Summer camp

A summer camp, or sleepaway camp, is a supervised program for children or teenagers conducted during the summer months in some countries. Children and adolescents who attend summer camp are known as campers. Summer school is usually a required academic curriculum for a student to make up work not accomplished during the academic year, whereas summer camps can include academic work, but is not a requirement for graduation.

The traditional view of a summer camp as a woody place with hiking, canoeing, and campfires is changing, with greater acceptance of newer types of summer camps that offer a wide variety of specialized activities. For example, there are camps for the performing arts, music, magic, computer programming, language learning, mathematics, children with special needs, and weight loss. In 2006, the American Camp Association reported that 75 percent of camps added new programs. This is largely to counter a trend in decreasing enrollment in summer camps, which some argue to have been brought about by smaller family sizes and the growth in supplemental educational programs. There are also religiously affiliated summer camps, such as those run by Christian groups and various denominations of Judaism.

The primary purpose of many camps is educational, athletic, or cultural development. A summer camp environment may allow children to learn new skills in a safe and nurturing environment. Summer camp experience can have lasting psychological impact on the development of a child.[1]

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A group of summer camp attendees make music with tambourines.

Girls Camps in the United States began to appear at the turn of the 20thcentury and many of the early camps were located in New England[2]. Examples of early girl’s camps are Camp Kehonka in New Hampshire and Camp Wyonegonic in Maine. Wyonegonic started in 1902 and is known as the oldest and continuous-run camp for girls in America.[3]In 1900, there were less than 100 camps in the United State, and by 1918, over 1000 were in operation.[4] [1] Early Camps for girls were located in remote, natural areas and many camps featured a water venue. Girls participated in outdoor activities that could include canoeing, archery, and hiking. Other types of popular instruction involved handcrafts, dramatics, camp and fire making. Sleeping arrangements in camps were in the form of wigwams, tents, or open dormitories. Either of these options encouraged a camper to take responsibility for maintaining her own personal space and develop self-sufficiency.[5][2]

Mimicking Native American traditions in the manner of council fires and storytelling generated a sense of community and to inspire a camper to become a conscientious member of a group.[6]]]Typically, girl campers wore their hair and dressed in a version of native style. Uniforms were standard in most camps, but braided hair and headbands were common attire campers. For camp ceremonies and pageants, girls would dress in special Native inspired dresses, at times even contributing to the handiwork.[7]In this era, camps were considered to be a natural pathway for young girls to develop healthy bodies, self-assurance and a sense of community.[8]

Today's girl’s camps offer a host of specialized options including STEM Camps, Sailing, and Dramatic Arts. [3]

BCCYMCA Waterfront
Attendees of summer camps often enjoy outdoor activities. This photo of a YMCA camp shows campers in a lake.

Organization

In most camps, the young adult or teenage supervisors are called counselors or "cabin leaders". In many camps, counselors are assigned to small groups of campers, called "bunks", "huts", "cabins", or "units", who participate in activities as a group, such as campfires, hiking, canoeing, swimming, nature lore, arts and crafts. Counselors often share living accommodations with their group.

In the United States counselors for residential camps are typically drawn from older teens and college-aged adults (early 20s) because of the temporary, seasonal and low-paying aspects of the work. International staff are often hired alongside their American counterparts through agencies who vet the staff beforehand. Overall camp supervision is typically done by older camp directors, who lead a team that includes cooks, sports instructors, a nurse, maintenance personnel and counselors. The director and the maintenance personnel have a longer-term affiliation with the summer camp. Professional camp staff organize preparation of facilities and supplies for the camp season and supervise the maintenance of the camp during the off-season. Camp directors conduct the hiring of seasonal counselors, instructors, and support staff, often during job fairs held on campuses or on online job boards[9][10].

At some camps, all campers stay overnight in cabins and eat all their meals in a cafeteria. At some camps, also known as day camps, the campers go home each night. Some other camps allow both day and overnight campers. In the USA, residential camps that have overnight facilities are sometimes called "sleepaway camps". Summer camp is often the first time that children spend an extended period of time away from home.

The practice of running residential holidays for children away from their own home seems to have originated in Appenzell in the Alps in 1876, when Pastor Bion set up holiday camps in which children made tree-houses, sang songs, did drama, made kites and had adventure games. Post-war France used Pastor Bion’s model to take children who had grown up during the war years, away from cities, and their scheme ‘colonies de vacances’ became state controlled, part of their state education system for all children.The American camps developed from a very different cultural root.

Educational camps

Class in bed making
Young girls learning how to make a bed at a "vacation school" in the late 1890s, what in modern terminology would probably be a summer camp.

In the United States there are numerous models of camp with an educational focus that cater to students with differing ages and academic interest.

College credit courses

Some camps offer students the opportunity to explore a pre-college experience. Typically, students entering grades 10 through 12 stay in the college dormitories and attend summer classes run by college faculty. At the successful completion of a summer program, course credits are awarded, which in turn are accepted by most tertiary institutions. Typically, colleges in the United States and Canada offer these programs, as it serves as an introduction to students to entice them to attend the college as full-time students based upon a memorable summer experience.

Model Rocketry at Starbase Kelly camp 070810-F-3340B-001
A camper launches a model rocket at Starbase Kelly at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, Aug. 10, 2007. Starbase Kelly, sponsored by the 433red Airlift Wing of the U.S. Air Force, is a five-day camp focused on providing fourth, fifth and sixth-graders with education on math, science and technology during the summer.

Non-college credit courses

Some camps, such as CTY and Duke TIP, are focused primarily on education or on educational-related activities, such as debate, history, or journalism. These camps are often run by colleges or universities, and are usually for children in junior or senior high school. Instruction in debate and speech is also available for middle school students and incoming high school students all over the country. Educational summer camps are different from summer schools as the summer camps often are not offered for school credit, and often have a significant focus on non-academic activities. Students for these programs are often invited or recruited. Many of these camps, such as Canada/USA Mathcamp and SSP, focus on a specific subject, such as mathematics or astronomy. These camps tend to have selective application processes involving problem solving or an essay about the applicant's interest in the subject.[11]

Academic adventure camps

These provide high school students with the opportunity to study an academic topics on a summer adventure travel program, typically in the wilderness or a foreign country. Many include community service as a component of the course. Others also offer college credit with the successful completion of the program.

SAT preparation courses

Various camp programs offer preparation for the SAT Reasoning Test as part of a mixture of academic learning with summer fun. Often the SAT preparation is offered as a full morning immersion while the afternoons and evenings are geared towards homework and recreational activities. These camp programs often outsource their SAT component from test preparation companies like The Princeton Review or Kaplan who provide the teachers and resources.

Enrichment courses

These programs offer a wide range of classes that may have little or no scholastic overlap, but are taught with the purpose of broadening the student's conception and interest in many otherwise unknown areas of study. Students typically explore subjects like photography, community service, drama, magic, scuba diving, video production, comic book design, crime scene forensics, cooking, yoga, and similar areas.

Science and nature

Summer camps provide an amazing opportunity for children to learn hands on. Camps provide opportunities that are unlike school, often opening the natural world to children that may never be outside. They can use the natural surroundings and get children back to nature. More and more child psychologists says that kids need to be spending time unstructured and outside.

Canada

Some well known summer camps focusing on science and nature in Canada include Deep River Science Academy, Shad Valley, numerous university sponsored and hosted day camps including the University of Toronto's Science Outreach, Space Camp Canada and the now defunct Algonquin Space Campus hosted at the Algonquin Radio Observatory. Safari Science is another camp which is located in Oakville Ontario and provides campers an adventure in learning about their world.

Tech camps

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Participants at a robotics camp for children at Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City.

Tech camps focus on technology education. These summer camps develop 21st century skills in areas such as game design, 3D game creation, web design, graphic design, robot building, and programming languages. These summer camps are typically held on college campuses. Many universities now offer technology-focused camps in the summer as a way of reaching future students, generating revenue and providing community service outreach.

Language and foreign culture camps

To meet a growing demand for language education, language camps have developed around the United States. Many of these summer programs are hosted by high schools. Colleges and universities have also created camps using their facilities to host younger students. Foreign countries have established summer schools in the United States to offer education regarding their culture and language. The growing popularity of summer language camps may be related to a growing interest in languages not typically offered in United States high school curricula. Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, and Korean are examples of languages in-demand that do not often appear in a curriculum.

Art and performing arts camps

Other camps have become summer training grounds for a variety of arts. Many offer elective classes in a range of creative and performing arts activities including visual arts, music, theater, speech, debate, dance, circus arts, rock and roll, magic and other specialties. Some of these programs have a narrow focus in one particular area, while others offer a wide range of programs. Due to the popularity of these activities, many traditional camps have added some elements of the visual and performing arts into their programs as well. Some camps offer very high level instruction and performance opportunities; this is such that campers with previous experience and skill may be able to perform a solo in front of a symphony orchestra or create an artistic piece on their own. Most art and performing art summer camps also cater to beginners, offering children the opportunity to try a new art or learn a new skill.

Oftentimes camps will have various totems or traditions that pass from one group of campers to the next, with each group adding something that denotes their time at the camp, often like a time capsule. Painted totems, wood carving, and show programs often accumulate as a sacred object that passes from one group to the next. Cheer camps have popularized the concept of a spirit stick.[12] Performing art camps often run 3 or 4 week sessions that culminate in some sort of performance that parents and families attend.

Travel camps

Many camps also bring children of all ages around the world. Some camps are often called "Adventure Camps", often having a very specific theme. Many of these programs emphasize skill development and personal growth through the adventures offered.

Sports camps

Summer camps can be found that offer intensive instruction in almost any sport imaginable, or that offer quality instruction and competition in a wide range of sports. Camps are split into groups of day camps and overnight camps. In the United States overnight sports camps fall into two groups. The more traditional of these offer boys and girls the chance to learn and play many sports. Sessions are typically 3 to 8 weeks long, and some camps have multiple sessions. While many strong athletes attend these camps, a traditional sports camp program also serves the needs of less proficient athletes by having all campers compete on teams picked by ability, so all kids get a chance to contribute to their team's success in their daily competitions. Some of these camps have been operating for more than 100 years. These camps generally focus, through the medium of team sports, on the development of the whole child; not just how they are as an athlete, but also how they are as a person, a bunkmate, a teammate, and a friend. Many of these camps include a variety of non-sports programs as well for a more diverse experience.

Many sports camps are of the second type, which focuses almost exclusively on one particular sport. These camps generally focus on helping each camper acquire skills in a sport that help them gain confidence and improve their chances of making the team when they return to school. Indeed, some campers are helped to be nationally competitive by way of this kind of intensive summer training. These camps generally run week-long sessions, and some campers may attend more than one session even though the curriculum repeats each week. Some single-sport camps offer longer sessions. Many of the instructors at these camps are coaches of local teams, and thus many athletes get valuable extra time with the coach they play for during the school year (or the coach they hope to play for during the upcoming school year). Such camps are also a good way to learn about potential college scholarships in their sport.

Both multi-sport and single-sport camps tend to be run by experienced teachers and coaches (who typically have summers off from their school responsibilities). Cabin staff, instructors, and counselors are typically college athletes. The best sports camps succeed at challenging aspiring athletes both mentally and physically, while also promoting their social and leadership skills. This is possible in part because many of the counselors attended as campers, and thus there is a vibrant "camp culture" that welcomes new campers into an extended camp family and establishes the high standards that incoming campers are encouraged to achieve. The best sports camps do much more than just improve a camper's soccer, tennis, lacrosse, or wrestling skills; they help each child become a more skillful athlete, a more gracious competitor, a more committed team player, and a more confident person.

Weight loss camps

Weight loss or "fat" camps are for overweight children, teens, and adults to learn about losing weight and keep it off while having a summer camp experience.

Emotional education camp

These kind of camps, are a new way to increase the emotional intelligence of the children. There are some examples of these camps, around the world, for example Rumbendëll emotional camp,[13] based in Seville, Spain.

LGBT camps

LGBT summer camps are safe spaces designed for LGBT youths to experience the supportive atmosphere they may lack at home.[14] They follow a similar model to summer camps, with traditional activities like swimming, canoeing, and bog runs but also queer activities like "Grave Digging," where kids can bury their old gender identities and deadnames, or learning makeup tips from a drag queen.[15] Identity-affirming camps can improve the psychological well-being of LGBT youth.[16]

Around the world

Australia

Summer camps are largely non-existent in Australia, because the Australian summer break (known as the Christmas holidays) only lasts between six and eight weeks, and occurs over Christmas and the New Year, shorter than in North America. Most children participate in School-camps, Girl Guide/scout camps, or school holiday camps with some religious groups (Such as the Salvation Army and Seventh-Day Adventists) holding week-long Summer Camps. Girl Guides and Scouts offer 'jamborees' which are camps over 1 to 2 weeks. Multiple-week camps are next to unheard of.

Many of Australia's youth music organisations hold annual rehearsal camps in summer including the Australian Youth Orchestra's National Music Camp and Gondwana Choirs Gondwana National Choral School. Other than the Seventh-Day Adventist Summer Camps, most holiday camps are referred to as "Adventure Camps", because they largely do not occur over summer. Many groups hold holiday day-camps for Primary aged children, and often run week-long adventure camps during the Spring, Autumn and Winter breaks.

Australian Defence Force Cadets often and almost exclusively run their extended camps and courses over school holiday periods, the vast majority of which provide all food and lodging for Cadets over the course of the camp. However, these camps often last only one or two weeks and thus do not fill up the majority of the summer holiday break. This allows the Cadets (who are aged 12–18 years and therefore the majority attend school) to attend the camps whilst still completing normal schooling.

Canada

Children. La Familiale Camp BAnQ P48S1P06393
Children in a Montreal summer camp, July 1941

In Canada, summer camps are very popular. About 70% of Canadian camps tend to be affiliated with organizations, while the rest are private. There are also many summer camps for ESL students. Summer camp fairs are held throughout Canada, usually during the winter months. Parents and children can meet camp directors and collect information about summer camps. Admission to these fairs is typically free, and the camps on display vary in their cost from completely subsidized fees to quite expensive.

Chile

The Chilean Inglés Abre Puertas (English Opens Doors) program from the Ministry of Education runs each January and July English-language Summer and Winter camps, respectively. The camps take place during the students' vacations, and "are designed to give talented Chilean public high school students the chance to practice English in a more hands on way through interactive activities including role-playing exercises, field trips, group projects, and competitive games."

China

Most of the summer camps are sponsored by the educational bureau. However, nowadays, there are more privately held camp programs. The traditional camps are only open to the selected students within individual school district. In the recent years, programs have started that are open to kids from different background and different regions. There are also programs tailored for international students who are interested in learning Chinese language and culture.

Cyprus

In Cyprus summer camps are widely used for children. They usually are situated in the Troodos Mountains area and more specific around Platres. The church, government and organised groups provide funds for many children so that they can join a summer camps for free.

Finland

Many Finnish non-governmental organizations arrange summer camps for children in a wide variety of age brackets. Major organizers of summer camps are the scouts, sport teams and the orthodox and evangelic-Lutheran churches. The concept of summer camps arose with the rapid post-WWII urbanization and industrialization Finland experienced. The reason behind this was that Finnish pedagogues of that period, influenced by the values of the largely agrarian pre-WWII society, were convinced that an urban lifestyle was harmful for the development of children. The idea behind summer camps was to ensure that children had experiences of the countryside, experiences that would aid in development into a decent citizen.

One Finnish tradition also arose soon after WWII, was confirmation camps. Confirmations camps, religious camps for 13–16 years old youths organized by the local churches, aimed to combine the traditional concept of confirmation school and the newer concept of summer camps in order to battle secularization of the society. The concept was successful enough to such an extent that today, 90% of all youths participate in confirmation camps. The camps require their participants to learn certain religious texts, such as the catechism, and the Lord's prayer. There are a number of non-religious alternatives for confirmation camps, such as the Prometheus Camp, which aim to generate a positive intellectual and social atmosphere for the participants of the camp without religious tuition.

France

In France they are called colonie de vacances or more recently centre de vacances. According to the French administration,[17] more than 25% of French children attend this kind of "collective holiday" each year.

Greece

In Greece summer camps are widely known for offering organised vacations for children. They offer sports activities, entertainment activities and educational activities. Children 5 – 15 years old can join summer camps and have the opportunity to interact with peers. The Greek government provide funds for many children so that they can join a summer camp, free.

India

Summer camps in India are primarily located in the Himalayas in Northern India in the state of Uttarakhand in places like Uroli near Ranikhet, near the Tons river in Purola, near the Ganges in Rishikesh, in Uttarkashi where many peaks like Darba top are located, and in the Shimla region in Himachal Pradesh. In South India summer camps are popular in Coorg in the state of Karnataka and in Yercaud and Anaikkati in the state of Tamil Nadu. Activities in summer camps in India include rock climbing, back packing, mountain biking, white water rafting, trekking, ropes, and wilderness craft. Many pre-schools in India such as Season Camps, G MaX, Gurukul Preschool (Hunar Summer Camp ) AppleKids conduct extensive Summer Camps for Kids of age 2 to 12 years. Adventure activities for kids are also popular at the summer camps for age groups of 7 to 18 years. Summer camps focusing on wildlife conservation are getting popular over the years. Many of these summer camps are also held in and around metros like Bangalore, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Pune.

Ireland

Summer camps in Ireland were traditionally in the form of Irish colleges in areas that are officially recognised as speaking Irish as the local language, (called Gaeltachts). They are residential Irish language summer courses that give students the opportunity to be totally immersed in the Irish language, usually for periods of three weeks over the summer months. During these courses students attend classes and participate in a variety of different activities games, music, art and sport. These courses not only provide students with the ability to improve their language skills but also have proved to be a vehicle for introducing traditional cultural activities (céilís, Irish traditional music, etc.) to a new generation.

Whilst Irish colleges are still popular, a greater variety of summer camps are now on offer catering for a range of interests. Sports camps covering Gaelic games as well as rugby and soccer have proven very popular. Arts and crafts, cookery, acting, dance and outdoor pursuits are some of the other niche camps available. There is also a growing popularity for technical or computer camps. They cover areas such as web design, video production, desktop publishing etc., reflecting a more modern and diverse Ireland.

Israel

PikiWiki Israel 13091 Kibbutz Yagur - camp games
Israeli campers from Kibbutz Yagur in the 1950s.

The majority of summer camps in Israel are day camps. There are some overnight camps where campers stay for two weeks such as Camp Kimama, which was founded in Michmoret, within the youth village of Mevo'ot Yam. The affiliation of the overnight summer camps is Jewish so they celebrate Shabbat and other Jewish holidays. The summer camps are international and are meant for Jewish kids and teens from Israel and countries around the world.

Today, there are summer camps in almost every village and city, most of which are run by the local authority or certain organizations. In addition, there are a lot of church organized camps including many denominations. For example, all evangelical churches (mostly in the Galilee) hold a Vacation Bible School (VBS) which includes many activities for children. One of the overnight camps is called the Potter's Wheel Camp (PWC) which was originally started by Baptist missionaries at the Baptist Village near Petach Tekvah. This camp continues to serve hundreds of children to this day.

Italy

In Italy, summer camps take place during the students' vacations (usually between June and August).

South Korea

Summer camps in South Korea are English Immersion camps where the emphasis is on learning through structured lessons, and especially tailored activities to ensure students use the language as much as possible. South Korea is quite unique with its over emphasis on acquiring English speaking skills, and teachers for these 2 to 4 week camps come from all over the English speaking world. Some of the teachers are on vacation from their regular work in South Korea. Others come from their home countries or other countries where they might be working, and are on special visas just for the camps.

Some employ as many Korean staff as there are native English teachers to ensure the cultural and communication gaps are narrowed. A good camp should provide equipment and well researched texts for the different levels of students. To maximize the learning time spent there should be no more than 11 students per class. At some of the camps students sleep at dormitory accommodations, which are monitored all through the night by Korean staff. Other camps are day camps where the majority of students are bused to and from the camp. Teachers spend most of their time with their students. They eat together, play sports together, and supervise them when there are special group activities. Similar camps are also offered in the winter vacation. They are certainly no less popular than the summer camps

Malaysia

Summer camps in Malaysia are not so popular as in other countries. Children & teenagers have fun together by themselves. But now, summer camps are slowly getting attention. The biggest summer camps available are usually for children below 7 years old.

Russia

In the USSR, the first summer camps were created shortly after its establishment and were called Young Pioneer camps during the Soviet Union's existence. Their number grew throughout the history of the Soviet Union and they numbered more than forty thousand in 1973, with 9,300,000 children attending them during their vacation every year. After the breakup of the USSR, the number of Young Pioneer camps greatly declined. However, many of the major camps still exist. There are 2,726 Residential camps (with 2,000,000 children), and more 40,000 Day camps (3,500,000 children) in Russia (2006). Most of them were united by All-Russian Camp Association "Deti Plus" (Children Plus) in 1994.

Sweden

The Church of Sweden provides confirmation camps, usually combined with outdoor life. Summer camps are often single sport camps.

Tunisia

Every year during the summer school holiday, the Youth and Science Association organises Scientific camps in many regions in Tunisia where children and teenagers can learn new skills, develop their potential and have fun .[18]

United Kingdom

Kingswood, West Runton, 29 February 2016
Kingswood, West Runton, a UK summer camp.

Summer camps are not a main part of childhood in the United Kingdom, in the way they are in North America. The UK summer school holiday is shorter – typically 6 weeks for state school pupils. Children are more likely to go on a long (at least 2 weeks) whole family holiday during this period rather than a camp just for children (UK parents get longer holiday leave from their jobs than US parents facilitating long family summer holidays). The industry body is called the British Activity Holiday Association.[19] Camps in the UK are also generally less specialised than those within the United States and most offer a fairly broad multi-activity programme of adventure activities alongside some fun social elements. This is partly because summer camps in the UK grew as an offshoot of the activity holiday industry and were therefore influenced by their adventure-only outdoor programme. The UK has for the past few decades had a number of organisations that have established themselves more along the traditional model with a very wide range of holiday options as well as themed camps and major event days. Some religious groups, such as the Christadelphians, also run well publicised and attended camps throughout the country. A number of youth organisations, such as the Scout Association, Army Cadet Force and Air Training Corps do often run more specialised summer camps for their membership, though these are not usually open to non-members.

The Council of Colony Holidays for Schoolchildren ran summer camps called "Colonies" from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s. Colonies were not based on outdoor pursuits or the "action-adventure" model, but were multi-activity holidays designed to appeal to a very wide range of children. This organisation was based on the French model, and was unique in the UK in that the young volunteers who worked directly with the children (known as "Monitors") were prepared for their work in training courses designed and run by the organisation. After Colony Holidays folded in the 1980s, Chris Green, one of their former staff, set up ATE Superweeks to provide similar holidays. He also campaigns for summer camps to become more widely supported and to help transform children's lives.[20]

United States

Kids playing in lake at a church camp
Children swimming at an Indiana church camp.
Gunnery Camp 1861
The first American summer camp is the Gunnery Camp in 1861[21]

The American Camp Association (ACA) reports that there are about 7,000 overnight camps and about 5,000 day camps in the U.S., for a total of more than 12,000 camps.[22] These camps are attended each year by more than 11 million children and adults.[22] Of the 12,000 camps, about 9,500 are operated by nonprofit groups, and 2,500 by for-profit operators, employing more than 1,500,000 adults.[22] Sports camps abound, offering single and group instruction in numerous sports and activities, often as prep for collegiate sports and scholarships.

In the United States, youth organizations, such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, 4-H, the JCC, the YMCA, Camp Fire, and several religiously affiliated groups are known for having many camps and integrating them with their own local organizations. Since 2008, the United States has been home to the world's first children's sleep away camp for transgender children. It is called Camp Aranu'tiq and serves campers aged 8 to 18.[23] It won the Eleanor P. Eells Award from the American Camp Association in 2012.

See also

References

  1. ^ Health, Council on School (2011-04-01). "Creating Healthy Camp Experiences". Pediatrics. 127 (4): 794–799. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0267. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 21444589.
  2. ^ "ACA". www.aca.org. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  3. ^ "Wyonegonic Camp". Wyonegonic Camp. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  4. ^ "His Story, Her Story, Our Story: 100 Years of the American Camp Association". American Camp Association. 2015-09-29. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  5. ^ Van Slyck, Abigail A. (2006-10-25). A Manufactured Wilderness. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816648764.
  6. ^ Van Slyck, Abigail A. (2006-10-25). A Manufactured Wilderness. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816648764.
  7. ^ Helgren, Jennifer (2014). "Native American and White Camp Fire Girls Enact Modern Girlhood, 1910–39". American Quarterly. 66 (2): 333–360. doi:10.1353/aq.2014.0031. ISSN 1080-6490.
  8. ^ Helgren, Jennifer (2014). "Native American and White Camp Fire Girls Enact Modern Girlhood, 1910–39". American Quarterly. 66 (2): 333–360. doi:10.1353/aq.2014.0031. ISSN 1080-6490.
  9. ^ "Adventure Job Board". adventurejobboard.com. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  10. ^ "OutdoorEd". OutdoorED.com. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  11. ^ "Mathcamp 2009 Qualifying Quiz". Canada/USA Mathcamp. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
  12. ^ Ginsberg, Kenneth (2011). Building Resilience in Children and Teens: Giving Kids Roots and Wings. American Academy of Pediatrics. pp. 285–289. ISBN 1581105517.
  13. ^ "Campamentos de Verano en Sevilla. - Rumbos crecimiento personal, educación emocional, terapia familiar, adolescencia y de pareja, coaching Sevilla". 22 April 2014.
  14. ^ "'Rainbow Camp' encourages teens to be themselves". 27 July 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  15. ^ "LGBT teens discover a Lake Huron haven at Rainbow Camp". 10 September 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  16. ^ Gillig, Traci K.; Miller, Lynn C.; Cox, Courtney M. (2017-11-29). ""She Finally Smiles … for Real": Reducing Depressive Symptoms and Bolstering Resilience Through a Camp Intervention for LGBTQ Youth". Journal of Homosexuality. 66 (3): 368–388. doi:10.1080/00918369.2017.1411693. ISSN 1540-3602. PMID 29185874.
  17. ^ "Présentation des séjours de vacances et accueils de loisirs". Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  18. ^ "Place aux camps scientifiques". Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  19. ^ "BAHA - The Activity Centre". Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  20. ^ "The Summer Camps Trust". highlights the benefits that summer camps can have for young people.
  21. ^ "Timeline - 100 Year Anniversary of the American Camp Association". www.acacamp.org. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  22. ^ a b c ACA Facts and Trends, American Camping Association (accessed August 22, 2013).
  23. ^ "Camp Aranu'tiq for transgender youth". Camp Aranu'tiq for transgender youth. Retrieved 16 June 2017.

Further reading

  • Ellis, Bill (1981). "The Camp Mock-Ordeal Theater as Life". The Journal of American Folklore. 94 (374): 486–505. doi:10.2307/540502. JSTOR 540502.
  • Paris, Leslie (2008). Children's Nature: The rise of the American summer camp. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-81476-750-8. OCLC 816496752.

External links

1980 Antwerp attack

On 27 July 1980, Said Al Nasr, a Syria-born Palestinian, used grenades to attack a group of 40 Jewish children waiting with their families for a bus to take them to summer camp. One boy was killed and 20 other people were wounded in the attack. The attacker was convicted.

Antarctic field camps

Many Antarctic research stations support satellite field camps which are, in general, seasonal camps. The type of field camp can vary – some are permanent structures used during the annual Antarctic summer, whereas others are little more than tents used to support short term activities. Field camps are used for many things, from logistics (Sky Blu) to dedicated scientific research (WAIS Divide Field Camp).

Baboosic Lake

Baboosic Lake (buh-BOO-sik) is a 228.5-acre (92.5 ha) lake located on the border of Amherst and Merrimack, in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire. The lake drains into Baboosic Brook, a tributary of the Merrimack River.

Baboosic is a "warm water lake" and supports fish species such as chain pickerel, largemouth bass, yellow perch, catfish, and many sunfish. During winter months the lake freezes and is suitable for ice fishing, ice skating and snowmobiling.

Baboosic was once a popular destination for vacationers who traveled via the long-gone Boston & Maine Railroad Manchester & Milford branch train.

A Jewish summer camp for children ages 8–15, called Camp Young Judaea, is on the lake.

Buckeye Council

The Buckeye Council is a local council of the Boy Scouts of America that serves Ohio and parts of northern West Virginia. Headquartered in Canton, Ohio, Buckeye Council serves more than 10,000 scouts and has more than 4,000 campers participate in its successful summer camp programs.

Bug Juice

Bug Juice is a Disney Channel reality series that premiered on February 28, 1998. The series focuses around 20 kids and their experiences at summer camp. Together, the kids work hard to excel in their activities and become friends. The phrase bug juice is a camping slang term for a very sweet juice drink made from powdered mixes, such as Kool-Aid, which are often served at summer camps.On August 4, 2017, Disney Channel announced a revival series based on the original, titled Bug Juice: My Adventures at Camp, which premiered on July 16, 2018.

Great Smoky Mountain Council

The Great Smoky Mountain Council is a local council of the Boy Scouts of America in Tennessee, with headquarters in Knoxville. It serves 21 East Tennessee counties that span two time zones. Camp Buck Toms is a summer camp owned and operated by the Great Smoky Mountain Council. The camp is located outside Rockwood, Tennessee, on the shores of Watts Bar Lake.

Makura-Nage

A Makura-Nage (Japanese: 枕投げ, まくらなげ) is a game from Japan in which children throw pillows at each other. A typical occasion to play it is after the futon are prepared (especially after the official lights-off time) in summer camp.

While a pillow fight mainly takes the form of beating each other with pillows, Japanese Makura-Nage is a game in which players mainly throw pillows to each other. The word "makura" means "pillow", "nage" means "throwing".

There were no rules for Makura-Nage, but today some Japanese ryokan hold Makura-Nage Games (まくら投げ大会) for advertisement.

In many anime and manga, a Makura-Nage scene creates a nostalgic atmosphere when describing children.

Minori Chihara

Minori Chihara (茅原 実里, Chihara Minori, born November 18) is a Japanese voice actress and singer who has had roles in several anime series. As a voice actress, she is currently affiliated with the talent agency Horipro. She is well known as voice actress for her role as Yuki Nagato in The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya and Leon in The iDOLM@STER, while in her musical career, she has been signed under King Records and is currently with Lantis. She was born in the city of Utsunomiya, Tochigi and was raised in Saitama. She is affectionately referred to as Minorin (みのりん) by her fans.

Moe (band)

Moe (commonly stylized as moe.) is an American jam band, formed at the University at Buffalo in 1989. The band members are Rob Derhak (bass, vocals), Al Schnier (guitar, vocals, keyboard), Chuck Garvey (guitar, vocals), Vinnie Amico (drums), and Jim Loughlin (percussion).

The band's first record, Fatboy (1992), established the band as a favorite of the 1990s jam band and improvisational rock scene, which grew in popularity with the rise of bands such as Phish and Widespread Panic. Just as Grateful Dead followers were coined "Deadheads", avid Moe fans embrace the term "moe.rons."

In 1997, Moe toured with the Furthur Festival, appeared at Woodstock '99, played Summerstage at the Rumsey Playfield in Central Park, opened for The Allman Brothers and The Who, performed at Radio City Music Hall on New Year's Eve 2006 and returned there for New Year's Eve 2007. They have also performed at Bonnaroo Music Festival five times (2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2009).During an interview, guitarist Al Schnier was asked to describe Moe for those who have never heard their music: "It's an amalgamation of a wide variety of the history of rock, all regurgitated and recycled through the eyes, ears, hands, whatever of the guys in our band and all of that with a sense of adventure, a sense of humor, also a constant desire to push the envelope. All in this arena of taking chances, improvising live, and making things up on the spot."

Morey Hole

Morey Hole (also known as Morey’s Hole), is a 22-acre (89,000 m2) pond in Plymouth, Massachusetts, west of Vallerville and Ship Pond, and southwest of Briggs Reservoir. Camp Child, a former summer camp run by the Old Colony Council of the Boy Scouts of America from 1925 through 1995, surrounds the pond.

Nature center

A nature center (or nature centre) is an organization with a visitor center or interpretive center designed to educate people about nature and the environment. Usually located within a protected open space, nature centers often have trails through their property. Some are located within a state or city park, and some have special gardens or an arboretum. Their properties can be characterized as nature preserves and wildlife sanctuaries. Nature centers generally display small live animals, such as reptiles, rodents, insects, or fish. There are often museum exhibits and displays about natural history, or preserved mounted animals or nature dioramas. Nature centers are staffed by paid or volunteer naturalists and most offer educational programs to the general public, as well as summer camp, after-school and school group programs.

Some nature centers allow free admission but collect voluntary donations in order to help offset expenses. They usually rely on support from dedicated volunteers.

Environmental education centers differ from nature centers in that their museum exhibits and education programs are available mostly by appointment, although casual visitors may be allowed to walk on their grounds.

Some city, state and national parks have facilities similar to nature centers, such as museum exhibits, dioramas and trails, and some offer park nature education programs, usually presented by a park ranger.

North Dome (New York)

North Dome is a mountain located in Greene County, New York.

The mountain is part of the Catskill Mountains. North Dome is flanked to the east by West Kill Mountain, and to the west faces Mount Sherrill.

North Dome stands within the watershed of the Hudson River, which drains into New York Bay.

The northern slopes of North Dome drain into the West Kill via Hagadone Brook and Bennett Brook, thence into Schoharie Creek, the Mohawk River, and the Hudson River.

The southern slopes of North Dome drain into Esopus Creek, and thence into the Hudson River.

North Dome is contained within the Westkill Mountain Wilderness Area of New York's Catskill State Park.

There is no hiking trail over the mountain, though an extension of the Devil's Path west from West Kill Mtn. has been contemplated. The ascent is made by bushwack, most often from Spruceton Road. The only way to the top of the North Dome is through private land, a nearby summer camp.

Northeastern Pennsylvania Council

Northeastern Pennsylvania Council, with headquarters in Moosic, Pennsylvania, formed in 1990 from the merger of Forest Lakes Council and Penn Mountains Council of the Boy Scouts of America. It covers the metropolitan area of Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. The council serves Lackawanna, Luzerne, Pike, Wayne, Wyoming counties, and portions of Susquehanna county.

Northwest Georgia Council

The Northwest Georgia Council is a local council of the Boy Scouts of America.

Scouting in Maine

Scouting in Maine dates back to the creation of the Katahdin Area Council in 1920 and has continued prominently to the present day.

Stonewall Jackson Area Council

The Stonewall Jackson Area Council (SJAC) is the local council of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) that serves Scouts in areas of the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia and West Virginia and areas of central Virginia.

Summer Camp Island

Summer Camp Island is an American animated television series created for Cartoon Network by Julia Pott, former animator and story/staff writer on Adventure Time, as well as creator of the MTV Liquid Television Online short Valentine's Day Card. It was first announced in January 2017 and later had been shopped around at different festivals including Sundance.It premiered on July 7, 2018, with a 48-hour marathon consisting of all the 20 episodes from the first season running over an entire weekend, on both Cartoon Network and Boomerang. At San Diego Comic-Con 2018, Julia Pott announced that the rest of the first season would premiere in late 2018 on Cartoon Network with another 20 episodes. Those episodes ended up being pushed to 2019, and on May 20, 2019, it was announced that the episodes would premiere on June 23, 2019, as a second season.

Summer Camp Music Festival

The Summer Camp Music Festival is a multi-day music festival created by Jay Goldberg Events & Entertainment and held annually on Memorial Day Weekend at Three Sisters Park in Chillicothe, Illinois. The event typically attracts around 20,000 visitors, of which between 8,000 and 10,000 arrive before gates open. In 2014, it was listed as one of the top 40 music festivals in Rolling Stone.

Çukurpınar Cave

Çukurpınar Cave is a cave in Mersin Province, Turkey.

The cave is in the rural area of Anamur ilçe (district) close to Sugözü village. It is next to Egma Sinkhole. The distance from Anamur is about 40 kilometres (25 mi) and from Mersin is about 260 kilometres (160 mi).

The location is a yayla (temporatry summer camp) of Kükür village and the cave was discovered by a citizen of Kükür. The exploration was carried out between 24 July 1989 and 6 September 1992 in five phases by Bümak, the mountaineering team of Boğaziçi University.The depth of the cave is 1,196 metres (3,924 ft), which makes the cave the third deepst tcave in Turkey. (The first is nearby Egma Sinkhole). Its length is 3,350 metres (10,990 ft). There are two ponds in the cave and the water from the ponds is discharged to Dragon Creek.

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