Sunwar language

Sunuwar, or Kõinch (कोँइच; kõica; other spellings are Koinch and Koincha), is a Kiranti language spoken in Nepal by the Sunuwar people. It was first comprehensively attested by the Himalayan Languages Project. It is also known as Kõits Lo (कोँइच लो ; kõica lo), Kiranti-Kõits (किराँती-कोँइच ; kirā̃tī-kõica), Mukhiya (मुखिया ; mukhiyā).[3][4]

Sunuwar
Sunuwar koich
RegionNepal
Native speakers
38,000 (2011)[1]
Dialects
  • Sunuwar proper
Language codes
ISO 639-3suz
Glottologsunw1242[2]
Sunuwar greeting

Geographical distribution

Sunuwar is spoken in the following locations of Nepal (Ethnologue).

Vocabulary

Seu+wa+la (Sewala)

Sunuwar English
Namsewal Hello / Good Bye
Sew (Respect) / (Greeting) / I bow to you
Maahr What
Dohpachaa How to
Dohshow How much
Dohmoh How big
Go I
Gopuki We are
Ge You (informal)
Gepukhi You are (informal)
Goi You (formal)
GoiPuki You are (formal)
Daarshow Beautiful
Rimso Good
MaDarshow Ugly

Language Structure

In linguistic typology, a subject+object+verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order. If English were SOV, "Sam oranges ate" would be an ordinary sentence, as opposed to the actual Standard English "Sam ate oranges". (A Grammar of Sunuwar) [5]

Language S O V
Sunuwar Go Khamay Jainu
English I Rice Eat

Sunuwar people called "Khangsa" sign language with voice and direct action, for foreign people who don't understand a sunuwar language.

Area

Sunuwar language is spoken in villages in Dolakha, Ramechhap and Okhaldhunga, about 120 kilometers east of Kathmandu.[4]

Writing systems

Though Sunuwar is most commonly written with the Devanagari script, a native writing system, Jenticha, has seen limited use since the 1940s.

Numerals and alphabet (Devanagari)

Numerals

1 ichi/kaa 2 ni/nishi 3 sa/saam 4 le 5 nga
6 ruku/roku 7 chani 8 sasi 9 van 10 gau

Vowels

a ā i ī u ū
e ai o au ang aha

Consonants

ka kha ga gha ṅga cha chha ja jha
ña ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa ta tha da
dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra
la wa śha ṣra sa ha व्ह hha

References

  1. ^ Sunuwar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sunwar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Ager, Simon. "Jenticha alphabet, and the Sunuwar language". Omniglot. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  4. ^ a b Borchers, Dörte (2008). A grammar of Sunuwar: descriptive grammar, paradigms, texts and glossary ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Leiden: Brill. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9789004167094.
  5. ^ "A Grammar of Sunwar". Dörte Borchers. Retrieved 27 August 2018.

External links

List of endangered languages in Nepal

An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. UNESCO defines four levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":

Vulnerable

Definitely endangered

Severely endangered

Critically endangered

Prefix

A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix un- is added to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy. Particularly in the study of languages, a prefix is also called a preformative, because it alters the form of the words to which it is affixed.

Prefixes, like other affixes, can be either inflectional, creating a new form of the word with the same basic meaning and same lexical category (but playing a different role in the sentence), or derivational, creating a new word with a new semantic meaning and sometimes also a different lexical category. Prefixes, like all other affixes, are usually bound morphemes.In English, there are no inflectional prefixes; English uses suffixes instead for that purpose.

The word prefix is itself made up of the stem fix (meaning "attach", in this case), and the prefix pre- (meaning "before"), both of which are derived from Latin roots.

Western "Pro-"
Central "Ro-"
Eastern "Yak-"
Arunachal
Pradesh
Assam
Manipur
Meghalaya
Mizoram
Nagaland
Sikkim
Tripura
Official language
Indigenous
languages

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