Sumatra

Sumatra is a large island in western Indonesia that is part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island that is located entirely in Indonesia (larger Borneo is shared between Indonesia and other countries) and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (not including adjacent islands such as the Riau Islands and Bangka Belitung Islands).

Sumatra is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis. The Indian Ocean borders the west, northwest, and southwest coasts of Sumatra with the island chain of Simeulue, Nias and Mentawai off the western coast. In the northeast the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula, which is an extension of the Eurasian continent. In the southeast the narrow Sunda Strait separates Sumatra from Java. The northern tip of Sumatra borders the Andaman Islands, while off the southeastern coast lie the islands of Bangka and Belitung, Karimata Strait and the Java Sea. The Bukit Barisan mountains, which contain several active volcanoes, form the backbone of the island, while the northeastern area contains large plains and lowlands with swamps, mangrove forest and complex river systems. The equator crosses the island at its center in West Sumatra and Riau provinces. The climate of the island is tropical, hot and humid. Lush tropical rain forest once dominated the landscape.

Sumatra has a wide range of plant and animal species but has lost almost 50% of its tropical rainforest in the last 35 years. Many species are now critically endangered, such as the Sumatran ground cuckoo, the Sumatran tiger, the Sumatran elephant, the Sumatran rhinoceros, and the Sumatran orangutan.

Deforestation on the island has also resulted in serious seasonal smoke haze over neighbouring countries, such as the 2013 Southeast Asian haze causing considerable tensions between Indonesia and affected countries Malaysia and Singapore.[1]

Sumatra
Native name:

سومترا (Jawi)
Sumatra Topography
Topography of Sumatra
LocationSumatra
Geography
LocationIndonesia
Coordinates00°N 102°E / 0°N 102°ECoordinates: 00°N 102°E / 0°N 102°E
ArchipelagoGreater Sunda Islands
Area473,481 km2 (182,812 sq mi)
Highest elevation3,805 m (12,484 ft)
Highest pointKerinci
Administration
ProvincesAceh, Bengkulu, Jambi, Lampung, Riau, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, North Sumatra
Largest settlementMedan (pop. 2,097,610)
Demographics
Population50,180,000 (2014)
Pop. density105 /km2 (272 /sq mi)
Ethnic groupsAcehnese, Batak, Chinese, Indian, Javanese, Malay, Mentawai, Minangkabau, Nias etc.

Etymology

Sumatra was known in ancient times by the Sanskrit names of Swarnadwīpa ("Island of Gold") and Swarnabhūmi ("Land of Gold"), because of the gold deposits in the island's highlands.[2] The first mention of the name of Sumatra was in the name of Srivijayan Haji (king) Sumatrabhumi ("King of the land of Sumatra"),[3] who sent an envoy to China in 1017. Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri (Lamuri, Lambri or Ramni) in the tenth through thirteenth centuries, in reference to a kingdom near modern-day Banda Aceh which was the first landfall for traders. The island is also known by other names namely, Andalas [4] or Percha Island.[5]

Late in the 14th century the name Sumatra became popular in reference to the kingdom of Samudra Pasai, a rising power until replaced by the Sultanate of Aceh. Sultan Alauddin Shah of Aceh, in letters addressed to Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1602, referred to himself as "king of Aceh and Samudra".[6] The word itself is from Sanskrit "Samudra", (समुद्र), meaning "gathering together of waters, sea or ocean".[7] Marco Polo named the kingdom Samara or Samarcha in the late 13th century, while the 14th century traveller Odoric of Pordenone used Sumoltra for Samudra. Subsequent European writers then used similar forms of the name for the entire island.[8][9]

European writers in the 19th century found that the indigenous inhabitants did not have a name for the island.[10]

History

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1971 20,808,148—    
1980 28,016,160+34.6%
1990 36,506,703+30.3%
1995 40,830,334+11.8%
2000 42,616,164+4.4%
2005 45,839,041+7.6%
2010 50,613,947+10.4%
sources:[11]

The Melayu Kingdom was absorbed by Srivijaya.[12]:79–80

Batak Warriors 60011135 edit
Batak warriors, 1870

Srivijayan influence waned in the 11th century after it was defeated by the Chola Empire of southern India. At the same time, Islam made its way to Sumatra through Arabs and Indian traders in the 6th and 7th centuries AD.[13] By the late 13th century, the monarch of the Samudra kingdom had converted to Islam. Marco Polo visited the island in 1292.

Ibn Battuta visited with the sultan for 15 days, noting the city of Samudra was "a fine, big city with wooden walls and towers," and another 2 months on his return journey.[14] Samudra was succeeded by the powerful Aceh Sultanate, which survived to the 20th century. With the coming of the Dutch, the many Sumatran princely states gradually fell under their control. Aceh, in the north, was the major obstacle, as the Dutch were involved in the long and costly Aceh War (1873–1903).

The Free Aceh Movement fought against Indonesian government forces in the Aceh Insurgency from 1976 to 2005.[15] Security crackdowns in 2001 and 2002 resulted in several thousand civilian deaths.[16]

Administration

House in Nias North Sumatra
Traditional house in Nias North Sumatra
Name Area (km2) Population
census 2000
Population
census 2010
Population
estimate 2014
Capital
Aceh 57,956.00 4,073,006 4,486,570 4,731,705 Banda Aceh
North Sumatra
(Sumatera Utara)
72,981.23 11,642,488 12,326,678 13,527,937 Medan
West Sumatra
(Sumatera Barat)
42,012.89 4,248,515 4,845,998 5,098,790 Padang
Riau 87,023.66 3,907,763 5,543,031 6,359,790 Pekanbaru
Jambi 50,058.16 2,407,166 3,088,618 3,412,459 Jambi
South Sumatra
(Sumatera Selatan)
91,592.43 6,210,800 7,446,401 7,996,535 Palembang
Bengkulu 19,919.33 1,455,500 1,713,393 1,828,291 Bengkulu
Lampung 34,623.80 6,730,751 7,596,115 7,972,246 Bandar Lampung
Bangka-Belitung
(Kepulauan Bangka Belitung)
16,424.14 899,968 1,223,048 1,380,762 Pangkal Pinang
Riau Islands
(Kepulauan Riau)
8,256.10 1,040,207 1,685,698 2,031,895 Tanjung Pinang
Totals 480,847.74 42,616,164 50,613,947 54,339,256

Geography

Sumatra Volcanoes
Map of geological formation of Sumatra island

The longest axis of the island runs approximately 1,790 km (1,110 mi) northwest–southeast, crossing the equator near the centre. At its widest point, the island spans 435 km (270 mi). The interior of the island is dominated by two geographical regions: the Barisan Mountains in the west and swampy plains in the east. Sumatra is the closest Indonesian island to mainland Asia.

To the southeast is Java, separated by the Sunda Strait. To the north is the Malay Peninsula (located on the Asian mainland), separated by the Strait of Malacca. To the east is Borneo, across the Karimata Strait. West of the island is the Indian Ocean.

The Great Sumatran fault (a strike-slip fault), and the Sunda megathrust (a subduction zone), run the entire length of the island along its west coast. On 26 December 2004, the western coast and islands of Sumatra, particularly Aceh province, were struck by a tsunami following the Indian Ocean earthquake. This was the longest earthquake recorded, lasting between 500 and 600 seconds.[17] More than 170,000 Indonesians were killed, primarily in Aceh. Other recent earthquakes to strike Sumatra include the 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake and the 2010 Mentawai earthquake and tsunami.

Sinabung
Mount Sinabung, North Sumatra

To the east, big rivers carry silt from the mountains, forming the vast lowland interspersed by swamps. Even if mostly unsuitable for farming, the area is currently of great economic importance for Indonesia. It produces oil from both above and below the soil – palm oil and petroleum.

Sumatra is the largest producer of Indonesian coffee. Small-holders grow Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) in the highlands, while Robusta (Coffea canephora) is found in the lowlands. Arabica coffee from the regions of Gayo, Lintong and Sidikilang is typically processed using the Giling Basah (wet hulling) technique, which gives it a heavy body and low acidity.[18]

Largest cities

Medanskyline2013
Medan, the largest city in Sumatra

By population, Medan is the largest city in Sumatra.[19] Medan is also the most visited and developed cities in Sumatra.

Rank City Province Population
2010 Census
City Birthday Area (km2)
1 Medan North Sumatra 2,109,339 1 July 1590 265.10
2 Palembang South Sumatra 1,452,840 17 June 1683 374.03
3 Batam Riau Islands 1,153,860 18 December 1829 715.0
4 Pekanbaru Riau 903,902 23 June 1784 633.01
5 Bandar Lampung Lampung 879,851 17 June 1682 169.21
6 Padang West Sumatra 833,584 7 August 1669 694.96
7 Jambi Jambi 529,118 17 May 1946 205.00
8 Bengkulu Bengkulu 300,359 18 March 1719 144.52
9 Dumai Riau 254,332 20 April 1999 2,039.35
10 Binjai North Sumatra 246,010 90.24
11 Pematang Siantar North Sumatra 234,885 24 April 1871 60.52
12 Banda Aceh Aceh 224,209 22 April 1205 61.36
13 Lubuklinggau South Sumatra 201,217 17 August 2001 419.80

Flora and fauna

Sumatra supports a wide range of vegetation types which are home to a rich variety of species, including 17 endemic genera of plants.[20] Unique species include the Sumatran pine which dominates the Sumatran tropical pine forests of the higher mountainsides in the north of the island and rainforest plants such as Rafflesia arnoldii (the world's largest individual flower), and the titan arum (the world's largest unbranched inflorescence).

The island is home to 201 mammal species and 580 bird species, such as the Sumatran ground cuckoo. There are 9 endemic mammal species on mainland Sumatra and 14 more endemic to the nearby Mentawai Islands.[20] There are about 300 freshwater fish species in Sumatra.[21] There are 93 amphibian species in Sumatra, 21 of which are endemic to Sumatra.[22] (See also: List of amphibians of Sumatra)

The Sumatran tiger, Sumatran rhinoceros, Sumatran elephant, Sumatran ground cuckoo, and Sumatran orangutan are all critically endangered, indicating the highest level of threat to their survival. In October 2008, the Indonesian government announced a plan to protect Sumatra's remaining forests.[23]

The island includes more than 10 national parks, including 3 which are listed as the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra World Heritage SiteGunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. The Berbak National Park is one of three national parks in Indonesia listed as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.

Demographics

Minangprocession
Minangkabau women carrying platters of food to a ceremony

Sumatra is not particularly densely populated, with just over 90.4 people per km2 – more than 50 million people in total. Because of its great extent, it is nonetheless the fifth[24] most populous island in the world.

Languages

There are over 52 languages spoken, all of them (except Chinese and Tamil) belong to the Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian sub-branch of Malayo-Polynesian which in turn is a branch of the Austronesian language family. Within Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian, they were divided into several sub-branches that is Chamic (which are represented by Acehnese in which its closest relatives are languages spoken by Ethnic Chams in Cambodia and Vietnam), Malayic (Malay, Minangkabau and other closely related languages), Northwest Sumatran (Batak languages, Gayo and others), Lampungic (includes Proper Lampung and Komering) and Bornean (represented by Rejang in which its closest linguistic relatives are Bukar Sadong and Land Dayak spoken in West Kalimantan and Sarawak (Malaysia)). Northwest Sumatran and Lampungic branches are endemic to the island. Like all parts of Indonesia, Indonesian (which was based on Riau Malay) is the official language and the main Lingua franca. Although Sumatra has its own local Lingua franca, variants of Malay like Medan Malay and Palembang Malay[25] are popular in North and South Sumatra, especially in urban areas. Minangkabau (Padang dialect)[26] is popular in West Sumatra, some parts of North Sumatra, Bengkulu, Jambi and Riau (especially in Pekanbaru and areas bordered with West Sumatra) while Acehnese is also used as an inter-ethnic means of communication in some parts of Aceh province.

Religion

The majority of people in Sumatra are Muslims (87,1%), while 10,7% are Christians, less than 2% are Buddhist and Hindus.[28]

Rail transport

Several unconnected railway networks built during Netherlands East Indies exist in Sumatra, such as the ones connecting Banda Aceh-Lhokseumawe-Besitang-Medan-Tebingtinggi-Pematang Siantar-Rantau Prapat in Northern Sumatra (the Banda Aceh-Besitang section was closed in 1971, but is currently being rebuilt).[29] Padang-Solok-Bukittinggi in West Sumatra, and Bandar Lampung-Palembang-Lahat-Lubuk Linggau in Southern Sumatra.

See also

References

  1. ^ CNN, By Peter Shadbolt. "Singapore shrouded in haze from Sumatran forest fires - CNN.com". CNN.
  2. ^ Drakard, Jane (1999). A Kingdom of Words: Language and Power in Sumatra. Oxford University Press. ISBN 983-56-0035-X.
  3. ^ Munoz. Early Kingdoms. p. 175.
  4. ^ Marsden, William (1783). The history of Sumatra. Dutch: Longman. p. 5.
  5. ^ Cribb, Robert (2013). Historical Atlas of Indonesia. Routledge. p. 249.
  6. ^ Sneddon, James N. (2003). The Indonesian language: its history and role in modern society. UNSW Press. p. 65. ISBN 9780868405988.
  7. ^ Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1924). A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 347. ISBN 9788120820005.
  8. ^ Sir Henry Yule (ed.). Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Issue 36. pp. 86–87.
  9. ^ William Marsden (1811). History of Sumatra, containing an account of the government (etc.). pp. 4–10.
  10. ^ Reid, Anthony (2005). An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese and Other Histories of Sumatra. National University of Singapore Press. ISBN 9971-69-298-8.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2013-07-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  13. ^ G.R. Tibbets,Pre-Islamic Arabia and South East Asia, in D.S. Richards (ed.),1970, Islam and The Trade of Asia, Oxford: Bruno Cassirer Pub. Ltd, p. 127 nt. 21; S.Q.Fatimi, In Quest of Kalah, in D.S. Richards (ed.),1970, p.132 n.124; W.P. Groeneveldt, Notes in The Malay Archipelago, in D.S. Richards (ed.),1970, p.129 n.42
  14. ^ Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. London: Picador. pp. 256, 274, 322. ISBN 9780330418799.
  15. ^ "Indonesia agrees Aceh peace deal". BBC News. 17 July 2005.
  16. ^ "Aceh Under Martial Law: Inside the Secret War: Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Violations". hrw.org.
  17. ^ Glenday, Craig (2013). Guinness Book of World Records 2014. The Jim Pattison Group. p. 015. ISBN 978-1-908843-15-9.
  18. ^ "Daerah Produsen Kopi Arabika di Indonesia". Kopi Distributor 1995. 2015-02-28. Retrieved 2015-02-28.
  19. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta.
  20. ^ a b Whitten, Tony (1999). The Ecology of Sumatra. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 962-593-074-4.
  21. ^ Nguyen, T.T.T., and S. S. De Silva (2006). Freshwater finfish biodiversity and conservation: an asian perspective. Biodiversity & Conservation 15(11): 3543–3568
  22. ^ http://www.rufford.org/rsg/projects/hellen_kurniati
  23. ^ staff (2008-10-14). "Forest, Wildlife Protection Pledged at World Conservation Congress". Ens-newswire.com. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
  24. ^ "Population Statistics". GeoHive. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
  25. ^ Wurm, Stephen A.; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tryon, Darrell T. (1 January 1996). "Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas: Vol I: Maps. Vol II: Texts". Walter de Gruyter – via Google Books.
  26. ^ "gcanthminangkabau - Minangkabau Language". gcanthminangkabau.wikispaces.com.
  27. ^ "Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama, dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia" (PDF). www.bps.go.id (in Indonesian).
  28. ^ "Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama, dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia" (PDF). www.bps.go.id (in Indonesian).
  29. ^ Younger, Scott (6 November 2011). "The Slow Train". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 2015-07-21. Retrieved 19 July 2015.

URL for footnote 28 is 404

Further reading

External links

  • Sumatra travel guide from Wikivoyage
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami

The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December, with an epicentre off the west coast of northern Sumatra. It was an undersea megathrust earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9.1–9.3 Mw, reaching a Mercalli intensity up to IX in certain areas. The earthquake was caused by a rupture along the fault between the Burma Plate and the Indian Plate.

A series of large tsunamis up to 30 metres (100 ft) high were created by the underwater seismic activity that became known collectively as the Boxing Day tsunamis. Communities along the surrounding coasts of the Indian Ocean were seriously affected, and the tsunamis killed an estimated 227,898 people in 14 countries. The Indonesian city of Banda Aceh reported the largest number of victims. The earthquake was one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. The direct results caused major disruptions to living conditions and commerce particularly in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand.

The earthquake was the third largest ever recorded and had the longest duration of faulting ever observed; between eight and ten minutes. It caused the planet to vibrate as much as 1 centimetre (0.4 inches), and it remotely triggered earthquakes as far away as Alaska. Its epicentre was between Simeulue and mainland Sumatra. The plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response, with donations totaling more than US$14 billion. The event is known by the scientific community as the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake.

Batak

Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of closely related Austronesian ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia who speak Batak languages. The term is used to include the Karo, Pakpak, Simalungun, Toba, Angkola, and Mandailing which are related groups with distinct languages and customs (adat).

Bengkulu

Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia, located in the southwest coast of Sumatra. It was formed on 18 November 1968 by separating out the former Bengkulu Residency area from the province of South Sumatra under Law No. 9 of 1967 and was finalised by Government Regulation No. 20 of 1968. Spread over 19,813 km2, it is bordered by the provinces of West Sumatra to the north, Jambi to the northeast, Lampung to the southeast, South Sumatra to the east, and the Indian Ocean to the northwest, south, southwest, and west.

Bengkulu is the 25th largest province by area; it is divided into nine regencies and the city of Bengkulu, the capital and largest city. Bengkulu is also the 26th largest province by population in Indonesia. According to a release by Badan Pusat Statistik, it has the eleventh highest Human Development Index among the provinces, with a score about 0.744 in 2013. By 2014, the province positions 28th highest in gross domestic product and 20th highest in life expectancy, 70.35 years.

Bengkulu also includes Mega Island and Enggano Island in the Indian Ocean. Bengkulu has 525 kilometres of coastline along the Indian Ocean on its western side, from Dusun Baru Pelokan in Muko-Muko Regency to Tebing Nasal in Kaur Regency. Bengkulu is home to many natural resources such as coal and gold, and has big and potential geothermal resources. However, it is less developed than other provinces in Sumatra.

Ethnic groups in Indonesia

There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia including Javanese, Sundanese, and Batak.

Based on ethnic group, the largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese who make up about 40% of the total population. The Javanese are concentrated on the island of Java but millions have migrated to other islands throughout the archipelago because of the transmigration program. The Sundanese, Malay, and Madurese are the next largest groups in the country. Many ethnic groups, particularly in Kalimantan and Papua, have only hundreds of members. Most of the local languages belong to Austronesian language family, although a significant number, particularly in Papua, speak Papuan languages. Chinese Indonesians population makes up a little less than 1% of the total Indonesian population according to the 2000 census. Some of these Indonesians of Chinese descent speak various Chinese dialects, most notably Hokkien and Hakka.

The classification of ethnic groups in Indonesia is not rigid and in some cases unclear due to migrations, cultural and linguistic influences; for example some may consider Bantenese and Cirebonese to be members of the Javanese people; however, some others argue that they are different ethnic groups altogether since they have their own distinct dialects. This is the same case with Baduy people that share many cultural similarities with the Sundanese people. An example of hybrid ethnicity is the Betawi people, descended not only from marriages between different peoples in Indonesia but also with Arab, Chinese and Indian migrants since the era of colonial Batavia (Jakarta).

Lake Toba

Lake Toba (Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a large natural lake in Indonesia occupying the caldera of a supervolcano. The lake is about 100 kilometres (62 miles) long, 30 kilometres (19 mi) wide, and up to 505 metres (1,657 ft) deep. Located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, with a surface elevation of about 900 metres (2,953 ft), the lake stretches from 2.88°N 98.52°E / 2.88; 98.52 to 2.35°N 99.1°E / 2.35; 99.1. It is the largest lake in Indonesia and the largest volcanic lake in the world.Lake Toba is the site of a massive supervolcanic eruption estimated at VEI 8 that occurred 69,000 to 77,000 years ago, representing a climate-changing event. Recent advances in dating methods suggest a more accurate identification of 74,000 years ago as the date. It is the largest-known explosive eruption on Earth in the last 25 million years. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, it had global consequences for human populations; it killed most humans living at that time and is believed to have created a population bottleneck in central east Africa and India, which affects the genetic make-up of the human worldwide population to the present.It has been accepted that the eruption of Toba led to a volcanic winter with a worldwide decrease in temperature between 3 to 5 °C (5.4 to 9.0 °F), and up to 15 °C (27 °F) in higher latitudes. Additional studies in Lake Malawi in East Africa show significant amounts of ash being deposited from the Toba eruptions, even at that great distance, but little indication of a significant climatic effect in East Africa.On 18 June 2018, Lake Toba was the scene of a ferry disaster, in which over 190 people drowned.

List of Indonesian cities by population

Below is a list of Indonesia's cities with their rank and population. All figures are estimates for 2014. Population in 2010 is official data from 2010 Census released by Central Statistic Agency.

List of islands of Indonesia

The islands of Indonesia, also known as the Indonesian archipelago and formerly known as the Indian archipelago, may refer either to the islands comprising the nation-state of Indonesia or to the geographical groups which include its islands. According to the Indonesian Coordinating Ministry for Maritime Affairs, of 17,508 officially listed islands within the territory of the Republic of Indonesia, 16,056 island names have been verified by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) as of July 2017.

Medan

Medan (Indonesian pronunciation: [meˈdan]) is the capital city of the Indonesian province of North Sumatra. It is the largest city in Sumatra and outside of Java, the country's most populous island, as well as the fourth most populous urban centre in Indonesia. Located along the northeastern coast of Sumatra, Medan is a multicultural metropolis with a total of 2,097,610 inhabitants according to the 2010 census. The Medan metropolitan area is known as Mebidangro. Medan is a busy trading city bordered by the Strait of Malacca, which is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world. A gateway to the western part of Indonesia, Medan is supported by the Port of Belawan and Kualanamu International Airport, both of which are connected to the city centre via toll road and railway.

The city was founded by Guru Patimpus, a Karonese man who named a swampy land in confluence of Deli River and Babura river as Kampung Medan Putri. It later became a part of the Deli Sultanate which was established by Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan in 1632. In the 18th century, its eighth king, Sultan Mahmud Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam, worked with Jacob Nienhuys, a Dutch tobacco merchant, who pioneered the opening of tobacco plantations in Medan. With the help from the 9th Sultanate Sultan Ma'mun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam, and also the well-known Chinese businessmen Tjong Yong Hian and Tjong A Fie, the rapid development of the economy transformed Medan into a big trading center with the nickname het land dollar, aka the land of the money. The Deli Railway was established for shipping rubber, tea, timber, palm oil, and sugar industries from the city to the Port of Belawan. Medan was briefly the capital of the State of East Sumatra in 1947, before it became the provincial capital of North Sumatra in mid-1950.

Medan was dubbed by the Dutch Parijs van Sumatra due to the city's resemblance to Paris. Lamudi, a worldwide real estate portal, recognized Medan as one among six cities in Asia to feature and preserve several colonial architectural sites, while accompanying its growth as a metropolitan city. Medan is also known as the "City of Million Shophouses", as the majority of the population work in the trade sector, opening shops right under their houses. In recent years, the city has undergone rapid development, which made the residential property prices in Medan trend upward. According to Bank Indonesia (BI), Medan's residential property price index rose from 205.24 in the fourth quarter of 2013 to 212.17 in the fourth quarter of 2014, and to 214.41 in the first quarter of 2015.

North Sumatra

North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the northwest of the island of Sumatra, and its capital is Medan. North Sumatra is the fourth most populous province in Indonesia after West Java, East Java and Central Java and the most populous Indonesian province outside Java, with over 13.5 million inhabitants in 2014.

Padang

Padang (Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈpadaŋ] Jawi: ڤادڠ) is the capital of the province of West Sumatra in Indonesia. With an area of 695 square kilometres (268 sq mi) and a population of 914,970 in 2016, it is the 10th-most populated urban centres in Indonesia, the most populated city on Sumatra's western coast, and fourth-most populated city on Sumatra.The city had historically been a trading center since the pre-colonial era, trading in pepper and gold. The Dutch made contact with the city in the mid 17th century, eventually constructing a fortress and taking over control of the city from the Pagaruyung Kingdom. Save several interruptions of British rule, Padang remained part of the Dutch East Indies as one of its major cities until Indonesian independence.

Palembang

Palembang (Indonesian pronunciation: [palɛmˈbaŋ]) is the capital of South Sumatra province in Indonesia. The city proper covers 369.22 square kilometres (142.56 square miles) of land on both banks of the lower Musi River on the eastern lowland of southern Sumatra, with an estimated population of 1,708,413 in 2014, making it the second most populous city on Sumatra, after Medan, the ninth most populous city in Indonesia and the nineteenth most populous city in Southeast Asia. The metropolitan area of Greater Palembang also comprises part of regencies around the city such as Banyuasin, Ogan Ilir, and Ogan Komering Ilir, with a total estimated population of more than 3.5 million in 2015.Palembang is the one of the oldest cities in the Indonesia Archipelago and Southeast Asia. Palembang was once the capital city of Srivijaya, a powerful Buddhist kingdom that ruled many parts of the western archipelago and controlled many maritime trade routes, especially in the Strait of Malacca. The earliest evidence of the city's existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, Yijing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in the year 671 for 6 months. The first inscription in which Srivijaya was mentioned, Kedukan Bukit Inscription which was found in the city also dates from the 7th century. Palembang was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies in 1825 after the abolishment of the Palembang Sultanate. It was chartered as a city on 1 April 1906.Among many historical landmarks together with its rich culture and culinary, Palembang is mostly known by many Indonesians for its main landmark, Ampera Bridge, and its authentic food, pempek. The city is the host city of the 2011 Southeast Asian Games and 2018 Asian Games along with Jakarta. The first light rail system in Indonesia will be operated in Palembang in July 2018. Despite these, Palembang is still not among the most favorite tourist destinations in Indonesia. The city is also not well known in the world and has poor number of foreign tourists as it attracted only 9,850 foreign tourists of the 2,011,417 tourists who visited Palembang in 2017. Traffic jams, floods, slums, pollution, and peatland fire are the most well known problems in Palembang.

Provinces of Indonesia

The Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the country and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called Daerah Tingkat I – level 1 region). Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities (formerly called Daerah Tingkat II – level 2 regions), which are in turn subdivided into subdistricts (kecamatan).

South Sumatra

South Sumatra (Jawi: سومترا سلتن, Indonesian: Sumatera Selatan, abbreviated as Sumsel) is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the southeast of the island of Sumatra, The province spans 91,592.43 km2 (35,364 sq mi) and had a population of 7,450,394 at the 2010 Census; the latest official estimate is 10,675,862 (as at May 2015). The capital of the province is Palembang. The province borders Jambi to the north, Bengkulu to the west and Lampung to the south. The Bangka Strait in the east separates South Sumatra and the island of Bangka, which is part of the Bangka Belitung Islands province. This province is rich in natural resources, such as petroleum, natural gas and coal. The province is very diverse, as it is inhabited by many different ethnic groups. The Malays is the dominant ethnic group in the province. Most of them spoke the Palembang Malay, which is mutually unintelligible to both Indonesian and Standard Malay. Other ethnic groups also inhabits the province, such as the Javanese, Sundanese, Minangkabau and Chinese. Most of them are concentrated around urban areas, as they are mostly immigrants from other parts of Indonesia.

The province was once the seat of many great kingdoms and empires. From the 7th century to the late 14th century, the province as the seat of the Buddhist Srivijaya Empire, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 8th to the 12th century. Srivijaya was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of Indonesian archipelago. Owing to its geographical position, the capital of Srivijaya, Palembang, becomes one of the most thriving port in the region. The city is frequented by many traders from the Middle-East, the Indian Subcountinent and China. At the height of its power, the territory of the Srivijaya Empire reached modern-day Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia. After Srivijaya collapsed in the 14th century, small kingdoms began to establish itself in the province. Beginning in the 16th century, Islam began to spread in the region, effectively replacing Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion in the region. In the 17th century, the Islamic Palembang Sultanate was established with Palembang as its capital. At that time however, Europeans began arriving in the region, first the Portuguese and then the Dutch. The Dutch became the dominant power in the region. Through the Dutch East India Company (VOC), the Dutch exerted influence on the Palembang Sultanate. In 1811, during the Napoleonic Wars, the last Sultan of Palembang, Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II attacked the Dutch in Palembang, but he refused to cooperate with the British, so Thomas Stamford Raffles sent troops to attack Palembang and Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II was forced to flee the royal palace, then Raffles appointed the Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin II, brother of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II as king. In 1813 Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II again took over the kingdom, but one month later he was brought down again by Raffles and reappointed Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin II, causing a split in the sultanate of Palembang. After the Dutch returned to the region, the Dutch attacked and annexed the sultanate to the Dutch East Indies, and exiled the sultan and his family to Ternate. The Dutch controlled the region for the next century, but during World War II, the Japanese attacked Palembang and expelled the Dutch. The Japanese occupied the region until August 1945, when they surrendered to the Allied forces. The Dutch attempted to return to the region, but this was opposed by the newly-declared Republic Of Indonesia, resulting in a war of independence. In the end, the Dutch recognize the Indonesian sovereignty and withdrew from the region in 1950. The province of South Sumatra was formed in 12 September 1950.

Stag beetle

Stag beetles are a group of about 1,200 species of beetles in the family Lucanidae, presently classified in four subfamilies. Some species grow to over 12 cm (4.7 in), but most are about 5 cm (2.0 in).

Strait of Malacca

The Strait of Malacca (Malay: Selat Melaka, Indonesian: Selat Malaka, Thai: ช่องแคบมะละกา, Tamil: மலாக்கா நீரிணை, Chinese: 马六甲海峡) or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, 550 mi (890 km) stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. As the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, it is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world. It is named after the Malacca Sultanate that ruled over the archipelago between 1400 and 1511.

Sumatra PDF

Sumatra PDF is a free and open-source document viewer that supports many document formats including: Portable Document Format (PDF), Microsoft Compiled HTML Help (CHM), DjVu, EPUB, FictionBook (FB2), MOBI, PRC, Open XML Paper Specification (OpenXPS, OXPS, XPS), and Comic Book Archive file (CB7, CBR, CBT, CBZ). If Ghostscript is installed, it supports PostScript files. It is developed exclusively for Microsoft Windows, but it can run under Linux using Wine.

Sunda Strait

The Sunda Strait (Indonesian: Selat Sunda) is the strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. It connects the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean. The name came from Sunda Kingdom, a kingdom ruling the west part of Java (now including West Java, Banten, and some west part of Central Java). It also comes from the name of the Sundanese people, the native people of West Java, with the Javanese people being found mostly in Central and East Java.

Surau

Surau is an Islamic assembly building in some regions of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula used for worship and religious instruction. Generally smaller physical structures, its ritual functions are similar to a mosque, allow men and women, and are used more for religious instruction and festive prayers. They depend more on grassroots support and funding. They can be compared to the Arab zawiya. In Minangkabau society, they continued pre-Islamic traditions of a men's house where veneration of the dead occurred, and are built on high posts.In contemporary usage, "surau" is often used to refer to either a small mosque, or a designated room in a public building (such as a shopping mall, a university, or a rest stop along a highway) for men or women to do salah.

West Sumatra

West Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Barat, abbreviated to Sumbar, Minangkabau: Sumatera Baraik, Jawi: سومترا بارايق,) is a province of Indonesia. It lies on the west coast of the island of Sumatra. The latest official estimate for January 2014 shows a population of 5,098,790. West Sumatra is sub-divided into 12 regencies and seven cities. It has relatively more cities than other provinces in Indonesia, except Java province. Its capital is Padang. The province borders the provinces of North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara) to the north, Riau and Jambi to the east, and Bengkulu to the southeast. It includes the Mentawai Islands off the coast. West Sumatra is home to the Minangkabau people, although the traditional Minangkabau region is actually wider than the current administrative region of the province of West Sumatra, covering up to the southern region of North Sumatra, the western region of Riau, the western region of Jambi and the northern region of Bengkulu. In addition, The Minangkabau people have also spread to other parts of Indonesia, even to neighboring countries such as Singapore and Malaysia. Now about half of the Minangkabau people live outside of their traditional region, the majority of whom live in large cities in Indonesia and Malaysia. Many Malays in Malaysia are of Minangkabau descent, they mainly inhabit arounf the states of Negeri Sembilan and Johor, as well as other parts of Malaysia.

From the prehistoric times to the Age of Discovery, the history of West Sumatra can be said to be synonymous with the history of the Minangkabau people. Although the Mentawai people were thought to have existed at that time, but the evidence of their existence is still very little. The archaeological evidence found around the area of Limapuluh Koto Regency proved that the areas were the first place that is inhabited by the ancestors of the modern people if West Sumatra. This interpretation seems reasonable, because from the area around Limapuluh Koto Regency flowed several large rivers which eventually emptied on the Strait of Malacca on the eastern coast of Sumatra. These rivers can be navigated and indeed become an important means of transportation from ancient times until the end of the last century. The ancestors of the Minangkabau are thought to have come through this route. They sailed from mainland Asia, crossing the South China Sea, crossing the Straits of Malacca and then following the flow of the Kampar, Siak, and the Indragiri rivers. Some of them live and develop their culture and civilization around the Limapuluh Koto Regency. The history of the West Sumatra Province has become more open since the reign of King Adityawarman. This king left quite a lot of inscriptions about him, even though he never said he was the King of the Minangkabau. Adityawarman indeed ruled Pagaruyung, a country that the Minangkabau people believed to be the center of his kingdom. The history of West Sumatra after Adityawarman's death until the mid-17th century seemed increasingly complex. At this time the relationship between West Sumatra and the outside world, especially Aceh, was intensifying. West Sumatra at that time was in the political domination of Aceh which also monopolized economic activity in this area, as well as spreading Islam in the region. The first Westerner to come to West Sumatra was a French traveler named Jean Parmentier who arrived around 1523. But the first Westerners to come with economic and political goals were the Dutch. The Dutch trade fleets had begun to be seen on the west coast of West Sumatra since 1595-1598, in addition to the Dutch, other Europeans who came to West Sumatra at that time also consisted of the Portuguese and the British. In the end, the Dutch colonized the region. In the period of Dutch colonialism, the name "West Sumatra" emerged as an administrative, socio-cultural, and political unit. This name is a translation of the Dutch de Westkust van Sumatra or Sumatra's Westkust, which is a residency of the Dutch East Indies on the western coast of Sumatra.

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