 (11 reviews)||N/A|
|Superman III||25% (44 reviews)||42 (9 reviews)||N/A|
|Supergirl||7% (27 reviews)||N/A||N/A|
|Superman IV: The Quest for Peace||12% (41 reviews)||22 (10 reviews)||C|
|Superman Returns||75% (260 reviews)||72 (40 reviews)||B+|
|Man of Steel||56% (318 reviews)||55 (47 reviews)||A−|
|Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice||27% (396 reviews)||44 (51 reviews)||B|
|Justice League||40% (352 reviews)||45 (52 reviews)||B+|
The initial four Superman films were released previously on VHS, and throughout the film series' history, three box sets of the films have been released by Warner Bros. The first occurred on May 1, 2001, when The Complete Superman Collection was released both on DVD and VHS, containing that year's DVD/home video releases of Superman, Superman II, Superman III, and Superman IV. The set was valued at US$49.99 for the DVD release and US$29.99 for the VHS release, and received positive reviews.
The four Christopher Reeve films were again released on November 28, 2006, in new DVD releases to coincide with Superman Returns, also released in that year. Superman was released in a four-disc 'special edition' similar to Superman II, which was released in a two-disc special edition. Both Superman III and IV were released in single disc 'deluxe editions', and all four releases were available together in The Christopher Reeve Superman Collection, an 8-disc set that was valued at US$79.92. Like the 2001 set before it, The Christopher Reeve Superman Collection received positive reviews.
Also on November 28, 2006, a 14-disc DVD box set titled Superman Ultimate Collector's Edition was released, containing Superman, Superman II, Superman II: The Richard Donner Cut, Superman III, Superman IV, Superman Returns, and Look, Up in the Sky: The Amazing Story of Superman, among other releases. All contents of the set were housed within a tin case. The set was valued at US$99.92, and received extremely positive reviews when first released. However, after only a day on the market, Warner Bros. announced that there were two errors discovered within the set. The first was that the 2.0 audio track on Superman, was instead the 5.1 audio track already on the disc. The second was that the Superman III disc was not the 2006 deluxe edition as advertised, but the 2001 release instead. The set was soon recalled, and Warner Bros. offered a toll-free number to replace the faulty discs for people who had already purchased the set. Due to popular demand, a corrected set was released and Superman Ultimate Collector's Edition returned to store shelves on May 29, 2007.
On October 14, 2008, another Christopher Reeve Superman film collection was released, entitled Superman: 4 Film Favorites, containing all four films, but with far less bonus material than previous sets. The collection was a 2-disc DVD-18 set that included the first disc of both special editions from the 2006 release and both deluxe editions.
The fictional superhero Batman, who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics, has appeared in various films since his inception. Created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger, the character first starred in two serial films in the 1940s: Batman and Batman and Robin. The character also appeared in the 1966 film Batman, which was a feature film adaptation of the 1960s Batman TV series starring Adam West and Burt Ward, who also starred in the film. Toward the end of the 1980s, the Warner Bros. studio began producing a series of feature films starring Batman, beginning with the 1989 film Batman, directed by Tim Burton and starring Michael Keaton. Burton and Keaton returned for the 1992 sequel Batman Returns, and in 1995, Joel Schumacher directed Batman Forever with Val Kilmer as Batman. Schumacher also directed the 1997 sequel Batman & Robin, which starred George Clooney. Batman & Robin was poorly received by both critics and fans, leading to the cancellation of Batman Unchained.Following the cancellation of two further film proposals, the franchise was rebooted in 2005 with Batman Begins, directed by Christopher Nolan and starring Christian Bale. Nolan returned to direct two further installments through the release of The Dark Knight in 2008 and The Dark Knight Rises in 2012, with Bale reprising his role in both films. Both sequels earned over $1 billion worldwide, making Batman the second film franchise to have two of its films earn more than $1 billion worldwide. Referred to as The Dark Knight Trilogy, the critical acclaim and commercial success of Nolan's films have been credited with restoring widespread popularity to the superhero, with the second installment considered one of the best superhero movies of all-time.
After Warner Bros. launched their own shared cinematic universe known as the DC Extended Universe in 2013, Ben Affleck was cast to portray Batman in the new expansive franchise, first appearing in 2016 with the Zack Snyder directed film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. The film would help begin a sequence of further DC Comics adaptations, including Justice League, a crossover film featuring other DC Comics characters, in 2017, and a stand-alone Batman film directed by Matt Reeves. Outside of the DCEU, Dante Pereira-Olson will appear as Bruce Wayne in the 2019 film Joker, directed by Todd Phillips.The series has grossed over $4.99 billion at the global box office, making it the eleventh highest-grossing film franchise of all time. Batman has also appeared in multiple animated films, both as a starring character and as an ensemble character. While most animated films were released direct-to-video, the 1993 animated feature Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, based on the 1990s Batman: The Animated Series, was released theatrically. Having earned a total of U.S. $2,407,708,129 the Batman series is the fifth-highest-grossing film series in North America.DC Universe
The DC Universe (DCU) is the fictional shared universe where most stories in American comic book titles published by DC Comics take place. DC superheroes such as Superman, Batman and Wonder Woman are from this universe, and it also contains well known supervillains such as Lex Luthor, the Joker and Darkseid. In context, the term "DC Universe" usually refers to the main DC continuity.
The term "DC Multiverse" refers to the collection of all continuities within DC Comics publications. Within the Multiverse, the main DC Universe has gone by many names, but in recent years has been referred to by "Prime Earth" (not to be confused with "Earth Prime") or "Earth 0".
The main DC Universe, as well as the alternate realities related to it, began as the first shared universe in comic books and were quickly adapted to other media such as film serials or radio dramas. In subsequent decades, the continuity between all of these media became increasingly complex with certain storylines and events designed to simplify or streamline the more confusing aspects of characters' histories.List of films based on DC Comics
DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book publishers. It produces material featuring numerous well-known superhero characters, including Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, The Flash, Aquaman, and Green Arrow. Most of this material takes place in a shared fictional universe, which also features teams such as the Justice League, the Suicide Squad, and the Teen Titans. The company has also published non-DC Universe-related material, including V for Vendetta, and many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo.
Film adaptations based on DC Comics properties have included serials, live action and animated films, direct-to-video releases, television films, fan-made films, and documentary films.List of highest-grossing media franchises
This is a list of the highest-grossing media franchises. This includes media franchises that started as a book, film, video game, comic book, animation, cartoon or television series and have expanded to other forms of media. This list covers every aspect of a particular franchise, such as box office, sales from merchandise, home entertainment, and revenue from video games, among other things, if such information is available.
The list includes the total revenue figure and the revenue breakdown. For franchises where a total revenue figure is not known to have been reported, an estimate is given based on combined revenue from different media. For franchises where a reported figure is not up-to-date, an updated estimate is given based on available data.Superman Returns
Superman Returns is a 2006 American superhero film directed and co-produced by Bryan Singer and written by Michael Dougherty and Dan Harris, from a story by Singer, Dougherty and Harris. It is based on the DC Comics character Superman and serves as a homage sequel to the motion pictures Superman (1978) and Superman II (1980), while ignoring the events of Superman III (1983) and Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1987), including its spin-off Supergirl (1984). The film stars Brandon Routh as Clark Kent/Superman, Kate Bosworth as Lois Lane, Kevin Spacey as Lex Luthor, with James Marsden, Frank Langella, and Parker Posey. The film tells the story of the title character returning to Earth after a five-year absence. He finds that his love interest Lois Lane has moved on with her life, and that his archenemy Lex Luthor is plotting a scheme that will destroy both Superman and America.
After a series of unsuccessful projects to resurrect Superman on screen following the critical failure and box office disappointment of Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, Warner Bros. hired Bryan Singer to direct and develop Superman Returns in July 2004. The majority of principal photography took place at Fox Studios Australia, Sydney, while the visual effects sequences were created by a number of studios, including Sony Pictures Imageworks, Rhythm & Hues, Framestore, Rising Sun Pictures, and The Orphanage; filming ended in November 2005.
Upon release, Superman Returns received generally positive reviews, with critics praising its visual effects, story, musical score, the performances of Routh and Spacey. However, it received criticism focusing on its runtime and lack of action sequences. While it was a box office success, Warner Bros. was disappointed with the worldwide box office return. A sequel was planned for a summer 2009 release, but the project was later canceled. The Superman film series was completely rebooted in 2013 with the film Man of Steel, directed by Zack Snyder and starring Henry Cavill as Superman.
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