Super Tuesday

In the United States, Super Tuesday, in general, refers informally to one or more Tuesdays early in a United States presidential primary season when the greatest number of U.S. states hold primary elections and caucuses. More delegates to the presidential nominating conventions can be won on Super Tuesday than on any other single day of the primary calendar. Since Super Tuesday primaries and caucuses are typically held in a large number of states from geographically and socially diverse regions of the country, it typically represents a presidential candidate's first test of national electability. Thus, candidates seeking the presidency traditionally must do well on this day to help secure their party's nomination. In fact, convincing wins in Super Tuesday primaries have usually propelled candidates to their party's nomination. Super Tuesday is in either February or March of the presidential election year. During the 2016 election year, Super Tuesday was held on March 1.

The particular states holding primaries on Super Tuesday have varied from year to year since each state decides separately. Some years have had more than one Super Tuesday. In 2008, Super Tuesday was February 5 when 24 states held primaries or caucuses on this date, with 52% of all pledged Democratic Party delegates and 49% of the total Republican Party delegates at stake.[1]

The phrase "Super Tuesday"[2] has been used to refer to presidential primary elections since at least 1976.[3] It is an unofficial term used by journalists and political pundits. In 2016, this date was also dubbed the "SEC Primary" since many of the participating states are represented in the Southeastern Conference (SEC), one of the country's major collegiate athletic conferences.

Tuesday is the traditional day for elections in the United States, a prime example being Election Day in the United States.

Super Tuesday Ballots in Massachusetts
Republican and Democratic party ballots in a Massachusetts polling location, 2016
VOA Super Tuesday multilingual sign
Sign for a polling station in Houston, Texas, 2016

Background

United States politics are dominated by two major political parties, the Democratic and Republican parties, who choose their presidential candidates in nominating conventions attended by delegates from states. State law determines how each parties' delegates are chosen in that state including by either a primary election or a caucus and on what date those contests are held. State governments are free to choose whichever date they want for their states' primary or caucus. With the broadened use of the modern presidential primary system (following the chaotic 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago), states have tried to increase their influence in the nomination process. One tactic has been to create geographic blocs to encourage candidates to spend time in a region.

One motivation for the creation of Super Tuesday has been criticism and reform proposals of the current primary system many of which argue for creating a National Primary or a regional primary, such as the Rotating Regional Primary System adopted by the National Association of Secretaries of State in 1999, among other proposals.

1984: Beginnings of Super Tuesday

The 1984 primary season had three "Super Tuesdays".[4] Decided on "Super Tuesday III" were delegates from five states: South Dakota, New Mexico, West Virginia, California and New Jersey.[5] The proportional nature of delegate selection meant that Walter Mondale was likely to obtain enough delegates on that day to win the nomination at the 1984 Democratic National Convention, no matter who actually won the states contested. However, Gary Hart maintained that unpledged superdelegates that had previously announced support for Mondale would shift to his side if he swept the Super Tuesday III primary.[6] Once again, Hart committed a faux pas, insulting New Jersey shortly before the primary day. Campaigning in California, he remarked that while the "bad news" was that he and his wife Lee had to campaign separately, "[t]he good news for her is that she campaigns in California while I campaign in New Jersey." Compounding the problem, when his wife interjected that she "got to hold a koala bear", Hart replied that "I won't tell you what I got to hold: samples from a toxic waste dump."[6] While Hart won California, he lost New Jersey after leading in polls by as much as 15 points. Mondale secured the majority of delegates from the primaries, leading the way for him to take the Democratic nomination.[4] In the 1984 Republican Party primaries, incumbent President Ronald Reagan was the only candidate to secure delegates.[7]

1988: Southern states primary

The phrase "Super Tuesday" was next used to describe the primary elections that took place on March 8, 1988, in the Southern states of Texas, Florida, Tennessee, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Mississippi, Kentucky, Alabama, and Georgia leading up to the 1988 November election. In the 1988 Democratic Party primaries, Southern Democrats came up with the idea of a regional primary in an effort to nominate a moderate candidate who would more closely represent their interests. However, Dick Gephardt, Jesse Jackson, Al Gore, and Michael Dukakis split the Super Tuesday primaries, and Dukakis was subsequently nominated. Meanwhile, George H.W. Bush secured most of the delegates in the 1988 Republican Party primaries. From 1996 to 2004, most of these Southern primaries were held the week after Super Tuesday, dubbed "Southern Tuesday" by news commentators.

1992–2000

In 1992, Super Tuesday was on March 10. After losing earlier primaries, Democrat Bill Clinton won a number of Southern primaries on Super Tuesday en route to winning the 1992 Democratic nomination and later the presidency. On the other hand, incumbent George H. W. Bush, faced opposition from Pat Buchanan in the Republican primaries that year.[8]

In 1996, Super Tuesday was on March 12. Bob Dole's swept Super Tuesday en route to his bid for the 1996 Republican nomination.[9] Clinton, the incumbent president, secured all the delegates in the 1996 Democratic primaries.[10]

In 2000, Super Tuesday was on March 7. Sixteen states held primaries on Super Tuesday, the largest presidential primary election day in U.S. history up to that point. In 2000, approximately 81% of Democratic delegates and 18% of Republican delegates needed to secure nomination were up for grabs on Super Tuesday. That year, Democrat Al Gore and Republican George W. Bush cemented their nomination bids with Super Tuesday victories, and both went on to win their parties' nominations.[11][12]

2004: Mini-Tuesday

Mini-Tuesday 2004
Seven states held caucuses or primary elections on Mini-Tuesday in 2004. Blue denotes Democratic-only contests (4) and Purple represents states that held elections for both parties (3).
Super Tuesday II 2004
The states participating in primaries or caucuses on March 2, 2004.

In 2004, several states moved their presidential contests up to February 3, 2004 in order to increase the relative importance of their election results. Ultimately, five states held primaries and two held caucuses on this date, a date eventually christened Mini-Tuesday or, alternatively, Super Tuesday I by pundits, with the traditional March Super Tuesday date, March 2, christened Super Tuesday II, or just simply "Super Tuesday." While the results of Mini-Tuesday had far-reaching implications for the Democratic primaries, the Republican primaries were uncontested as incumbent President George W. Bush was the assured nominee.

Democratic primaries John Kerry John Edwards Wesley Clark Howard Dean Al Sharpton Joe Lieberman Dennis Kucinich
Number of states won on Mini-Tuesday 6 1 1 0 0 0 0
Number of delegates won on Mini-Tuesday 155 56 50 11 1 0 0

2008

Image-Super Duper Tuesday 2008
Twenty-four states held caucuses or primary elections on Super Tuesday, 2008. Blue denotes Democratic-only contests (3), Red illustrates Republican-only contests (2), and Purple represents states holding elections for both parties (19). Notes: American Samoa (not shown) is Democratic only.

To increase importance of their votes, 24 states with over half the delegates to the national conventions moved to change their primary dates to February 5, 2008, creating the largest "Super Tuesday" to date. Newswriters and political pundits noted that it would dwarf the Super Tuesday primaries in previous cycles.[13] Because of its political magnitude, some pundits have variously dubbed it "Giga Tuesday," "Mega Giga Tuesday," "Tsunami Tuesday" or even "Super Duper Tuesday."[13]

With only four states holding elections on the year's other Super Tuesday of March 5, 2008, one pundit said "this year, however, Super Tuesday isn't so super."[14]

Super Duper Tuesday 2008 II
Four states held caucuses or primary elections on Super Tuesday II, 2008. Purple represents contests for both parties (4).
Potomac Primary 2008
Potomac primary
Democratic primaries Hillary Clinton Barack Obama
Number of states won on Super Tuesday 10 13
Number of delegates won on Super Tuesday 834 847
Republican primaries John McCain Mitt Romney Mike Huckabee Ron Paul
Number of states won on Super Tuesday 9 7 5 0
Number of delegates won on Super Tuesday 511 176 147 10

2012

Super Tuesday 2012
Super Tuesday states in 2012

Super Tuesday in 2012 took place on March 6, 2012, totaling 419 delegates (18.3% of the total) in 10 states in the Republican primaries.[15] The Democratic primaries were uncontested as incumbent President Barack Obama was the assured nominee.

The impact of Super Tuesday was lessened by Mitt Romney's convincing victories preceding Super Tuesday. Frontrunner Romney was able to increase his lead significantly, with wins in six states and winning over half the delegates at stake. However, Santorum's three wins, and a near-win in Ohio, allowed him to carry on as a candidate for another month.

Republican primaries Mitt Romney Rick Santorum Newt Gingrich Ron Paul
Number of states won on Super Tuesday 6 3 1 0
Number of delegates won on Super Tuesday (OH 4 unalloc.) 225 89 80 21

2016

Super Tuesday I

Super Tuesday 2016
Super Tuesday by states and territories, 2016
Super Tuesday 2016 (Republican Party, results)
Super Tuesday 2016 (Republican Party, results)
Super Tuesday 2016 (Democratic Party, results)
Super Tuesday 2016 (Democratic Party, results)

Super Tuesday in the 2016 presidential election was held on March 1, 2016. This date was dubbed the SEC Primary, since many of the participating states were represented in the U.S. Southeastern Conference for college athletics (five southern states).[16][17]

The participating states included Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado (with caucuses), Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota (with caucuses), Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia. Additionally, Republican caucuses were held in Alaska, North Dakota, and Wyoming.[17][18] The territory of American Samoa held a Democratic caucus.[18]

The Republican candidates could win about half of the 1,237 delegates needed. The two remaining Democrats were after 880 delegates, roughly one-third of those needed to win. The number of delegates from Texas is much greater than the other states: 155 for Republicans and 252 for Democrats.

The Democratic primaries and caucuses concluded with Bernie Sanders winning Colorado, Minnesota, Oklahoma, and Vermont; and Hillary Clinton winning Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Massachusetts, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Clinton received 486 delegates, while Sanders received 321.[19]

The Republican primaries and caucuses concluded with Donald Trump winning Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Massachusetts, Tennessee, Vermont, and Virginia; Ted Cruz winning Alaska, Oklahoma, and Texas; and Marco Rubio winning Minnesota. John Kasich and Ben Carson were also in the election, but neither won any states. Results from the North Dakota and Wyoming caucuses are yet to be determined, though their delegates are not required to support the winners of those contests and can freely pledge to their preferred candidate during their respective state party conventions.

Democratic primaries[20] Hillary Clinton Bernie Sanders
Number of states won on Super Tuesday 7 4
Number of delegates won on Super Tuesday 486 321
Republican primaries[21] Donald Trump Ted Cruz Marco Rubio John Kasich Ben Carson
Number of states won on Super Tuesday 7 3 1 0 0
Number of delegates won on Super Tuesday 256 219 101 21 3

Additionally, several third-party primaries were held on March 1. The Libertarian Party hosted its caucus in Minnesota, which was won by Gary Johnson. The Green Party of the United States hosted two contests, a primary in Massachusetts and a caucus in Minnesota, both of which were won by Jill Stein.

Super Saturday

Super Saturday Democratic results, 2016
Super Saturday Democratic results
Super Saturday Republican results, 2016
Super Saturday Republican results

Owing to a number of states holding their primaries or caucuses on Saturday, March 5, 2016, the date was referred to in the media as "Super Saturday" in reference to Super Tuesday. Kansas had caucuses for both parties. Louisiana had a primary for both parties. Maine and Kentucky held caucuses for Republicans. Nebraska Democrats caucused on Super Saturday.[22][23][24] There were 155 delegates at stake for Republicans and 109 delegates available for Democrats.

Ted Cruz was first to be declared a winner of a state, with a firm lead in Kansas and just over half of the votes in, as well as winning in Maine. Donald Trump meanwhile, won the states of Kentucky and Louisiana.[23]

Super Tuesday II

Super Tuesday II Democratic results, 2016
Super Tuesday II Democratic results
Super Tuesday II Republican results, 2016
Super Tuesday II Republican results

March 15, 2016 was dubbed Super Tuesday II,[25][26][27] Mega Tuesday,[28] or the Ides of March Primaries.[29]

On this day, 5 states held both Democratic and Republican primaries: Florida, Illinois, Missouri, North Carolina and Ohio. Republican caucuses were also held in the Northern Marianas Islands. The Republican races were particularly significant as four of these (excepting the North Carolina primary) were the first in the cycle to use winner-takes-all voting systems. Republican contests held prior to March 14 were only permitted to use proportional systems. There were 697 delegates at stake for Democrats and 358 delegates for Republicans.

Some media sources instead referred to the contests on March 8 as Super Tuesday II,[30] where 2 states held Democratic contests and 4 states held Republican contests, and referred to the March 15 contests as Super Tuesday III.[31]

Democratic primaries Hillary Clinton Bernie Sanders
Number of states won on Super Tuesday II 5 0
Number of delegates won on Super Tuesday II 347 246
Republican primaries Donald Trump John Kasich Ted Cruz Marco Rubio
Number of contests won on Super Tuesday II 5 1 0 0
Number of delegates won on Super Tuesday II 229 81 51 6

Acela Primaries

On April 26, 2016, five Northeastern primaries were contested by both parties (Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island) and were collectively termed the Acela primaries or the Amtrak primaries in reference to the Acela Express, which runs through the area. It was alternately referred to as Super Tuesday III.[32][33]

Democratic primaries Hillary Clinton Bernie Sanders
Number of states won in Acela Primaries 4 1
Number of delegates won in Acela Primaries 217 167
Republican primaries Donald Trump John Kasich Ted Cruz
Number of contests won in Acela Primaries 5 0 0
Number of delegates won in Acela Primaries 111 2 5

Super Tuesday IV

On June 7, 2016 both the Democrats and the Republicans held primaries and caucuses in California, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, South Dakota. With the exception of the North Dakota Democratic caucus, all of the aforementioned contests on June 7 were primaries.

694 delegates were awarded in the Democratic primaries and caucuses. 303 delegates were awarded in the Republican primaries.

The Republican primaries were the last contests of the entire Republican Party party primary process. The Democratic contests were succeeded by only the District of Columbia Democratic primary, which was held a week later.

Additionally, several third-party primaries were held on June 7. The Libertarian Party hosted its primary in California. The Green Party of the United States hosted its primaries in California and the District of Columbia. California additionally held primaries for the American Independent Party and the Peace and Freedom Party.

See also

References

  1. ^ Balz, Dan (January 15, 2008). "Feb. 5 Primaries to Pose A Super Test of Strategy". Washington Post. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  2. ^ "Why Do We Vote On Tuesday?". Whytuesday.org. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  3. ^ "Ford, Carter head into crucial Super Tuesday". Lodi News-Sentinel. June 3, 1976. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  4. ^ a b Ed Magnuson (June 18, 1984). "Over the Top, Barely". Time. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  5. ^ George J. Church (June 4, 1984). "A Big Bicoastal Finale". Time. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  6. ^ a b Evan Thomas (June 11, 1984). "Last Call, and Out Reeling". Time. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  7. ^ "US President - R Primaries Race - Feb 20, 1984". Our Campaigns. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - US President - R Primaries Race - Feb 01, 1992".
  9. ^ David Leip. "1996 Republican Primary Election Timeline".
  10. ^ "US President - D Primaries - 1996". Our Campaigns.com. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
  11. ^ David Leip. "2000 Presidential Democratic Primary Election Results".
  12. ^ David Leip. "2000 Republican Primary Election Timeline".
  13. ^ a b Schneider, Bill (February 7, 2007). "It could all be over after 'Super Duper Tuesday'". CNN. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  14. ^ Skolnick, David (December 30, 2007). "One Valley state legislator tried unsuccessfully to move the Ohio primary to February". The Vindicator. Youngstown, Ohio. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
  15. ^ "Election 101: What's the Republican primary calendar for 2012?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  16. ^ Johnson, Jenna (May 23, 2015). "As 'SEC primary' takes shape, will presidential contenders show up?". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 28, 2015. ...[Georgia Secretary of State Brian P.] Kemp spearheads an effort to have a half-dozen or more Southern states hold their primaries on March 1 — right on the heels of the first-in-the-nation contests in Iowa, New Hampshire and South Carolina. Kemp calls it the 'SEC primary,' a nod to the collegiate Southeastern Conference...
  17. ^ a b Miller, Zeke J. (October 2, 2015). "EXCLUSIVE: TIME Guide to Official 2016 Republican Nomination Calendar". Time. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
  18. ^ a b "Super Tuesday 2016: What you need to know". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  19. ^ HuffPostPolitics. "2016 Election: Super Tuesday – The Huffington Post". The Huffington Post.
  20. ^ "Super Tuesday Results". New York Times.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ "Live coverage of Super Saturday primary states (3/6/16) with exit polls, results, winners". NJ.com. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  23. ^ a b DelReal, Jose A. (March 5, 2016). "Ted Cruz wins Kansas caucuses, gains momentum on 'Super Saturday'". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  24. ^ "Super Saturday Results". CNN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  25. ^ "Super Tuesday II: Clinton sweeps Florida, Illinois, Ohio and North Carolina; Rubio quits after Trump wins Florida". The Washington Post. March 16, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  26. ^ "Super Tuesday II: Five states head to the polls". The Los Angeles Times. March 16, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  27. ^ "US election 2016: Winners and losers on Super Tuesday II". BBC. March 16, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  28. ^ "Here's What You Need To Know About The March 15 'Mega Tuesday' Contests". NPR.org. March 11, 2016.
  29. ^ "The Ides of March Primaries". USA Today. April 26, 2016. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  30. ^ Bradner, Eric (March 8, 2016). "What to watch on Super Tuesday 2". CNN. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  31. ^ Bradner, Eric (March 14, 2016). "Your guide to Super Tuesday 3". CNN. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
  32. ^ LoBianco, Tom (April 25, 2016). "Republican Party braces ahead of critical 'Acela primary'". CNN. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  33. ^ Fox News Editors (April 27, 2016). "Donald Trump Hillary Clinton Win Big on Super Tuesday III". Fox News Channel. Retrieved April 27, 2016.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
2008 Alabama Democratic primary

The Alabama Democratic Presidential Primary was held on Super Tuesday, February 5, 2008, and had a total of 52 delegates at stake. The winner in each of Alabama's seven congressional districts was awarded all of that district's delegates, totaling 34. Another 18 delegates were awarded to the statewide winner, Barack Obama. The 52 delegates represented Alabama at the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Eight other delegates were chosen on March 1, 2008 during an Alabama Democratic Party Executive Committee meeting. Those eight delegates attended the National Convention as officially unpledged.

2008 Alabama Republican primary

The Alabama Republican primary, 2008 was held on February 5 (Super Tuesday) and had a total of 45 delegates at stake. The winner in each of the 7 congressional districts was awarded all of that district's delegates.

2008 Arizona Democratic primary

The Arizona Democratic Presidential Primary took place on Super Tuesday, February 5, 2008, and had a total of 56 delegates at stake. The winner in each of Arizona's eight congressional districts was awarded all of that district's delegates, which totaled 37. Another 19 delegates were awarded to the statewide winner, Hillary Clinton. The 56 delegates represented Arizona at the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Eleven other unpledged delegates, known as superdelegates, also attended the convention.

2008 California Democratic primary

The 2008 California Democratic primary took place on February 5, 2008, also known as Super Tuesday. California was dubbed the "Big Enchilada" by the media because it offers the most delegates out of any other delegation. Hillary Clinton won the primary.

2008 Connecticut Democratic primary

The Connecticut Democratic Presidential Primary took place on Super Tuesday, February 5, 2008, with 48 delegates at stake. The winner in each of Connecticut's five congressional districts was awarded all of that district's delegates, totaling 31. Another 17 delegates were awarded to the statewide winner, Barack Obama. The 48 delegates represented Connecticut at the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Twelve other unpledged delegates, known as superdelegates, also attended the convention and cast their votes as well.

Connecticut held a closed primary, meaning only registered Democrats could vote.

2008 Delaware Republican primary

The Delaware Republican primary, 2008 was held on February 5 (Super Tuesday). A total of 18 delegates were selected. The Delaware Republican Party rallied behind John McCain, and was the declared winner of the primary election after successfully taking all three Delaware counties. McCain was followed by Mitt Romney in second and then by Mike Huckabee in third.

2008 Georgia Republican primary

The 2008 Georgia Republican primary took place on February 5, 2008 (Super Tuesday), with 72 national delegates at stake. Mike Huckabee was the winner of the primary.

2008 Illinois Republican primary

The Illinois Republican primary, 2008 was held on February 5, 2008. Illinois was one of 24 States holding a primary or caucus on Super Tuesday. Delegates from each of Illinois' 19 congressional districts are selected by direct election. In addition, the primary ballot also contains a preference poll that lists the presidential candidates.

2008 Montana Republican caucuses

The 2008 Montana Republican caucuses took place on February 5, 2008, with 25 national delegates.

The first caucuses were scheduled for midday in Sheridan County and Judith Basin County.

In the fall of 2007, Montana's Republican Party decided to create a caucus for Super Tuesday. They hoped to "boost the state's profile among the campaigns and energize the party." In spite of this change, only one presidential candidate actually visited Montana, Mitt Romney in June 2007. McCain, Romney, Huckabee and Paul each orchestrated last-minute conference calls with voters at caucus sites.

2008 New Jersey Democratic primary

The 2008 New Jersey Democratic primary took place February 5, 2008, also known as Super Tuesday. Hillary Clinton won this primary.

2008 New York Republican primary

New York held its state presidential primary on February 5, 2008 (Super Tuesday). There were 101 delegates up for grabs for the candidates. The delegates were awarded on a winner-take-all basis, which means the winner, Arizona Senator John McCain, received all 101 delegates for the 2008 Republican National Convention.

On February 2, McCain had held a fairly large lead in the polls above the competition with 35% as opposed to the next candidate Rudy Giuliani with 22.5%, who had announced a withdrawal from the race on January 30,

2008.

2008 Republican Party presidential primaries

The 2008 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 2008 U.S. presidential election. Senator John McCain of Arizona was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 2008 Republican National Convention held from Monday, September 1, through Thursday, September 4, 2008, in St. Paul, Minnesota. President George W. Bush was ineligible to be elected to a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment.

In a crowded primary of several prominent Republicans eyeing the nomination, former New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani was the early front runner. However, former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee won the Iowa Caucuses as he gained momentum just two months prior to the primary. Moderate U.S. Senator and former presidential candidate John McCain won the New Hampshire primary, eventually leading to Giuliani's fall, as the former mayor did not win a single primary.

McCain ultimately won the nomination after winning most of the primaries against Mike Huckabee and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney on Super Tuesday.

2008 Super Tuesday II

Super Tuesday II, 2008 is the name, for 4 March 2008, the day on which the second largest simultaneous number of state presidential primary elections was held for the 2008 presidential election cycle. On this day, Mike Huckabee withdrew from the race when John McCain won enough delegates to claim the Republican nomination for President. It was the second Super Tuesday election of 2008 and took place approximately one month after the first Super Tuesday of this election. The Democratic primaries saw 444 delegates selected on this date, with 265 delegates in the Republican primaries.

2008 Super Tuesday tornado outbreak

The 2008 Super Tuesday tornado outbreak was a deadly tornado outbreak which affected the Southern United States and the lower Ohio Valley on February 5 and 6, 2008. The event began on Super Tuesday, while 24 states in the United States were holding primary elections and caucuses to select the presidential candidates for the upcoming presidential election. Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas, Alabama, and Tennessee were among the affected regions in which primaries were being held. Some voting locations were forced to close early due to the approaching severe weather.Eighty-seven tornadoes occurred over the course of the outbreak, which lasted over 15 hours from the afternoon of February 5 until the early morning of February 6. The storm system produced several destructive tornadoes in heavily populated areas, most notably in the Memphis metropolitan area, in Jackson, Tennessee, and the northeastern end of the Nashville metropolitan area.

A total of 57 people were killed across four states and 18 counties, with hundreds of others injured. The outbreak, at the time, was the deadliest in the era of modern NEXRAD doppler radar, which was fully implemented in 1997. The event was the second deadliest in February since 1950 behind the February 1971 Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak, which killed 123, the deadliest outbreak in both Tennessee and Kentucky since the 1974 Super Outbreak, and was at the time the deadliest tornado outbreak in the US overall since the 1985 United States–Canada tornado outbreak which killed 76 people. This record would not be surpassed until the 2011 Super Outbreak which killed 324 people. Damage from tornadoes was estimated at over $500 million (2008 USD).The weather system which produced the tornadoes caused significant straight-line wind damage, hail as large as softballs – 4.5 inches (11 cm) in diameter – major flooding, significant freezing rain, and heavy snow across many areas of eastern North America. The total damage from the entire weather system reached $1.2 billion.

2008 Tennessee Democratic primary

The 2008 Tennessee Democratic primary took place on February 5, 2008, also known as Super Tuesday.

Mini-Tuesday

Mini-Tuesday was the name given to the February 3, 2004 U.S. presidential primary where several states, which to that point had participated in "Super Tuesday," cast their votes for the Presidential nominees of the 2004 Presidential election. Mini-Tuesday was also called Super Tuesday I (with the March Super Tuesday called Super Tuesday II, in reference to their respective chronological order). With the large number of states moving their election dates up to Mini-Tuesday for the 2008 election cycle, pundits have largely shied away from using the term again, instead choosing to reappropriate the term "Super Tuesday" to better represent the primaries held on that approximate date. The date is also known as "Super Duper Tuesday," "Giga Tuesday," and "Tsunami Tuesday," among others, with the term "Mini Tuesday" falling to apparent disuse for the time being.In 2004, U.S. presidential primary elections occurred in Missouri, South Carolina, Arizona, Oklahoma and Delaware. Presidential caucuses were held in New Mexico and North Dakota. The Republican primaries and caucuses were virtually uncontested as incumbent President George W. Bush faced no substantial opposition. The Democratic primaries and caucuses were contested between retired General Wesley Clark of Arkansas, former Governor Howard Dean of Vermont, Senator John Edwards of North Carolina, Senator John Kerry of Massachusetts, Congressman Dennis Kucinich of Ohio, Senator Joseph Lieberman of Connecticut, and the Reverend Al Sharpton of New York.

Results of the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries

This article contains the results of the 2012 Republican presidential primaries and caucuses, which resulted in the nomination of Mitt Romney as the Republican nominee for President of the United States. The 2012 Republican primaries were the selection processes by which the Republican Party selected delegates to attend the 2012 Republican National Convention from August 27–30. The series of primaries, caucuses, and state conventions culminated in the national convention, where the delegates cast their votes to formally select a candidate. A simple majority (1,144) of the total delegate votes (2,286) was required to become the party's nominee.

Seven major candidates were in the race to become the nominee. Michele Bachmann was the first to drop out, ending her campaign after a poor performance in Iowa. Jon Huntsman withdrew from the race after placing third in the New Hampshire primary. Rick Perry dropped out after Iowa and New Hampshire but prior to the South Carolina primary after polling poorly. Rick Santorum suspended his campaign in April after polls showed a strong possibility that he would lose his home state of Pennsylvania to Mitt Romney, and his daughter Bella's condition worsened. Newt Gingrich withdrew after insufficient funds prevented him from moving forward with a strong campaign. On May 14, 2012, Ron Paul announced that his campaign would switch to a delegate accumulation strategy. On May 29, according to projected counts, Mitt Romney crossed the threshold of 1,144 delegates. He was formally nominated at the Republican National Convention on August 28.

Super Tuesday, 2008

Super Tuesday 2008, Super Duper Tuesday, Mega Tuesday, Giga Tuesday, Tsunami Tuesday, and The Tuesday of Destiny are names for February 5, 2008, the day on which the largest simultaneous number of state U.S. presidential primary elections in the history of U.S. primaries were held. Twenty-four states and American Samoa¤ held either caucuses or primary elections for one or both parties on this date. Furthermore, the week-long Democrats Abroad Global Primary began on this day.

The large number of states that held elections on February 5 could have shortened the period between the first caucus in Iowa, on January 3, 2008, and the de facto selection of a party's nominee to just a few weeks. Super Tuesday 2008 saw 52% of the Democratic and 41% of the Republican delegates awarded by early February 2008. By comparison, only about 1% of nominating convention delegates had been selected by that point in the 2000 election cycle. It was held approximately one month before Super Tuesday II.

Super Tuesday (TV series)

Super Tuesday appears on ESPN and ESPN2 every Tuesday in prime time with the biggest regular-season games in college basketball. The show is similar to Big Monday, Thursday Night Showcase and Wednesday Night Hoops.

On ESPN the games include a Southeastern Conference match-up, usually at 9 pm ET, with Joe Tessitore and Sean Farnham, preceded by a Big Ten matchup, usually at 7 pm ET with Dave Flemming or Dan Shulman providing play-by-play and analysis by Dan Dakich. Molly McGrath is the sideline reporter for the Flemming or Shulman-Dakich team while Kaylee Hartung fulfills the role for the Tessitore-Farnham team. ESPN2 will carry a game between two teams from the Big 12 Conference with Jon Sciambi and Miles Simon. The in-studio host is Rece Davis, who works alongside ESPN analysts Fran Fraschilla and Jay Williams. They deliver the half-time and post-game reports, along with live in-game updates, and also appear on College GameNight later that night.

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