Super Mario 64

Super Mario 64[a] is a 1996 platform video game for the Nintendo 64, and the first in the Super Mario series to feature three-dimensional (3D) gameplay. As Mario, the player explores Princess Peach's castle and must rescue her from Bowser. As an early 3D platformer, Super Mario 64 is based on open-world playability, degrees of freedom through all three axes in space, and relatively large areas which are composed primarily of true 3D polygons as opposed to only two-dimensional (2D) sprites. It places an emphasis on exploration within vast worlds that require the player to complete various missions, in addition to the occasional linear obstacle courses as in traditional platform games. While doing so, it still preserves many gameplay elements and characters of earlier Mario games, and the same visual style.

Producer/director and Mario creator Shigeru Miyamoto conceived a 3D Mario game during the production of Star Fox (1993). Super Mario 64's development, handled by Nintendo EAD, lasted approximately three years; one was spent on designing while the next two on direct work. The visuals were created using the Nichimen N-World toolkit, and Miyamoto aimed to include more details than earlier games. A multiplayer mode featuring Luigi as a playable character was planned but cut. Along with Pilotwings 64, Super Mario 64 was one of the launch games for Nintendo 64. Nintendo released it in Japan on June 23, 1996, and later in North America, Europe, and Australia. A remake, Super Mario 64 DS, was released for the Nintendo DS in 2004, and the original version was rereleased for Nintendo's Virtual Console service on the Wii and Wii U in 2006 and 2015, respectively.

Super Mario 64 is acclaimed as one of the greatest video games of all time, and was the first game to receive a perfect score from Edge magazine. Reviewers praised its ambition, visuals, gameplay, and music, although they criticized its unreliable camera system. It is the Nintendo 64's bestseller, with more than eleven million copies sold by 2003. The game left a lasting impression on the field of 3D game design, featuring a dynamic camera system and 360-degree analog control, and established a new archetype for the 3D genre, much as Super Mario Bros. did for 2D side-scrolling platformers. Numerous developers cited Super Mario 64 as an influence on their later games.

Super Mario 64
Artwork of a horizontal rectangular box. Depicted is Mario flying with wings on his red cap caused by the "Wing Cap" power up. He flies in front of a blue backdrop with clouds, a Goomba and Princess Peach's Castle in the distance. The bottom portion reads "Super Mario 64" in red, blue, yellow, and green block letters.
North American box art depicting Mario flying with a winged cap in front of Princess Peach's castle
Developer(s)Nintendo EAD
Producer(s)Shigeru Miyamoto
Composer(s)Koji Kondo
SeriesSuper Mario
Platform(s)Nintendo 64, iQue Player
ReleaseNintendo 64[1][2]
  • JP: June 23, 1996
  • NA: September 29, 1996
  • EU: March 1, 1997
iQue Player
  • CHN: November 21, 2003


N64 Super Mario 64 whomp fortress
Courses like Whomp's Fortress require the player to navigate chasms

Super Mario 64 is a 3D platformer in which the player controls Mario through several courses. Each course is an enclosed world in which the player is free to wander in all directions and discover the environment without time limits. The worlds are filled with enemies that attack Mario, as well as friendly creatures that provide assistance, offer information, or ask a favor (such as peaceful pink Bob-omb Buddies). The player gathers stars in each course; some stars only appear after completing certain tasks, often hinted at by the name of the course. These challenges include defeating a boss, solving puzzles, racing an opponent, and gathering coins. As more stars are collected, more areas of the castle hub world become accessible.[3][4] The player unlocks doors in the castle with keys obtained by defeating Bowser in special courses.[4] There are many hidden mini-courses and other secrets to the game, most containing extra stars required for the full completion of the game.

There are three special cap power-ups that appear in certain areas on many stages. The Wing Cap allows Mario to fly; the Metal Cap makes him immune to most damage, allows him to withstand wind, walk underwater, and be unaffected by noxious gases; and the Vanish Cap renders him partially immaterial and allows him to walk through some obstacles such as wire mesh, as well as granting invulnerability to some forms of damage.[4] Some courses contain cannons that Mario can access by speaking to a pink Bob-omb Buddy.[5] After entering a cannon, Mario can be shot out to reach distant places. When the player has the Wing Cap equipped, cannons can be used to reach high altitudes or fly across most levels quickly.

Mario's abilities in Super Mario 64 are far more diverse than those of previous Mario games.[6] The player can make Mario walk, run, jump, crouch, crawl, swim, climb, kick, or punch using the game controller's analog stick and buttons. Special jumps can be executed by combining a regular jump with other actions, including the double and triple jumps (jumping two and three times in a row, respectively), long jump and backflip. There are also special maneuvers, such as wall jumping - jumping from one wall to another in rapid succession to reach areas that would otherwise be too high.[4][7] The player can pick up and carry certain items, an ability which is used to solve various puzzles, and swim underwater at various speeds. Mario's life energy slowly diminishes while underwater, representing how long he can hold his breath.[3][4]

Plot and setting

Super Mario 64 is set in Princess Peach's Castle, which consists of three floors, a basement, a moat, and a courtyard. The area outside the castle is an introductory area in which the player can experiment with gameplay. Scattered throughout the castle are entrances to courses via secret walls and paintings.[3] Super Mario 64 begins with a letter from Princess Peach inviting Mario to come to her castle for a cake she has baked for him.[8] When he arrives, Mario discovers that Bowser has invaded the castle and imprisoned the princess and her servants within it using the power of the castle's 120 Power Stars. Many of the castle's paintings are portals to other worlds, in which Bowser's minions keep watch over the stars. Mario explores the castle for these portals to enter the worlds and recover the stars. He gains access to more rooms as he recovers more Power Stars, and eventually traverses three different obstacle courses, each leading to its own battle with Bowser. Defeating Bowser the first two times earns Mario a key for opening another level of the castle. After Mario defeats Bowser in the final battle, Peach is released from the stained-glass window above the castle's entrance. Peach rewards Mario by kissing him on the nose and baking the cake that she had promised him.[4][7][9]


More than five years prior to the release of Super Mario 64, producer and director Shigeru Miyamoto conceived a 3D Mario design during the development of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) game Star Fox (1993), developed by Nintendo along with Argonaut Software. He considered using the Super FX chip to develop a SNES game which would have been called Super Mario FX, with gameplay based on "an entire world in miniature, like miniature trains".[11] Instead, he eventually reformulated the 3D Mario idea for the Nintendo 64 - not due to the next generation console's substantially greater power, but because its controller has more buttons for gameplay.[12][13] According to former Argonaut engineer Dylan Cuthbert, no game titled Super Mario FX had ever entered development, but rather "Super Mario FX" was the internal code name of the Super FX chip itself.[14] According to Argonaut founder Jez San, Super Mario 64 was influenced by a prototype of a canceled Argonaut game starring the Mario character Yoshi, which later became the 1997 platform game Croc: Legend of the Gobbos.[15]

The full scope of Super Mario 64 spanned approximately three years, with one year spent on the design concept and approximately two years on the direct development of the game software.[11] Development began with the characters and camera system. Miyamoto and the other designers were unsure of which direction the game should take; months were spent selecting a camera view and layout.[16] The original concept involved the game having fixed path like an isometric type game (similar to Super Mario RPG), before the choice was made to settle on a free-roaming 3D design.[16] Although the majority of Super Mario 64 features the free-roaming design, elements of the original fixed path concept remain, particularly in the three Bowser encounters. One of the programmers, Giles Goddard, explained that these linear elements survived as a means to force players into Bowser's lair rather than encourage exploration.[16]

3D graphics were created using the Nichimen N-World toolkit running on a Silicon Graphics workstation.[17] The team placed high priority on Mario's movement, and before levels were created, they tested and refined Mario's animations on a simple grid. The first test scenario for controls and physics involved Mario interacting with a golden rabbit, named "MIPS" after the Nintendo 64's MIPS architecture processors; the rabbit was included in the final version of the game. The developers tried to implement split-screen cooperative play using Mario and Luigi simultaneously where the two characters would start at separate points in the castle and work their way through the game together. The two-player mode was eliminated because the developers were unable to make the gameplay work satisfactorily.[18] To assist players with depth perception, the team positioned a faux shadow directly beneath each object regardless of the area's lighting. Developer Yoshiaki Koizumi described the feature as an "iron-clad necessity" which "might not be realistic, but it's much easier to play."[19]

Miyamoto's guiding design philosophy was to include more details than earlier games, using the Nintendo 64's power to feature "all the emotions of the characters". He likened the game's style to a 3D interactive cartoon.[20] Some details were inspired by the developers' personal lives; for example, the Boos are based on assistant director Takashi Tezuka's wife, who, as Miyamoto explained, "is very quiet normally, but one day she exploded, maddened by all the time Tezuka spent at work." In the game, the Boos shrink when Mario looks at them, but when he turns away, they grow large and menacing.[11]

Super Mario 64 features more puzzles than earlier Mario games. It was developed simultaneously with The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, but as Ocarina of Time was released more than two years later, some puzzles were taken for Super Mario 64. Information about Super Mario 64 leaked in November 1995, and a playable version of the game was presented days later as part of the Nintendo 64 premiere (then known as the "Ultra 64") at Nintendo Space World. At this point, the basic controls had been implemented and the game was 50% finished, featuring 32 courses, though only about 2% of mapping was complete. Miyamoto had hoped to create more courses, but only 15 courses could fit.[11] According to Nintendo of America chairman Howard Lincoln, Miyamoto's desire to add more to the game was a major factor in the decision to delay the Nintendo 64 release from Christmas 1995 to April 1996.[21] Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi later commented, "Game creators can finish games quickly if they compromise. But users have sharp eyes. They soon know if the games are compromised. [Shigeru Miyamoto] asked for two more months and I gave them to him unconditionally."[22]

The music was composed by veteran composer Koji Kondo, who created new interpretations of the familiar melodies from earlier games as well as entirely new material.[23] Super Mario 64 was one of the first games in the series to feature Charles Martinet as the voice of Mario. It also features the voices of Leslie Swan (then Senior Editor of Nintendo Power) as Princess Peach, who also wrote the English text for the game.[24]


Super Mario 64 received widespread critical acclaim and is the best-selling Nintendo 64 game.[25] At the 1999 Milia festival in Cannes, it took home a "Gold" prize for revenues above €21 million in the European Union during the previous year.[26] By May 2003, eleven million copies had been sold.[27] Super Mario 64 had become the second most popular game on Wii's Virtual Console by June 2007, behind Super Mario Bros.[28]

Aggregate scores
(22 reviews)[29]
(13 reviews)[30]
Review scores
AllGame5/5 stars[31]
Game Informer9.75/10[35]
Maximum5/5 stars[38]
Next Generation5/5 stars[39]

The game has been praised in the gaming press, and is still highly acclaimed. It has collected numerous awards, including various "Game of the Year" honors by members of the gaming media, as well as Nintendo's own best-selling Player's Choice selection. In addition, Super Mario 64 has been placed high on "the greatest games of all time" lists by many reviewers, including IGN,[40][41][12] Game Informer,[42] Edge,[43] Yahoo! Games,[44] and Nintendo Power.[45] Electronic Gaming Monthly awarded the game a Gold award in its initial review, and in Edge magazine, Super Mario 64 was the first game to receive a perfect score.[32][33] It won Electronic Gaming Monthly's Game of the Year for both editors' pick and readers' pick, as well as Nintendo 64 Game of the Year, Adventure Game of the Year, and Best Graphics.[46] British magazine Maximum gave it their "Maximum Game of the Month Award", making it the only import game (since Super Mario 64 had not yet been released outside Japan) to win that honor, and attested it to be the greatest game the magazine had ever reviewed.[47] Game Informer initially rated the game a 9.75, but re-rated it a 9.0 a decade later in a "Retro Review".[35][48] The Japanese gaming magazine Famitsu rated Super Mario 64 a 39/40.[34] GamePro gave it a perfect 5 out of 5 in every category (FunFactor, control, sound, and graphics).[49] Common praise focused on the presentation, while criticism was directed at the camera system. Nintendo Power lauded the graphics, sound, and gameplay, but commented the shifting camera angle took getting used to.[50] Next Generation Magazine praised many aspects of the game: musical score, graphics, lack of loading times, and the scale of the game, though they commented that the game is less accessible than previous Mario games, citing the camera's occasional, erratic movements and lack of optimal angle as frustrating.[39] GamePro particularly praised the combination of unprecedented technical performance and captivating artistic design, calling it "the most visually impressive game of all time."[49] Maximum found the game's strongest points to be its sense of freedom and the fact that revisiting levels unearths new areas and challenges.[38]

Video game publications and developers praised Super Mario 64 for its design and use of the 3D gameplay. The game is counted by as one of the first games to have brought a series of 2D games into full 3D.[51] Maximum commented that "The old 2D platform genre is essentially dead with the arrival of this game. The limitations inherent with the genre have been swept away in the wake of Mario 64."[38] In the transition to 3D, many of the series conventions were rethought drastically, placing an emphasis on exploration over traditional platform jumping, or "hop and bop" action. While its quality was disputed by some, it has been argued that it established an entirely new genre, different from that of previous games in the series.[52] Time Magazine focused on the realistic kinetic animation and the controls provided by the integration of the new pressure-sensitive controller into the game, calling it the "fastest, smoothest game action yet attainable via joystick at the service of equally virtuoso motion", where "[f]or once, the movement on the screen feels real".[53]

In the same issue in which they reviewed the game, Next Generation ranked it number 1 on their "Top 100 Games of All Time". They explained, "Super Mario 64 is the first true 3D game to play as good as the 2D games of the 16-bit era. ... As such, it represents the new high-water mark of both gameplay and graphic sophistication."[54] GameSpot called it one of the 15 most influential games of all time, and rated the Nintendo 64 version a score of 9.4 and the Wii Virtual Console version an 8.[55][36][56] Game Informer commented that even a decade later the game still offers hours of entertainment. They also commented on the camera system, stating that by present-day standards the camera system "would almost be considered broken".[35] Game Revolution's retrospective review referred to the graphics as "beautiful", but criticized the camera angles, saying "it doesn't work as well as it should".[57] The game placed 6th in Official Nintendo Magazine's "100 greatest Nintendo games of all time".[58] In 2009, Game Informer put Super Mario 64 13th on their list of "The Top 200 Games of All Time".[59] Official Nintendo Magazine referred to the game as a "masterpiece of game design", stating that Nintendo was able to take its "number-one 2D franchise and convert it flawlessly into 3D".[60] Michael Grayford of Liquid Entertainment stated he was initially "very turned off" by the openness of the game the first time he played it. Upon playing it later, he was "highly pleased" and stated "each level brought some new unique cool gameplay element and I was never bored".[61] Warren Spector, former lead designer at Ion Storm, stated it was "not possible to squeeze this much gameplay into a single game" and "no game has done a better job of showing goals before they can be attained, allowing players to make a plan and execute on it". He also praised the exploration aspect of the game, commenting that "[allowing players to] explore the same spaces several times while revealing something new each time is a revelation".[61]

Impact and legacy

Instead of staying behind Mario, the camera rotates to show the path

Critics acknowledge Super Mario 64 as a key contributor to the anticipation, and initial success, of the Nintendo 64 console.[35][60][62][63] Though the system was initially very successful, it eventually lost much of its market share to Sony's PlayStation. attributed this decline to Nintendo's use of cartridges and the design of the Nintendo 64 controller, which were reportedly implemented by Miyamoto for Super Mario 64.[51]

The game also set many precedents for 3D platformers to follow.[51][64] GameDaily listed the game as one of the "Most Influential Video Games" and stated it "defined the 3-D platform experience, influencing numerous designers to create their own, original offerings".[65] GamesTM noted many game companies, including Nintendo, have tried to develop a platform game to match up to Super Mario 64.[66] Members of Rare, a second-party developer for Nintendo during the 1990s, reflected in 2013 that during the development of 2001's Conker's Bad Fur Day, they had originally drawn inspiration from their deep analysis of the gameplay and camera mechanics of Super Mario 64: "We were just copying Mario, weren't we? Which, to this day, is still the best 3D camera."[67]:8:10 Super Mario 64 is notable for its sense of freedom and non-linearity. A central hub, where controls can be learned before entering levels themselves, has been used in many 3D platformers since. In addition, the game's mission-based level design is an inspiration for other game designers. Martin Hollis, who produced and directed Rare's GoldenEye 007, says "the idea for the huge variety of missions within a level came from Super Mario 64".[68] In 2012, Dan Houser, a prominent figure in the development of the Grand Theft Auto series, stated, "Anyone who makes 3D games who says they've not borrowed something from Mario or Zelda [on the Nintendo 64] is lying."[69] Tetsuya Nomura, a leading designer at Square Enix, stated in 2016 that Super Mario 64 was the impetus for the creation of the Kingdom Hearts series.[70][71]

Super Mario 64 is the first game to have a "free" camera that can be controlled independently of the character.[64] Most 3D games from the time use a first-person perspective, or a camera that is fixed in position relative to the player's character, or to the level. To create freedom of exploration, and more fluid control in a 3D world, the designers created a dynamic system in which the video camera is operated by the in-game character Lakitu.[7] The camera system would become the standard for 3D platform games in the future.[3] Nintendo Power stated the camera-control scheme is what transitioned platform games into three dimensions,[72] and that the game, along with The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, "blazed trails" into the 3D era.[73] Along with camera control, the game also innovated in its implementation of movement. Edge stated the game changed "gamers' expectations of 3D movement forever".[62] The Nintendo 64's analog stick allows for more precise and wide-ranging character movements than the digital D-pads of other consoles, and Super Mario 64 uses this in a way that was unique for its time. At the time, 3D games generally allowed for controls in which the player could either control the character in relation to a fixed camera angle or in relation to the character's perspective. Super Mario 64's controls are fully analog, and interpret a 360-degree range of motion into navigation through a 3D space relative to the camera. The analog stick also allows for precise control over subtleties such as the speed at which Mario runs. Super Mario 64 was one of the first games to implement the system.[74]

Because of the game's popularity, rumors about glitches and secrets spread rapidly after its release. A common rumor was that Luigi was a secret character in the game, fueled by illegible symbols in the castle courtyard that were said to resemble the text "L is real 2401". This same texture would reappear in The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time on a plaque in Dodongo's Cavern. IGN received so many questions and supposed methods to unlock Luigi that the staff offered a US$100 reward to anyone who could prove that Luigi was in the game.[75] The number of false codes submitted to IGN dropped dramatically, as Luigi's inclusion was proved to be a myth.[76] The April Fools' Day 1998 issue of Nintendo Power claims that the cryptic phrase would be discussed on the non-existent page 128, and also features a facetious article, "Luigi 64", commenting humorously on the rumor.[77] Several players have discovered coins that were impossible to obtain without glitching the game. Scott Buchanan, under the alias pannenkoek2012, had managed to collect one of those coins in 2014 without tool-assistance, and also creates content about the programming mechanics of Super Mario 64.[78]

On May 5, 2011, Super Mario 64 was selected as one of the 80 games to be displayed at the Smithsonian American Art Museum as part of "The Art of Video Games" exhibit that opened on March 16, 2012.[79][80]

Re-releases and remakes

A 64DD version of the original game was created only for demonstration of the prototype drive's operation and performance at the 1996 Nintendo Space World trade show.[81] Nintendo of America's Chairman Howard Lincoln explained, "Super Mario 64 is running on the 64DD right now. First they weren't going to show anything on 64DD, but they decided at the last minute to have a game people recognize."[82][83]

Like Wave Race 64, Super Mario 64 was re-released in Japan on July 18, 1997, as Super Mario 64 Shindō Pak Taiō Version (スーパーマリオ64 振動パック対応バージョン Sūpā Mario Roku-jū Yon Shindō Pakku Taiō Bājon). This version adds support for Nintendo's Rumble Pak peripheral and includes the voice acting from the English version.[84][85] In 1998, Super Mario 64 was re-released in Europe and North America as part of the Player's Choice line, a selection of games with high sales sold for a reduced price. The game was later released on the Wii's Virtual Console service in the United States on November 19, 2006, and in other territories the following weeks.[86] This release adds compatibility with the GameCube and Classic controllers, and enhances the resolution to 480p.[56]

An enhanced remake for the Nintendo DS called Super Mario 64 DS was available for the launch of the handheld system in 2004. Yoshi, Luigi, and Wario are additional playable characters, and the game features improved graphics, slightly altered courses, touchscreen mini-games, and a multiplayer mode. In addition, the number of Power Stars has been raised from 120 to 150.[87] Reviews were mostly positive, and by March 2008, 6.12 million copies of Super Mario 64 DS had been sold worldwide.[88][89][90] In 2015, a fan remake of Super Mario 64 was created in Unity, called Super Mario 64 HD. The project was later taken down due to a copyright claim by Nintendo.[91][92]

Influence on later games

A direct sequel tentatively titled Super Mario 64 2 was planned for the Nintendo 64DD.[93] In July 1996 Nintendo insiders stated that Miyamoto was assembling a team to work on a Super Mario 64 sequel, consisting mostly of developers who had worked on the original Super Mario 64.[94] Miyamoto mentioned at E3's 1997 convention that he was "just getting started" on the project.[95] In May 1999, Super Mario 64 2 was reported to be released in late 1999;[96] however, the game was canceled due to the commercial failure of the 64DD, as well as lack of progress in the game's development.[93][97]

Instead, Super Mario 64 was followed by other 3D Mario games on subsequent Nintendo systems, such as Super Mario Sunshine for the GameCube and Super Mario Galaxy for the Wii. These games built on Super Mario 64's core design of enhancement items and open ended gameplay.[98][99] Super Mario Galaxy 2 features a remake of Mario 64's Whomp's Fortress level.[100] Later 3D games, namely Super Mario 3D Land and Super Mario 3D World, while keeping many of Super Mario 64's core gameplay elements, departed from the game's open-ended design and focused more on platforming reminiscent of 2D games.[101] The Nintendo Switch game Super Mario Odyssey returns to Super Mario 64's open design.[102]

See also


  1. ^ Super Mario 64 (Japanese: スーパーマリオ64 Hepburn: Sūpā Mario 64)


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External links

1996 in video gaming

1996 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Blazing Heroes, Super Mario 64, NiGHTS into Dreams..., Crash Bandicoot, Resident Evil, Dead or Alive, Duke Nukem 3D and Tomb Raider.

Chain Chomp

Chain Chomps, known in Japan as Wanwan (ワンワン) (Japanese onomatopoeia for a barking sound), are metal, barking ball-and-chain-like creatures that are restrained by chains. When not held back by chains, they are sometimes referred to as just Chomps. Chain Chomps constantly strain against the chain holding them, attempting to break free and bite anything that passes close by.


Allan Alvarez, (born February 26, 1995) more commonly known as cheese, is a speedrunner and podcast host from Trinidad known for his Super Mario 64 gameplay. As of February 2019, Alvarez holds the speedrunning world record for the 120 star categorie of Super Mario 64.

List of Nintendo 64 games

This is a list of games released solely for a specific console. For related lists of other consoles, see Lists of video games.The Nintendo 64 video game console has a library of games, which were primarily released in plastic ROM cartridges. Two small indentations on the back of each cartridge allows it to connect or pass through the system's cartridge dustcover flaps. All regions have the same connectors, and region-locked cartridges will fit into the other regions' systems by using a cartridge converter or by simply removing the cartridge's casing. However, the systems are also equipped with lockout chips that will only allow them to play their appropriate games. Both Japanese and North American systems have the same NTSC lockout, while Europe has a PAL lockout. A bypass device such as the N64 Passport or the Datel Action Replay can be used to play import titles, but a few games require an additional boot code before they can be played.Of the console's 389 official releases, 196 are region-locked to Japan, 296 to North America, and 242 to Europe. The Nintendo 64 was first launched in Japan on June 23, 1996 with Super Mario 64, Pilotwings 64, and Saikyō Habu Shōgi; in North America with Super Mario 64 and Pilotwings 64; and in Europe with Super Mario 64, Pilotwings 64, Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire, and Turok: Dinosaur Hunter. The last game to be published for the system was the North American-locked Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 3 on August 20, 2002. The best-selling game is Super Mario 64 with 11 million units as of May 21, 2003. Regardless of the higher cost of cartridge production and of continued criticism over releasing a cartridge-based system, the total unit sales of Nintendo 64 software has exceeded the total unit sales of Nintendo GameCube software. The Nintendo 64 library is to date the smallest overall library of game titles on a Nintendo home console.

This list does not include games for Nintendo's 64DD disk drive peripheral. The list is initially organized alphabetically by their English titles or their alphabet conversions; however, it is also possible to sort each column individually. It is arranged with the different titles being listed once for each program that it contains; the various titles are listed by the majority name first. In the case of two English regions bearing a game with different names, the first version is listed first. All English titles are listed first, with an alternate title listed afterward; direct translations of English titles are not used.

List of Super Mario speedrunning records

The Super Mario video game franchise is a series of platforming video games developed and published by Nintendo. Having gone on to be the best selling video game franchise, the Mario franchise has gained immense popularity in pop culture as a symbol of video games. The speedruning community has attempted completion of Super Mario games as quickly as possible, and have set world records for the completion time of these games.

List of best-selling Nintendo 64 video games

The list of best-selling Nintendo 64 games consists of 45 titles which have yielded 1 million or more unit sales each. The best-selling video game on the Nintendo 64 is Super Mario 64. First released in Japan on June 23, 1996, it was a launch title for the system and the first Super Mario game to use three-dimensional graphics. The game went on to sell 11.91 million units worldwide. Mario Kart 64, the second in the Mario Kart series, is the second best-selling game on the platform, with sales of more than 9.8 million copies. The console's top five is rounded out by Rare's GoldenEye 007 at third, with sales of just more than 8 million units, The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time in fourth, with 7.6 million units sold worldwide, and Super Smash Bros. in fifth, with sales of more than 5.5 million units.Of these top 45 games, 12 were developed by internal Nintendo development divisions. Aside from these, the developer with the most million-selling games is Rare, with seven titles in the top 45. Nintendo published 31 of these 45 games. Other publishers with multiple million-selling entries in the list include THQ with four games, Rare with three games, and Acclaim Entertainment with two games. The most popular franchises on Nintendo 64 include Pokémon with 13.46 million combined units, The Legend of Zelda with 10.96 million combined units, Donkey Kong with 10.15 million combined units, and Star Wars with 7.87 million combined units.

List of recurring Mario franchise enemies

This is a list of common, recurring enemies in the Mario franchise. The enemies on the list are in alphabetical order, and are most commonly found in Super Mario games, in which Bowser commands his minions to block and act as obstacles to Mario, who is normally attempting to rescue Princess Peach.

Most of these enemies are identical in look and are classified as species. While only those who belong to Bowser or specific antagonists are enemies to Mario or players, other members of these species (usually individuals) have their own life in or out of Mushroom Kingdom (e.g. King Boo; Petey Piranha), similar with Toads or Yoshis. Most of them appear in the Mario role-playing games, and some may even aid Mario in his adventures.

Some Mario spin-off games present enemy species as playable characters even though they are not always actual individual characters.

List of unofficial Mario media

Unlicensed developers and fans have created unofficial Mario media, especially video games, relating to the Mario franchise. These products include video games, ROM hacks, and animations. Due to the popularity of the franchise, some of these unlicensed products have received critical attention.

In September 2016, Nintendo of America issued over 500 DMCA takedown requests on diverse websites for various fan games based on Nintendo intellectual properties, resulting in the end of many games' development.


N-World is a 3D graphics package developed by Nichimen Graphics in the 1990s, for Silicon Graphics and Windows NT workstations. Intended primarily for video game content creation, it offers polygon modeling tools, 2D and 3D paint, scripting, color reduction, and exporters for several popular game consoles. Once ported to windows, N-World was released as Mirai and Nendo. Its current incarnations can be found as an open source clone called Wings3D.


Scott Buchanan (born c. 1994), better known under his username pannenkoek2012 ( (listen); Dutch pronunciation: [ˈpɑn.ə.ˌkuk tʋeː.ˈdœy̯.zənt.ˈtʋaːl(ə)f] (listen)), is a Super Mario 64 analyst and YouTube personality. Pannenkoek2012 is known for creating highly technical videos detailing the mechanics of Super Mario 64, in which he explains techniques he uses to beat levels of the game while completing various self-imposed challenges such as not using certain buttons or the joystick when completing objectives in the game. In 2014, he collected a coin previously thought unobtainable in the "Tiny-Huge Island" level. In 2015, he offered a $1,000 USD bounty for anyone who could recreate a certain glitch in Super Mario 64.

Power star

Power star may refer to:

Pawan Kalyan, a Telugu film actor popularly referred to as Power Star Pawan Kalyan

Puneeth Rajkumar, a Kannada film actor popularly referred to as Power Star Puneeth Rajkumar

Power Stars, a feature in the video game Super Mario 64

Srinivasan (Tamil actor), a Tamil film actor known as Power Star Srinivasan

Project Dream

Project Dream was the codename of a role-playing video game (RPG) that served as the basis for the 1998 game Banjo-Kazooie. Developed by Rare, it was aimed for release on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), and later the Nintendo 64 (N64). The plot revolved around a young boy, Edison, who caused trouble with pirates. The SNES version of Dream used an isometric perspective and had a fairy tale-like theme. After transitioning to the N64, the project became a more complex 3D RPG that had a greater emphasis on the pirate theme. Eventually, Dream was scaled back to a linear platform game in the vein of Donkey Kong Country (1994) that starred Banjo the bear, who became the protagonist of Banjo-Kazooie.

The game was developed by Rare's Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest (1995) team over the course of 16 months. It was inspired by Japanese RPGs and LucasArts adventure games, and the name Dream emphasized its fantastical themes. Dream was not completed because Rare believed it was too ambitious and different from their previous games. The team's admiration for Super Mario 64 (1996) and the game that became Conker's Bad Fur Day (2001) led them to retool it into a platformer. Eventually, all work on Dream was scrapped and its concepts were re-integrated into Banjo-Kazooie, which released to critical and commercial success.

Shigeru Miyamoto

Shigeru Miyamoto (Japanese: 宮本 茂, Hepburn: Miyamoto Shigeru, pronounced [mijamoto ɕiɡeɾɯ]; born November 16, 1952) is a Japanese video game designer and producer for the video game company Nintendo, currently serving as one of its representative directors. He is best known as the creator of some of the most critically acclaimed and best-selling video games and franchises of all time, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Star Fox, F-Zero, Donkey Kong and Pikmin.

Miyamoto originally joined Nintendo in 1977, when the company was beginning its foray into video games and starting to abandon the playing cards it had made since 1889. His games have been prominently showcased and widely anticipated as flagship titles of every Nintendo video game console, with his earliest work appearing on arcade machines in the late 1970s. He managed Nintendo's Entertainment Analysis & Development software division, which developed many of the company's first-party titles. As a result of Nintendo president Satoru Iwata's death in July 2015, Miyamoto fulfilled the role of acting president alongside Genyo Takeda until being formally appointed as the company's "Creative Fellow" a few months later.

Super Mario

Super Mario is a series of fantasy platform games created by Nintendo featuring their mascot, Mario. Alternatively called the Super Mario Bros. series or simply the Mario series, it is the central series of the greater Mario franchise. At least one Super Mario game has been released for every major Nintendo video game console.

The Super Mario games follow Mario's adventures, typically in the fictional Mushroom Kingdom with Mario as the player character. He is often joined by his brother, Luigi, and occasionally by other members of the Mario cast. As in platform video games, the player runs and jumps across platforms and atop enemies in themed levels. The games have simple plots, typically with Mario rescuing the kidnapped Princess Peach from the primary antagonist, Bowser. The first title in the series, Super Mario Bros., released for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in 1985, established gameplay concepts and elements prevalent in nearly every Super Mario game since. These include a multitude of power-ups and items that give Mario special magic powers such as fireball-throwing and size-changing into giant and miniature sizes.The Super Mario series is part of the greater Mario franchise. This includes other video game genres as well as media such as film, television, printed media and merchandise. Over 310 million copies of games in the Super Mario series have been sold worldwide, as of September 2015, making it the best-selling video game series in history.

Super Mario 128

Super Mario 128 was a series of development projects that were originally to be used only to create a sequel to Super Mario 64. As debuted at Nintendo's Space World trade show in 2000, the demonstrated graphics and physics concepts were gradually incorporated into various games across many years. This includes the rapid object generation in Pikmin, the "sphere walking" technology used in The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess and Super Mario Galaxy, and the physics of Metroid Prime. It is also one of the two cancelled Mario games after Super Mario's Wacky Worlds.

Super Mario 64 DS

Super Mario 64 DS is a 2004 platform game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo DS. It was a launch title for the DS and the system's first Mario game. Super Mario 64 DS is a remake of the 1996 Nintendo 64 game Super Mario 64; in addition to revised graphics, the game includes new characters, thirty additional star collectibles, a multiplayer mode, and several minigames independent of the main adventure. As with the original, the plot of Super Mario 64 DS centers on rescuing Princess Peach from Bowser. Unlike the original, Yoshi is the initial protagonist, with Mario, Luigi, and Wario as unlockable characters.

Nintendo revealed Super Mario 64 DS as a multiplayer demonstration at E3 2004, and released it in November 2004. The game received generally positive reviews from critics, who praised its single-player mode and the changes made from the original game. However, they criticized its multiplayer mode and lack of analog controls. The game is the tenth bestselling Nintendo DS game, with over 11.06 million copies sold by 2018. Super Mario 64 DS was rereleased on the Wii U's Virtual Console in 2016.

Super Mario Sunshine

Super Mario Sunshine is a platform game developed and published by Nintendo for the GameCube. It was first released in Japan on July 19, 2002, and was later released in North America, Europe and Australia. It is the second 3D platformer in the Super Mario series, following Super Mario 64 in 1996.

The game takes place on the tropical Isle Delfino, where Mario, Toadsworth, Princess Peach and five Toads are taking a vacation. A villain resembling Mario, known as Shadow Mario, vandalizes the island with graffiti and Mario gets blamed for the mess. Mario is ordered to clean up Isle Delfino, using a device called the Flash Liquidizer Ultra Dousing Device (F.L.U.D.D.), while saving Princess Peach from Shadow Mario.

Super Mario Sunshine received critical acclaim, with reviewers praising the game's graphics, Mario's array of moves, and the addition of FLUDD as a mechanic, though some critics criticized the game's camera control. The game sold over five million copies worldwide by 2006, and is the third best-selling GameCube game of all time. The game was rereleased in the Player's Choice range in 2003.

Virtual camera system

In 3D video games, a virtual camera system aims at controlling a camera or a set of cameras to display a view of a 3D virtual world. Camera systems are used in videogames where their purpose is to show the action at the best possible angle; more generally, they are used in 3D virtual worlds when a third person view is required.

As opposed to film makers, virtual camera system creators have to deal with a world that is interactive and unpredictable. It is not possible to know where the player's character is going to be in the next few seconds; therefore, it is not possible to plan the shots as a film maker would do. To solve this issue, the system relies on certain rules or artificial intelligence to select the most appropriate shots.

There are mainly three types of camera systems. In fixed camera systems, the camera does not move at all and the system displays the player's character in a succession of still shots. Tracking cameras, on the other hand, follow the character's movements. Finally, interactive camera systems are partially automated and allow the player to directly change the view. To implement camera systems, video game developers use techniques such as constraint solvers, artificial intelligence scripts, or autonomous agents.

Yoshiaki Koizumi

Yoshiaki Koizumi (小泉 歓晃, Koizumi Yoshiaki, born April 29, 1968) is a Japanese video game designer, director and producer. Working for Nintendo, he is the Deputy General Manager of the company's Entertainment Planning & Development division. He is known for his work within the Mario and The Legend of Zelda series.

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