Supercar

A supercar — also called exotic car — is a loosely defined description of certain high-performance street-legal sportscars. Since the 1990s or 2000s, the term hypercar has come into use for the highest performing supercars.

In the United States, muscle cars were often referred to as "Supercars" during the 1960s.

History

Europe

The Lamborghini Miura, produced from 1966–1973, is often said to be the first supercar.[1][2][3][4] By the 1970s and 1980s the term was in regular use, if not precisely defined.[5][6] One interpretation up until the 1990s was to use it for mid-engine two-seat cars with at least eight cylinders (but typically a V12 engine), a power output of at least 400 bhp (298 kW) and a top speed of at least 180 mph (290 km/h).[7] Other interpretations state that "it must be very fast, with sporting handling to match", "it should be sleek and eye-catching" and its price should be "one in a rarefied atmosphere of its own".[8] or regard exclusivity (i.e. limited production volumes) as an important characteristic.[4]

It is also claimed that the definition of a supercar has always been subjective and a matter of blind prejudice.[7]

United States

During the 1960s, cars that are now considered to be muscle cars were then referred to as supercars.[9][10](p8) The term was often (though not always) spelled with a capital S.[11] In 1966 the sixties supercar became an official industry trend.[9](p8) For example, the May 1965 issue of the American magazine Car Life includes multiple references to supercars and "the supercar club"[12] and a 1968 issue of Car & Driver magazine refers to "the Supercar street racer gang" market segment.[13] In the model name of the AMC S/C Rambler, the "S/C" is an abbreviation for "SuperCar".[14]

Since the decline of the muscle car in the 1970s, the word supercar came to mean a car in the mold of a Lamborghini or Ferrari.[9](p5) Other interpretations of the term are for limited-production models produced by small manufacturers for enthusiasts, and standard-looking cars modified for increased performance.[15]

Hypercar

A more recent term for high-performance sportscars is "hypercar", which is sometimes used to describe the highest performing supercars.[16] As per supercars, there is no set definition for what constitutes a hypercar. One interpretation is a limited-production, range-topping model priced above US$1,000,000.[17]

Some people consider the 1993 McLaren F1 to be the first hypercar,[18] while others believe the 2005 Bugatti Veyron was the first hypercar.[19]

Many recent hypercars use a hybrid drivetrain, a trend started in 2013 by the McLaren P1, Porsche 918 Spyder and LaFerrari. [20][21][22]

See also

References

  1. ^ Mason, Paul (2018). Italian Supercars: Ferrari, Lamborghini, Maserati. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 4. ISBN 9781538338933.
  2. ^ Wasef, Basem (2018). Speed Read Supercar: The History, Technology and Design Behind the World’s Most Exciting Cars. Motorbooks. ISBN 9780760362921. "the outlandish Lamborghini Miura, which is widely considered to be the first car to legitimately deserve the title
  3. ^ Codling, Stuart (2015). Lamborghini Supercars 50 Years: From the Groundbreaking Miura to Today's Hypercars - Foreword by Fabio Lamborghini. Motorbooks. p. 4. ISBN 9780760347959.
  4. ^ a b "Supercars". www.simoncars.co.uk. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  5. ^ Marshall, Stuart (4 September 1975). "Rewards and frustrations of the super cars". The Times. London. p. 23.
  6. ^ "Business Roundup; From the Land of the VW, a $35,000 Supercar". The New York Times. 21 September 1975. p. F15.
  7. ^ a b "Matt Prior's tester's notes - defining a supercar". www.autocar.co.uk. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  8. ^ Ward, Ian (1985), Secondhand Supercars, London Motor Show "Motorfair 1985" Official Catalogue
  9. ^ a b c Harless, Robert (2004). Horsepower War: Our Way of Life. iUniverse. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-595-30296-3.
  10. ^ Gunnell, John (2001). Standard Guide to American Muscle Cars: A Supercar Source Book, 1960-2000. Krause. ISBN 9780873492621. Retrieved 16 January 2018. The term muscle car wasn't heard much hack when these vehicles were first hitting the market. In those days, the enthusiast magazines favored the term supercar.
  11. ^ Severson, Aaron (27 July 2009). "Super-iority: Defining the Supercar and Muscle Car". www.ateupwithmotor.com. Retrieved 16 January 2018. what we now think of as muscle cars were more commonly called “Supercars,” often (though not always) spelled with a capital S.
  12. ^ "Rambler Scrambler". Car Life. 16: 33–36. 1969. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  13. ^ "Rambler Scrambler". Car and Driver. 14: 84. 1968.
  14. ^ Lyons, Dan; Scott, Jason (2004). Muscle Car Milestones. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-7603-0615-4. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  15. ^ Cheetham, Craig (2006). Supercars. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7603-2565-0.
  16. ^ "What's A Supercar? The Debate Rages On". www.youtube.com. The Drive. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  17. ^ "The Best and Worst Hypercars of 2017". www.thedrive.com. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  18. ^ "McLaren F1 - The First Hypercar?". www.thehypercars.com. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  19. ^ "The Bugatti Veyron: The original hypercar". www.cnet.com/. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  20. ^ "Top Gear mag's greatest cars - hypercars". Top Gear. 7 December 2017. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  21. ^ "Holy Trinity Of Hypercars Is Up For Auction". www.motor1.com. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  22. ^ "First hypercar 'holy trinity' boasted by RM Sotheby's". www.classiccars.com. 17 April 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
1999 Shell Championship Series

The 1999 Shell Championship Series was a motor racing series for V8 Supercars which began on 28 March 1999 at Eastern Creek Raceway and ended on 14 November at the Mount Panorama Circuit after 13 rounds. Australia’s national title series for V8 Supercar drivers, the Australian Touring Car Championship, was renamed for 1999 in what was essentially a marketing decision, however the winner of the newly named series was also awarded the 1999 Australian Touring Car Championship title by CAMS. 1999 was the first season since 1977 in which the longer distance, endurance race events were included in the championship. For the first time in the championship's history, a control tyre, supplied by Bridgestone, was specified for all cars.This series was won by Holden Racing Team driver Craig Lowndes.

2002 V8 Supercar Championship Series

The 2002 V8 Supercar Championship Series was an Australian based motor racing series for V8 Supercars. It began on 15 March 2002 at the Adelaide Street Circuit and ended on 1 December at Sandown International Raceway after 13 rounds. It was the fourth V8 Supercar Championship Series but the first to carry that name, previous championships having been contested as the "Shell Championship Series". The winner of the Drivers Championship, Mark Skaife, was also awarded the 43rd Australian Touring Car Championship.

2003 V8 Supercar Championship Series

The 2003 V8 Supercar Championship Series was a motor racing series for V8 Supercars. The series, which was the eighth V8 Supercar Championship Series, began on 22 March 2003 in Adelaide and ended on 30 November at Eastern Creek Raceway after 13 rounds. It ended with the awarding of the 44th Australian Touring Car Championship title by the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport to Tasmanian driver Marcos Ambrose. It was the first time a Stone Brothers Racing driver had won the championship and marked the first title win by a Ford driver since Glenn Seton in 1997, ending a five-year run by Holden Racing Team drivers.

2004 V8 Supercar Championship Series

The 2004 V8 Supercar Championship Series was an Australian motor racing competition for V8 Supercars. It began on 21 March 2004 at the Adelaide Street Circuit and ended on 5 December at Eastern Creek Raceway after 13 rounds. It was the 45th running of the V8 Supercar Championship Series. The series winner was also awarded the 2004 Australian Touring Car Championship title by the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport.

The championship was won by Marcos Ambrose driving a Ford BA Falcon.

2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series

The 2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series was a motor racing championship for V8 Supercars. The series, which was the seventh V8 Supercar Championship Series, began on 18 March 2005 in Adelaide and ended on 27 November at Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit after 13 rounds. The 46th Australian Touring Car Championship title was awarded to the series winner, Russell Ingall by the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport.

2006 V8 Supercar Championship Series

The 2006 V8 Supercar Championship Series was an Australian based motor racing competition for V8 Supercars. It began on 25 March 2006 in Adelaide and ended on 10 December 2006 at Phillip Island after 13 rounds. The 2006 Championship was the eighth V8 Supercar Championship Series.

The Drivers Championship was won by Rick Kelly, the Teams Championship by the Toll HSV Dealer Team and the Manufacturers Championship by Ford. As the winner of the Drivers Championship, Kelly was also awarded the 2006 Australian Touring Car Championship title by the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport.

2007 V8 Supercar Championship Series

The 2007 V8 Supercar season featured the ninth V8 Supercar Championship Series which began on 1 March and finished on 2 December. This championship consisted of 14 rounds covering all states and the Northern Territory of Australia as well as rounds in New Zealand and Bahrain. The series also carried the Australian Touring Car Championship title, which was awarded by CAMS for the forty eighth time in 2007.The 2007 season was significant in that two new models of cars were being used by the teams. The Holden VE Commodore was a completely new car and the Ford BF Falcon consisted of several changes from the previous model. These cars debuted at the first round of the season at the Clipsal 500.

This season was also significant in that Channel Seven broadcast the series for the first time since 1996, after Channel Ten and Fox Sports had rights to the series for the past ten years and then revived in 2015.

2008 V8 Supercar Championship Series

The 2008 V8 Supercar Championship Series was the tenth V8 Supercar Championship Series and the twelfth series in which V8 Supercars contested the premier Australian touring car title. The championship began on 21 February at the Clipsal 500 on the streets of Adelaide and finished on 7 December at Oran Park Raceway. It consisted of 14 rounds covering all states and the Northern Territory of Australia as well as rounds in New Zealand and Bahrain.

Jamie Whincup secured the championship with two races in hand with victory in race 1 of the 2008 NRMA Motoring & Services Grand Finale. Whincup was also awarded the 2008 Australian Touring Car Championship title by CAMS.

2009 V8 Supercar Championship Series

The 2009 V8 Supercar Championship Series was the eleventh V8 Supercar Championship Series and the thirteenth series in which V8 Supercars have contested the premier Australian touring car title. It began on 19 March at the Clipsal 500 on the streets of Adelaide and ended on 6 December at the Homebush Street Circuit and consisted of 26 races over 14 events which were held in all states and the Northern Territory of Australia as well as New Zealand. The 50th Australian Touring Car Championship title was awarded to the winner of the series by the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport.

TeamVodafone Ford driver Jamie Whincup won the Championship from Holden drivers Will Davison and Garth Tander. Championship races were also won by Craig Lowndes, Michael Caruso, James Courtney and Mark Winterbottom. The two-driver endurance races, held at the Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit and at the Mount Panorama Circuit, Bathurst, were both won by Tander and Davison.

2010 V8 Supercar Championship Series

The 2010 V8 Supercar Championship Series was an FIA sanctioned international motor racing series for V8 Supercars. It was the twelfth V8 Supercar Championship Series and the fourteenth series in which V8 Supercars have contested the premier Australian touring car title. The championship began on 19 February in the Middle East at Abu Dhabi's Yas Marina Circuit and finished on 5 December at the Homebush Street Circuit after 26 races at 15 events. These events were held in all states of Australia and in the Northern Territory as well as in the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and New Zealand. The 51st Australian Touring Car Championship title was awarded to the winner of the Drivers Championship by the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport.

James Courtney won the Drivers Championship for Dick Johnson Racing by 65 points from Triple Eight Race Engineering's Jamie Whincup in the final race of the season at the 2010 Sydney Telstra 500. Championship Team of the Year was awarded to TeamVodafone and Champion Manufacturer of the Year to Holden.

ARCA Menards Series

The ARCA Menards Series is an American stock car series, the premier division of the Automobile Racing Club of America (ARCA). It is considered a minor but professional league of stock car racing, used as a feeder series into the three national touring series of NASCAR, and hosts events at a variety of track types including superspeedways, road courses, and dirt tracks. The series has a longstanding relationship with NASCAR, including using former Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series cars, hosting events in the same race weekend such as Daytona Speedweeks, and naming an award after NASCAR founder Bill France, Sr. The series was not officially affiliated with NASCAR until its buyout on April 27, 2018.The series was known as the ARCA Permatex SuperCar Series from 1986 until 1991, the ARCA Hooters SuperCar Series from 1993 until 1995, and as the ARCA Bondo/Mar-Hyde Series from 1996 to 2000. The series was sponsored by real estate company RE/MAX as the ARCA RE/MAX Series from 2001 until 2009. Midwest-based home improvement company Menards began sponsoring the series in 2010 jointly with RE/MAX, and became the lone presenting sponsor in 2011, and from then until February 2019 the series was known as the ARCA Racing Series presented by Menards.

Eddie Falk

Eddie Falk is a former American stock car racing driver from Norfolk, Virginia. Falk competed in 98 NASCAR Busch Series races from 1982 to 1987. Falk completed his NASCAR career with 24 top ten finishes and 1 pole position. Falk competed in one ARCA race in 1985 at Indianapolis Raceway Park. He also attempted one NASCAR Winston Cup race in 1981 at Martinsville Speedway, but he failed to qualify for the event.His son C. E. Falk also competed in NASCAR.

List of Australian Touring Car and V8 Supercar champions

The Australian Touring Car Championship, presently known as the Virgin Australia Supercars Championship, is a motor racing competition open to Australia's premier touring car category. A driver's title has been awarded since 1960 and titles for teams and manufacturers are also currently awarded. Australia's most famous motor race, the Bathurst 1000, has contributed to the result of the championship since 1999. The second-tier Dunlop Super2 Series has been contested since 2000 and the third-tier V8 Touring Car National Series, for cars no longer officially registered as V8 Supercars, began in 2008.

Rick Kelly

Rick Kelly (born 17 January 1983) is an Australian professional racing driver currently competing in the Virgin Australia Supercars Championship, driving the No. 15 Nissan Altima for Kelly Racing. Previously, he drove for the HSV Dealer Team with whom he won the Bathurst 1000 alongside Greg Murphy in 2003 and 2004. In 2006, Kelly extended his success by winning the V8 Supercar Championship for the HSV Dealer Team. His older brother Todd Kelly was also a racing driver who won the Bathurst 1000 in 2005. His parents John and Margaret Kelly formed Kelly Racing in 2009 with Rick and Todd Kelly as lead drivers, expanding to a 4 car operation.

Russell Ingall

Russell Ingall (born 24 February 1964, in the United Kingdom) is a former full-time Australian V8 Supercar driver. Ingall became the V8 Supercar Champion in 2005, he was also the Championship runner up in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2004. Ingall has also won the Bathurst 1000 motor race twice, in 1995 and 1997. His particular driving style earned him the nickname "Enforcer".In 2016, he drove for Nissan Motorsport as a co-driver alongside Rick Kelly in the Pirtek Enduro Cup series.

Super2 Series

The Dunlop Super2 Series (formerly known as Dunlop Series) is an Australian touring car racing competition, specifically the second tier series for Supercars competitors. Competing vehicles are older than those utilised in the Supercars Championship series and are usually run by smaller teams with lower budgets. Approximately half the teams are for 'gentleman racers', while some team owners will put a young emerging driver into the car and team they own. The series runs half the number of events that the Supercars Championship runs.

Supercar (TV series)

Supercar was a British children's TV show produced by Gerry Anderson and Arthur Provis' AP Films for ATV and ITC Entertainment. Thirty-nine episodes were produced between 1961 and 1962, and it was Anderson's first half-hour series. In the UK it was seen on ITV and in the US in syndication (the first Anderson series to be shown overseas) debuting in January 1962. The series uses Supermarionation, based on the complex and difficult Czech style of marionette puppetry. The creation of the show was credited to Gerry Anderson and Reg Hill, but it incorporates elements of "Beaker's Bureau", a series proposed to the BBC by Hugh Woodhouse that was never produced. Anderson would later claim that the whole point of having a series based on a vehicle was to minimize having to show the marionettes walking, an action which he felt never looked convincing.

The plot of the show consisted of Supercar, a vertical takeoff and landing craft invented by Prof. Rudolph Popkiss and Dr. Horatio Beaker, and piloted by Mike Mercury. On land it rode on a cushion of air rather than wheels. Jets in the rear allowed it to fly like a jet and retractable wings were incorporated in the back of the car. Retrorockets on the side of the car slowed the vehicle. The car used "Clear-Vu", which included an inside television monitor allowing the occupant to see through fog and smoke. The vehicle was housed in a laboratory and living facility at Black Rock, Nevada, U.S.A. In the show's first episode, "Rescue", the Supercar crew's first mission is to save the passengers of a downed private plane. Two of the rescued, young Jimmy Gibson and his pet monkey, Mitch, are invited to live at the facility and share in the adventures.

The series inaugurated what would become an Anderson trademark: the launch sequence. With the exception of The Secret Service, every one of his series up until Space: 1999 would include these – in Supercar's case, the charging and firing of port and starboard engines, the activation of an interlock, the opening of (overhead) hangar doors, and finally the vertical take-off.

Supercars Championship

The Supercars Championship is a touring car racing category based in Australia and run as an International Series under Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) regulations.

Supercars events take place in all Australian states and the Northern Territory, with the Australian Capital Territory formerly holding the Canberra 400. An international round is held in New Zealand, while events have previously been held in China, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates and the United States. A Melbourne 400 championship event is also held in support of the Australian Grand Prix. Race formats vary between each event with sprint races between 100 and 200 kilometres in length, street races between 125 and 250 kilometres in length, and two-driver endurance races held at Sandown, Bathurst and the Gold Coast. The series is broadcast in 137 countries and has an average event attendance of over 100,000, with over 250,000 people attending major events such as the Adelaide 500.The vehicles used in the series are loosely based on road-going, four-door saloon cars. Cars are custom made using a control chassis, with only certain body panels being common between the road cars and race cars. To ensure parity between each make of car, many control components are utilised. All cars must use a 5.0-litre, naturally aspirated V8 engine. Originally only for Ford Falcons and Holden Commodores, the New Generation V8 Supercar regulations, introduced in 2013, opened up the series to more manufacturers. Nissan were the first new manufacturer to commit to the series with four Nissan Altima L33s followed briefly by Erebus Motorsport with Mercedes-Benz E63 AMGs and Garry Rogers Motorsport with Volvo S60s.

Todd Kelly

Todd Kelly (born 9 October 1979) is a retired Australian professional racing driver who competed in the Virgin Australia Supercars Championship. He is the older brother of fellow Supercars driver and former Bathurst 1000 winner, Rick Kelly. He drove for the Holden Racing Team from 2003 until 2007, and Perkins Engineering in 2008. Since 2009, he has been with his family team Kelly Racing (now known as Nissan Motorsport Australia). He is the youngest driver to have reached 100 starts in the series.

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