Superior, Wisconsin

Superior is a city in, and the county seat of, Douglas County in the state of Wisconsin.[4] The population was 27,244 at the 2010 census. Located at the junction of U.S. Highway 2 and U.S. Highway 53, it is immediately north of and adjacent to both the Village of Superior and the Town of Superior. Its neighborhoods include Billings Park, North End, South Superior, Central Park, East End, Allouez, and Itasca. Billings Park, South Superior, East End, and North End each have small business districts.

Superior is at the western end of Lake Superior in northwestern Wisconsin. Bordered by Saint Louis, Superior, and Allouez bays, the city is framed by two rivers: the Nemadji and the Saint Louis. Superior and the neighboring city across the bay, Duluth, Minnesota, form a single metropolitan area called the Twin Ports. They share a harbor that is one of the most important ports on the Great Lakes. Both cities feature museum ships (SS William A. Irvin in Duluth and SS Meteor in Superior) devoted to the local maritime heritage. Superior was the final port of call for the Edmund Fitzgerald before its sinking in 1975.

Superior, Wisconsin
Downtown Superior.
Downtown Superior.
Location of the city of Superior in Douglas County, Wisconsin
Location of the city of Superior
in Douglas County, Wisconsin
Superior is located in Wisconsin
Location of the city of Superior
in Douglas County, Wisconsin
Coordinates: 46°42′24.77″N 92°5′6.92″W / 46.7068806°N 92.0852556°WCoordinates: 46°42′24.77″N 92°5′6.92″W / 46.7068806°N 92.0852556°W
CountryUnited States
IncorporatedSeptember 6, 1854
 • MayorJim Paine
 • Total55.65 sq mi (144.13 km2)
 • Land36.96 sq mi (95.73 km2)
 • Water18.69 sq mi (48.41 km2)
 • Total27,244
 • Estimate 
 • Density737.1/sq mi (284.6/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
Area code(s)715 and 534
FIPS code55-78650
Fairlawn Mansion
Fairlawn Mansion, built by Superior's three-time mayor Martin Pattison for his family in 1891. The 42-room mansion is now a museum.


The first-known inhabitants of what is now Douglas County were Mound Builders. These people appeared on the shores of Lake Superior sometime after the latest glacier receded. They mined copper in the Minong Range and at Manitou Falls on the Black River. They pounded this metal into weapons, implements, and ornaments, some of which were later found buried as grave goods in mounds with their dead. Their civilization was eventually overrun by other tribes, mainly of Muskhogean and Iroquois stock, and they disappeared as a distinct culture in late prehistoric American times.

About the time of the European arrival, the Duluth–Superior region transitioned from being predominately Dakota to being predominately Ojibwa/Chippewa (Anishinaabe), one of the many Algonquian language people. Under pressure from the Ojibwa, the Dakota moved west. In the Ojibwa oral history, Spirit Island in the Saint Louis River was their "Sixth Stopping Place," where the northern and southern divisions of the Ojibwa nation came together in their westward migration. The City of Superior in the Ojibwe language is called Gete-oodena, meaning "Old Town." The Lake Superior Chippewa continued to migrate, with many settling to the east toward Madeline Island, the "Seventh Stopping Place." The Mississippi Chippewa migrated toward what is today Brainerd, Minnesota. (The two populations called both the settlements at Bayfield, Wisconsin and Brainerd as Oshki-oodena ("New Town") in the Ojibwe language).

The first-known Europeans to visit the area were French. In 1618, Étienne Brûlé, a voyager for Samuel de Champlain, coasted along the south shore of Lake Superior where he met the Ojibwa. Upon returning to Quebec, he carried back some copper specimens and a glowing account of the region. In 1632, Champlain’s map was made of the area, showing “Lac Superior de Tracy” as Lake Superior and the lower end shore as “Fond du Lac.” Soon after, fur trading companies established posts, while Jesuit missionaries came to convert and learn from the Anishinaabe.

For more than a century, the Hudson's Bay Company, followed by the North West Company in 1787 and later, John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company, maintained trading posts with the Anishinaabe, exchanging European tools and goods for their furs and processed leathers. Settlements developed around the trading posts. Many fur traders, the capitalized partners, married high-ranking Ojibwa women; both sides considered such marriages part of building alliances between the cultures. Fur trappers, who lived among the Ojibwa for months at a time and ranged throughout their territory, also married Ojibwa women. Their mixed-race children were called Métis by the French Canadians. Many of the men also entered the fur trade, becoming interpreters and guides as well.

Douglas County was organized at the site of one of the major water highways used by early travelers and voyagers of inland America. This water trail, the Bois Brule–St. Croix River Portage Trail, was the most convenient connecting link between Lake Superior and the Mississippi River. The Bois Brule and St. Croix River systems were separated only by a short portage over the Eastern Continental Divide near Solon Springs, Wisconsin. The northward traveler used this water trail reach Lake Superior, while the downstream traveler could use it to go southwest to the Gulf of Mexico, unhindered by portages, by using the St. Croix and Mississippi rivers. This waterway was also an important route in the Wisconsin fur trade, particularly when the French War with the Fox Indians closed the more southern routes.

The twin ports-Superior, Wisconsin, Duluth, Minnesota
1915 Panoramic map of the Twin Ports, Superior on the left and Duluth on the right, by Henry Wellge

In the nineteenth century, spurred by the prospect of lucrative shipping on the Great Lakes and exploitation of the iron ore industry, businessmen from Chicago and St. Paul, Minnesota laid claim to the site which became the city of Superior. They planned to lay out the plots of a great city, and attract new European-American settlers for development of the area.

The first log cabin in Superior was erected in September 1853 on the banks of the Nemadji River, at the same time that ground was broken for construction of the locks and ship canal at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. This was intended to allow ships to bypass the rapids at that site. Superior was incorporated as a city on September 6, 1854.[5] Around the same time Superior became the seat of newly formed Douglas County. Immediately there was eagerness for a railroad from Lake Superior to the Pacific Coast, and investment flowed in, but then the Panic of 1857 hit, investment slowed, and the population of the new city collapsed from 2500 to 500.[6]

Twenty-five years later the Northern Pacific Railway and other rail lines finally arrived, fulfilling the dream of a rail and water highway from coast to coast. In 1883 General John H. Hammond formed the Land and River Improvement Company, which developed much of West Superior, including the West Superior Iron and Steel plant. Numerous grain, coal and lumber businesses formed in the same period.[6]

Minnesota Block, a.k.a. Board of Trade Building, built 1892

In the Boom Period from 1888 to 1892, Land and River Improvement and others built impressive architect-designed business blocks on Tower Avenue, seeing Superior as the "new Chicago." Many of the investors were from out East, so the buildings received names like the New Jersey Block and the Maryland Block.[6] By 1892, population was 34,000. Then the Panic of 1893 hit, and development slowed again.[6]

Between 1890 and 1920, the city was heavily settled by migrants from the eastern United States as well as immigrants from over 15 countries, including England, Scotland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Belgium, Poland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Hungary, and Croatia.


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 55.65 square miles (144.13 km2), of which, 36.96 square miles (95.73 km2) is land and 18.69 square miles (48.41 km2) is water.[1]46°42′48″N 92°05′16″W / 46.713385°N 92.087746°W[7]) Most of Superior is level with a gradual slope toward Lake Superior.

There are several parks in the city, including the second largest municipal forest in the United States, located in the city's Billings Park neighborhood. Pattison State Park is one of two state parks within a short driving distance south of the city. Pattison State Park contains Big Manitou Falls, the highest waterfall in the state at 165 feet (50 m). Amnicon Falls State Park, also a short driving distance from Superior, features a series of waterfalls created by the Douglas Fault.


Major highways

The following routes are located within the city of Superior.


Richard I. Bong Airport (KSUW) serves the city and surrounding communities. Duluth International Airport in Duluth is the nearest commercial airport, with service on three commercial and two cargo airlines as of December, 2018.



Historical population
Census Pop.
Est. 201626,475[3]−2.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
2014 Estimate[9]

2010 census

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 27,244 people, 11,670 households, and 6,548 families residing in the city. The population density was 737.1 inhabitants per square mile (284.6/km2). There were 12,328 housing units at an average density of 333.5 per square mile (128.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.5% White, 1.4% African American, 2.6% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population.

There were 11,670 households of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.2% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.9% were non-families. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.84.

The median age in the city was 35.4 years. 21.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 13.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26% were from 25 to 44; 25.9% were from 45 to 64; and 13.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female.

2000 census

As of the 2000 census, there were 27,368 people, 11,609 households, and 6,698 families residing in the city. The population density was 740.9 people per square mile (286.1/km²). There were 12,196 housing units at an average density of 330.2 per square mile (127.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 94.26% White, 0.68% Black or African American, 2.23% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, and 1.69% from two or more races. 0.83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.8% were of German, 13.6% Norwegian, 10.9% Swedish, 9.3% Irish, 7.2% Polish, 6.9% Finnish and 5.3% American ancestry according to the 2000 census.

There were 11,609 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.3% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.3% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.91.

The city's median household income was $31,921, and the median family income was $41,093. Males had a median income of $33,712 versus $22,073 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,253. 13.4% of the population and 9.6% of families were below the poverty line. 16.0% of those under the age of 18 and 7.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 12.9% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.


The transportation industry accounts for more than 1,000 jobs. The Twin Ports of Duluth–Superior, the largest in the Great Lakes, welcomes both domestic and foreign vessels. Bulk solids (such as grain) make up much of the tonnage handled by the port, and the silos of such port facilities are visible on the Superior waterfront. In 2004, the port's busiest year since 1979, more than 41.4 million metric tons were shipped out of the port. Burlington Northern Railroad has an operations hub in Superior.

Husky Energy operates a refinery in Superior.[10] The refinery is located along a pipeline connecting western Canada and the Midwest. On April 26, 2018, there was an explosion at the refinery around 10:00 AM. Douglas County then issued a state of emergency due to heavy smoke. Around 1:00 PM, the county issued evacuation for residents and workers 1 mile north, 3 miles east and west, and 10 miles south of the refinery. There were 20 initial injuries, and 5 were transported to the hospital in Duluth, Minnesota. No fatalities were reported.

Growing area manufacturers include FenTech, Inc., which manufactures vinyl doors and windows; Charter NEX Films, a producer of plastic films; Genesis Attachments, manufacturer of shears and grapples; Amsoil, a producer of synthetic motor oil and lubricants; and Crane Song Ltd., a manufacturer of discrete Class A electronics for recording studios. Fraser Shipyards also provides many jobs to local residents. They repower and repair commercial vessels.


Main entrance of the University of Wisconsin–Superior, with Campus Welcome Center in foreground.
Superior has both the first and last Carnegie libraries built in Wisconsin. The first, pictured, was built in 1901 and served as the main library until 1991.

Superior is served by the Superior School District, which has one high school, one middle school, and six elementary schools with a total enrollment of over 5,000 students. Superior High School enrolls more than 1,500 students. Its mascot is the Spartan. Over 1,400 students are also enrolled in Maple School District's schools. Parochial schools include the Catholic Cathedral School, the Protestant-based Maranatha Academy and Twin Ports Baptist School.[11]

The University of Wisconsin–Superior (UWS) is a public liberal arts college. Originally opened as a state Normal School (teacher's college), UWS became part of the University of Wisconsin System in 1971.[12]

Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College (WITC) offers skill development and technical education, with an enrollment of over 2,200.

The Superior Public Library is in the heart of downtown Superior. It offers users the opportunity to learn more about area history and displays an extensive art collection.


Print media



Many of the stations serving Superior come from the Duluth market:

  • 6 KBJR-TV (NBC) - Superior
  • 3 KDLH (CBS) - Duluth
  • 8 WDSE (PBS) - Duluth
  • 10 WDIO-DT (ABC) - Duluth
  • 21 KQDS (Fox) - Duluth
  • 27 KCWV (Family Chanel) - Duluth


Superior is the episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Superior, and the Cathedral of Christ the King in Superior is the mother church of the diocese. Saint Francis Xavier Catholic Church, located in the East End of Superior, has been noted for its architecture. Christ Evangelical Lutheran Church is the only congregation of the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod located in Superior. It recently moved from its original location on Belknap Street to a new campus on North 28th Street. Pilgrim Lutheran Church is located along Belknap Street near the University of Wisconsin–Superior. Many small churches dot the city's neighborhoods, representing most major denominations.

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2011-02-20. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
  3. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  5. ^ "History of Superior - Superior, WI - Official Website".
  6. ^ a b c d Lusignan, Paul R.; Thomas Hendrickson. Massachusetts Block (PDF). National Park Service - Historical American Buildings Survey. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-03.
  7. ^ "Wikimapia - Let's describe the whole world!".
  8. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  9. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
  10. ^ The Canadian Press (August 14, 2017). "Husky Energy to buy refinery in Wisconsin for $435M US". CBC News. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
  11. ^ "Visitor Information".
  12. ^
  13. ^ "Morrie Arnovich Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  14. ^ 'Wisconsin Blue Book 1905,' Biographical Sketch of Wallace W. Andrew, pg. 1096
  15. ^ 'Wisconsin Blue Book 1897,' Biographical Sketch of James Herman Agen, pg. 676-677
  16. ^ "Kris Benson Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  17. ^ "Editing C. A. Bottolfsen". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 19, 2012.
  18. ^ 'Wisconsin Blue Book 1931,' Biographical Sketch of Agnes Charbonneau pg. 218
  19. ^ 'Wisconsin Blue Book 1907,' Biographical Sketch of Paul W. Durley, pg. 1147
  20. ^ 'Wisconsin Blue Book 1946,' Biographical Sketch of Frank D. Sheahan, pg. 43
  21. ^ "Outagamie County Wisconsin Biographies".

Further reading

  • Bartlett, Elizabeth Ann. Making Waves: Grassroots Feminism in Duluth and Superior (Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2016). xvi, 325 pp.

External links

Bruce Mathison

Bruce Martin Mathison (born April 25, 1959) is a former American football quarterback who played in the NFL for the San Diego Chargers (two stints), Buffalo Bills, and the Seattle Seahawks. He played college football at the University of Nebraska.

Joseph Maria Koudelka

Joseph Maria Koudelka (December 8, 1852 – June 24, 1921) was a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the second Bishop of the Diocese of Superior, Wisconsin (1913-1921).


KDAL-FM (95.7 FM, "My 95.7") is an American radio station in Duluth, Minnesota airing an adult contemporary format.

KDAL-FM is owned by Midwest Communications, which also owns KDKE, WDSM, WDUL, KDAL, and KTCO in Duluth. All the Duluth stations share the same studio location at 11 East Superior St. Suite 380, downtown Duluth.


KDKE (102.5 FM, "Duke FM") is a classic country radio station located in Duluth, Minnesota (licensed to Superior, Wisconsin). KDKE is owned by Midwest Communications, which also owns WDSM, WDUL, KDAL, KDAL-FM and KTCO in Duluth. All the Duluth stations share the same studio location at 11 East Superior St. Suite 380, downtown Duluth. Most of KDKE's personalities are voice-tracked or syndicated.


KKCB (105.1 FM, "B105") is a radio station in Duluth, Minnesota, owned by Townsquare Media, airing a country music format. The studios and offices are with its three other sister stations at 14 E. Central Entrance, on the west side of Duluth. The station was WAVC during the 1980s, and previously a beautiful music outlet as WGGR.


KLDJ (101.7 FM, "Kool 101.7") is a radio station in Duluth, Minnesota, owned by Townsquare Media, airing a classic hits music format.

The studios and offices are with its three other sister stations at 14 E. Central Entrance, on the west side of Duluth. These are KLDJ (Kool 101.7), KKCB (B105), KBMX (Mix 108), and WEBC (Sasquatch 106.5)

Otis Dozovic

Nikola Bogojevic (Serbian: Никола Богојевић; born December 21, 1991) is an American professional wrestler currently signed to WWE where he performs under the ring name Otis (a shortened version of his previous name Otis Dozovic).


The psychograph was a phrenology machine, invented and marketed by Henry C. Lavery in the early part of the 20th century.

The psychograph claimed to mechanically discern a subject's aptitudes in a number of mental faculties. It was designed to measure the person's head according to the principles of phrenology. Lavery patented his first psychograph in 1905 while living in Superior, Wisconsin. Eventually he joined with Frank P. White to form the Psychograph Company, based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, which operated from 1929 to 1937. They produced a machine which measured the subject's head at 32 points and used those measurements to report the person's supposed mental attributes on a five-point scale ranging from "deficient" to "very superior".The partners had some initial success in selling or leasing out the psychograph. The machines were sometimes installed in theater lobbies or department stores as novelty items for customers to use. The popularity of the device helped maintain interest in phrenology in America well into the 1930s. In the late 1930s the psychograph was withdrawn from the market due to falling sales and increased skepticism from the public.There is a psychograph on display at the Museum of Questionable Medical Devices, located at the Science Museum of Minnesota. Visitors to the museum can "have their heads examined" with the machine.

SS Meteor (1896)

SS Meteor is the sole surviving ship of the unconventional "whaleback" design. The design, created by Scottish captain Alexander McDougall, enabled her to carry a maximum amount of cargo with a minimum of draft. Meteor was built in 1896 in Superior, Wisconsin, United States, and, with a number of modifications, sailed until 1969. She is currently a museum ship in the city of her birth.

Tuffy Leemans

Alphonse Emil "Tuffy" Leemans (November 12, 1912 – January 19, 1979) was an American football fullback and halfback who played on both offense and defense. He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1978 and was named in 1969 to the NFL 1930s All-Decade Team.

A native of Superior, Wisconsin, Leemans played college football for Oregon's freshman team in 1932 and for George Washington from 1933 to 1935. He was drafted by the New York Giants in the second round of the 1936 NFL Draft and played eight years for the Giants from 1936 to 1943. He led the National Football League as a rookie with 830 rushing yards and was selected as a first-team All-Pro in 1936 and 1939. He was also selected to play in the Pro Bowl in 1938 and 1941 and helped lead the Giants to the 1938 NFL Championship and the 1939 and 1941 NFL Championship Games.

After his playing career ended, Leemans worked briefly as a backfield coach for the Giants and at George Washington. He also operated a laundry and dry cleaning business and a duckpins bowling alley.

USS Abilene (PF-58)

USS Abilene (PF-58), a Tacoma-class frigate, was in the service of the United States Navy, named after the city of Abilene, Kansas.

USS Beaufort (PF-59)

USS Beaufort (PF-59) was a Tacoma-class frigate acquired by the United States Navy during World War II. Although she was designed as a patrol craft, she was reconfigured and employed as a weather station ship in the North Atlantic Ocean. Beaufort's task was to launch weather balloons and transmit weather data via radio to her shore-based commanders.

USS Emporia (PF-28)

USS Emporia (PF-28), a Tacoma-class frigate, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the city of Emporia, Kansas.

USS Hingham (PF-30)

USS Hingham (PF-30), a Tacoma-class frigate, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Hingham, Massachusetts. Hingham, originally designated PG-138, was launched under Maritime Commission contract by Walter Butler Shipbuilding Company in Superior, Wisconsin, on 27 August 1943, sponsored by Mrs. Katherine F. Harrington; and commissioned on 3 November 1944 after outfitting at Plaquemine, Louisiana. Her first commanding officer was Lieutenant Commander W. K. Earle, USCG.

Following shakedown training out of Bermuda, Hingham finished conversion to a weather ship at Boston, Massachusetts, and after escorting a merchant ship from NS Argentia, Newfoundland, to Boston reported on 3 January 1945 to the North Atlantic Weather Patrol. The ship then took up the arduous duties of weather patrol in the North Atlantic during winter, performing the task of reporting so vital to convoying and warship movements alike. She remained on station after the close of World War II, returning to Boston on 4 May 1946.

Hingham then sailed to Charleston, South Carolina, where she was decommissioned on 5 June 1946. The frigate was sold on 15 August 1947 to Sun Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company of Chester, Pennsylvania, and scrapped.

USS Pipestone (AK-203)

USS Pipestone (AK-203) was an Alamosa-class cargo ship that was constructed for the US Navy during the closing period of World War II. By the time she was scheduled for commissioning, the war’s end caused her to be declared “excess to needs” and she was returned to the US Government and struck by the Navy.

USS Shreveport (PF-23)

The first USS Shreveport (PG-131/PF-23) was a Tacoma-class frigate of the United States Navy.

She was laid down under Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 1434) on 8 March 1943 by Walter Butler Shipbuilders, Inc., in Superior, Wisconsin; reclassified PF-23 on 15 April 1943; launched on 15 July 1943, sponsored by Miss Nell Querbes; and commissioned on 24 April 1944 at Algiers, Louisiana, with Commander H. A. Morrison, USCG, in command.


WDUL (970 AM) is a radio station licensed in Superior, Wisconsin. The station is owned and operated by Midwest Communications, which owns six stations in Duluth, Minnesota. All the Duluth stations share the same studio location at 11 East Superior St. Suite 380, downtown Duluth.

WDUL airs programming from the CBS Sports Radio network. WDUL's main competition when their format was standards was WKLK-AM in Cloquet, Minnesota, coincidentally a former "Music of Your Life" affiliate station, which now features America's Best Music from Dial Global.

The station adopted its standards format in September 2008. Prior to that, WDUL aired ESPN Radio programming, as well as The Jim Rome Show and Loveline. It was also the local home of NASCAR races and ESPN Sunday Night Baseball.


WEBC (560 kHz, Sasquatch 106.5) is an AM radio station located in Duluth, Minnesota owned by Townsquare Media. It airs a classic rock format branded as "Sasquatch 106.5." (Sasquatch or Bigfoot is a mythical ape-like creature said to inhabit the northern woods of the U.S. and Canada).

The AM station feeds an FM translator W293CT at 106.5 MHz. While the FM station is limited in its coverage area, the AM station can be heard through much of Northeastern Minnesota and Northwestern Wisconsin. It is powered at 5000 watts around the clock. The studios and offices are shared with its three other sister stations at 14 East Central Entrance, in the Duluth Heights area of Duluth, MN.


WJRF (89.5 FM, "The Refuge") is a regional Christian radio network based in Duluth, Minnesota. The network is made up of flagship station WJRF (89.5 FM) in Duluth, and several translators (low power rebroadcasters) in cities of Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, South Dakota, and Michigan.

Most programming on Refuge Radio is upbeat contemporary Christian music and Christian rock music targeted to youth and young adults.

Core cities
Municipalities and communities of Douglas County, Wisconsin, United States
Major metropolitan areas
(pop. over 500,000)
Largest cities
(pop. over 50,000)
Smaller cities
(pop. 15,000 to 50,000)
Largest villages
(pop. over 15,000)

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