Sukhoi Su-30

The Sukhoi Su-30 (Russian: Сухой Су-30; NATO reporting name: Flanker-C) is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation. It is a multirole fighter for all-weather, air-to-air and air-to-surface deep interdiction missions.

The Su-30 started out as an internal development project in the Sukhoi Su-27 family by Sukhoi. The design plan was revamped and the name was made official by the Russian Defense Ministry in 1996. Of the Flanker family, the Su-27, Su-30, Su-33, Su-34 and Su-35 have been ordered into limited or serial production by the Defense Ministry. Only the Su-37 remained a prototype. The Su-30 has two distinct version branches, manufactured by competing organisations: KnAAPO and the Irkut Corporation, both of which come under the Sukhoi group's umbrella.

KnAAPO manufactures the Su-30MKK and the Su-30MK2, which were designed for and sold to China, and later Indonesia, Uganda, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Due to KnAAPO's involvement from the early stages of developing Su-35, these are basically a two-seat version of the mid-1990s Su-35. The Chinese chose an older but lighter radar so the canards could be omitted in return for increased payload. It is a fighter with both air supremacy and attack capabilities, generally similar to the U.S. F-15E.[8]

Irkut traditionally served the Soviet Air Defense and, in the early years of Flanker development, was given the responsibility of manufacturing the Su-27UB, the two-seat trainer version. When India showed interests in the Su-30, Irkut offered the multirole Su-30MKI, which originated as the Su-27UB modified with avionics appropriate for fighters. Along with its ground-attack capabilities, the series adds features for the air-superiority role, such as canards, thrust-vectoring, and a long-range phased-array radar. Its derivatives include the Su-30MKM, MKA, and SM for Malaysia, Algeria, and Russia, respectively. The Russian Air Force operates several Su-30s and has ordered the Su-30SM version.

Su-30
Sukhoi Su-30 inflight
A Russian Air Force Su-30
Role Multirole fighter[1]
Manufacturer Sukhoi
First flight 31 December 1989
Introduction 1996
Status In service
Primary users Russian Air Force
Algerian Air Force
Venezuelan Air Force
Vietnam People's Air Force
Produced 1992–present
Number built 612+[2][3][4][5][6]
Unit cost
Su-30MK2: US$37.5 million in 2012[7][5][6]
Developed from Sukhoi Su-27
Variants Sukhoi Su-30MKI
Sukhoi Su-30MKK
Sukhoi Su-30MKM

Development

While the original Su-27 had good range, it still did not have enough range for the Soviet Air Defense Forces (PVO, as opposed to VVS – the Soviet Air Force). The Air Defense Forces needed to cover the vast expanse of the Soviet Union. Hence, development began in 1986 on the Su-27PU, an improved-capability variant of the Su-27 capable of serving as a long-range interceptor or airborne command post.[9]

The two-seat Su-27UB combat trainer was selected as the basis for the Su-27PU, because it had the performance of a single-seat Su-27 with seating for two crew members. A "proof-of-concept" demonstrator flew 6 June 1987, and this success led to the kick-off of development work on two Su-27PU prototypes. The first Su-27PU flew at Irkutsk on 31 December 1989, and the first of three pre-production models flew on 14 April 1992.[10]

Design

Sukhoi Su-30LL demonstrator flying along the runway at Zhangjiajie Hehua Airport less than 1 metre off the ground
Russian Air Force Sukhoi Su-30LL flying along the runway at Zhangjiajie Hehua Airport less than 1 metre off the ground piloted by Anatoly Kvochur

The Su-30 is a multirole fighter. It has a two-seat cockpit with an airbrake behind the canopy.

Flight characteristics

The integrated aerodynamic configuration, combined with the thrust vectoring control ability, results in high manoeuvrability and unique takeoff and landing characteristics. Equipped with a digital fly-by-wire system, the Su-30 is able to perform some very advanced manoeuvres, including the Pugachev's Cobra and the tailslide. These manoeuvers quickly decelerate the aircraft, causing a pursuing fighter to overshoot, as well as breaking a Doppler radar-lock, as the relative speed of the aircraft drops below the threshold where the signal registers to the radar.[11]

Powerplant

The aircraft's powerplant incorporates two Saturn AL-31F afterburning low-bypass turbofan engines, fed through intake ramps. Two AL-31Fs, each rated at 123 kN (28,000 lbf) of full afterburning thrust ensures Mach 2 in level flight, 1,350 km/h speed at low altitude, and a 230 m/s climbing rate.

With a normal fuel reserve of 5,270 kg, the Su-30MK is capable of performing a 4.5-hour combat mission with a range of 3,000 km. An aerial refueling system increases the range to 5,200 km (3,200 mi) or flight duration up to 10 hours at cruise altitudes.[12][13]

Avionics

The aircraft features autopilot ability at all flight stages including low-altitude flight in terrain-following radar mode, and individual and group combat employment against air and ground/sea-surface targets. Automatic control system interconnected with the navigation system ensures route flight, target approach, recovery to airfield and landing approach in automatic mode.

Operational history

Syria

Several Su-30SMs were sent to Syria in the Russian military intervention in Syria to escort and provide target illumination for bombers that launch airstrikes against Islamist rebel groups.[14][15] Su-30SM fighters were reportedly delivered to the Bassel Al-Assad International Airport in Latakia, Syria in September 2015. At least four Su-30SM fighters were spotted in a satellite photo.[16] In late December 2015, there were 16 Su-30SMs at Khmeimim airbase.[17]

Su-30SM were initially tasked with aerial escort of Russian attack jets or strategic bombers. Later during the operations, they were tasked to air to ground duties too. On 21 March 2017, rebel forces launched a new offensive in the Hama province; a few days later a video emerged showing a Russian Air Force Su-30SM striking ground targets with unguided air to ground rockets in a dive attack against the rebels.[18]

On 3 May 2018, a Russian Air Force Su-30 crashed shortly after take-off from the Hmeymim Air Base, killing both crew members.[19]

Potential operators

Thailand formally requested information for the possible acquisition of the Su-30MK/MK2. However, the Saab Gripen was procured instead.[20]

In February 2016, Russia and Belarus concluded a preliminary agreement that would see the export of an undisclosed number of Su-30s to Belarus.[21]

The Iran defense minister announced in February 2016 of its country intention to buy an undisclosed number of the Su-30SM fighters.[22]

In January 2016, Armenian Defense Minister Seyran Ohanyan mentioned that Russia had discussed the possibility of supplying Su-30 fighters to Armenia during a four-day Russian-Armenian intergovernmental commission on bilateral military-technical cooperation.[23]

Variants

SU-30MKI-g4sp
Indian Air Force Su-30MKI
Su30mkm takeoff at lima
Royal Malaysian Air Force Su-30MKM
Uganda People%27s Defence Force Air Wing Sukhoi Su-30MK2 MTI-2
Uganda People's Defence Force Air Wing Su-30MK2
Refueling-Su30dz
Algerian Air Force Su-30MKA refuelled by Il-78 Midas

Early variants

Su-30
Modernized Su-27UB. 5 units operated by the Russian Air Defence Forces.
Su-30K
Commercial (export) version of the basic Su-30. The Indian Air Force briefly operated some Su-30Ks in the late 1990s.
Su-30KI
Sukhoi proposal for upgrading Russian AF single seat Su-27S. Also proposed export version for Indonesia, 24 were ordered but subsequently cancelled due to the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis.[24]
Su-30KN
Upgrade project for operational two-seat fighters, the Su-27UB, Su-30 and Su-30K. This was cancelled in Russia but later revived as Su-30M2. Belarus consider updating ex-Indian Su-30K to the Su-30KN standard.[25]
Su-30MK
Commercial version of Su-30M first revealed in 1993. Export versions include navigation and communication equipment from Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.[26]

Su-30MKI and derivatives

Su-30MKI
MKI stands for "Modernizirovannyi, Kommercheskiy, Indiski" meaning "Modernized, Commercial, Indian". Jointly developed with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for the Indian Air Force. It is the first Su-30 family member to feature thrust vectoring control (TVC) and canards. Equipped with a multinational avionics complex sourced from Russia, India, France and Israel.[27]
Su-30MKA
A version of the Su-30MKI, except with French and Russian avionics for Algeria.[28]
Su-30MKM
A derivative of the India-Russian Su-30MKI,[29] the MKM is a highly specialised version for Royal Malaysian Air Force. It includes thrust vectoring control (TVC) and canards but with avionics from various countries. It will feature head-up displays (HUD), navigational forward-looking IR system (NAVFLIR) and Damocles Laser Designation pod (LDP) from Thales Group of France, MAW-300 missile approach warning sensor (MAWS), RWS-50 RWR and laser warning sensor (LWS) from SAAB AVITRONICS (South Africa)[30] as well as the Russian NIIP N011M Bars Passive electronically scanned array radar, electronic warfare (EW) system, optical-location system (OLS) and a glass cockpit.[31]
Su-30SM
A specialised version of the thrust-vectoring Su-30MKI and MKM variants for the Russian military, produced by the Irkut Corporation.[32][33] Russia's Defence Ministry was impressed with the MKI's performance envelope and ordered 30 Su-30SMs, a localised version of Su-30MKI, for the Russian Air Force.[34]
The Su-30SM (SM for Serial, Modernized) (Flanker-H by NATO classification) is considered a 4+ generation fighter jet.[35][36][37][38][39][40] The aircraft has been upgraded according to Russian military requirements for radar, radio communications systems, friend-or-foe identification system, ejection seats, weapons, and other aircraft systems.[41][42] It is equipped with the N011M Bars radar with a maximum detection range 400 km, search range 200 km using a phased array antenna, frontal horizontal fins and steerable thrusters for supermaneuverability as well as with wide-angle HUD. The aircraft can be used to gain air supremacy same as for targeting adversary on the ground using wide range of weapons including air-to-air, air-to-surface and guided and unguided bombs with total weapons weight up to 8000 kg. It is also equipped with the one barrel, 30 mm GSh-301 autocannon. To ensure operations at major distances from airfield, the ability of in-flight refueling (IFR) is included.[33][42][43][44][45][46][47] Besides that, for electronic warfare purposes two SAP-518 jamming pods can be fitted on the wing tips. The SAP-518 is designed to protect the aircraft from various air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles by creating false targets, jamming missile's guidance, enemy aircraft radars or ground and seaborne air defence.[48] The first contract for 60 aircraft was signed in March 2012 with delivery to be completed by 2016.[49] On 21 September 2012, the Su-30SM performed its maiden flight.[50] On 12 January 2018, the Su-30SM was officially accepted into service with the Russian Aerospace Forces by a resolution of the Russian president.[51]
Su-30SME
Proposed export version of Su-30SM unveiled at the Singapore Airshow 2016.[52]

Su-30MKK and derivatives

Su-30MKK
Export version for China. MKK stands for Modernizirovannyi, Kommercheskiy, Kitayski or "Modernized, Commercial, China".[53] Its NATO codename is 'Flanker-G'.
Su-30MK2
Modernized Su-30MKK for China, Indonesia and Uganda with advanced avionics and weapons.
Su-30MK2V
Su-30MK2 variant for Vietnam with minor modifications.[54]
Su-30MKV
Export version of Su-30MK2 for Venezuela.
Su-30M2
A version from manufacturer KnAAPO based on the Su-30MK2. The Russian Air Force placed an initial order for the variant in 2009. Factory tests were completed in September 2010.[55][56][57] Twenty aircraft have been ordered; 4 in 2009 and 16 in 2012.[58] At least 12 have been produced as of August 2014, all four from the first contract in 2009, and eight from the second contract of 2012.[58] They are mostly to be used as combat training aircraft for upgraded Su-27SM fighters.
Su-30MK3
A proposed version with Phazotron Zhuk-MSF radar.

Operators

Su-30 operators
Map with Sukhoi Su-30 operators in blue
Tni-au su-30 1
Indonesian Air Force Su-30
Venezuelan Air Force Sukhoi SU-30MK2 AADPR
Venezuelan Air Force Su-30MK2
 Algeria
 Angola
  • Angolan Air Force ordered 12 Su-30K fighters on 16 October 2013 as part of a $1 billion deal that also included other equipment and maintenance services for the country. The Su-30Ks were initially delivered to India in the 1990s, but were returned to Russia in 2007.[62] Angola received the first 2 aircraft in September 2017.[63][64]
 People's Republic of China
 Belarus
 India
 Indonesia
  • Indonesian Air Force (TNI – AU or Tentara Nasional Indonesia – Angkatan Udara) has ordered a combined 11 Su-30MK/MK2 fighters.[68] As of September 2013 it has all Su-30MK/MK2s in inventory.[68]
 Kazakhstan
  • Kazakh Air Force ordered Su-30SM fighters in February 2015.[69] The first 4 aircraft were delivered in June 2015.[70] Another 2 aircraft were delivered in December 2016.[71] The second order for 12 aircraft was signed in August 2017.[72][73] The first 2 aircraft of the second order were delivered in late December 2017.[74] New contract for 8 more aircraft was signed in May 2018.[75]
 Malaysia
 Myanmar
 Russia
 Uganda
 Venezuela
  • Venezuelan Air Force and the government of Venezuela announced on 14 June 2006 the purchase of 24 units of the Su-30MK2. The first 2 Su-30MK2s arrived in early December 2006 while another 8 were commissioned during 2007; 14 more units arrived in 2008.[102][103] A second batch of 12 Su-30MKV was also being considered in 2009, it never proceed further.[24] It has 24 Su-30MK2s as of January 2012.[104] In October 2015, Venezuela announced the purchase of 12 more Su-30MK2 from Russia for $480 million.[105][106]
 Vietnam
  • Vietnam People's Air Force operates 4 Su-30MKs and 20 Su-30MK2Vs in 2013.[28] On 21 August 2013, Russia announced it would deliver another batch of 12 Su-30MK2s under a $450 million contract, with deliveries in 2014–2015.[107]

Specifications (Su-27PU/Su-30)

Szu-30

Data from KnAAPO,[12] Sukhoi,[13] Gordon and Davison,[108] deagel.com,[109] airforce-technology.com[110]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 21.935 m (73 ft)
  • Wingspan: 14.7 m (48 ft 3 in)
  • Height: 6.36 m (20 ft 10 in)
  • Wing area: 62 m² (667 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 17,700 kg (39,021 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 24,900 kg (54,900 lb) with 56% fuel
  • Max. takeoff weight: 34,500 kg (76,060 lb)
  • Fuel capacity: 9,400 kg (20,724 lb) internally[111]
  • Powerplant: 2 × Saturn AL-31FL turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 74.5 kN (16,750 lbf) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 122.58 kN (27,560 lbf) each

Performance

Armament

Avionics

Accidents

  • 12 June 1999: Paris Air Show, Le Bourget, France, a Russian Su-30MK crashed – both pilots ejected safely and no one was hurt on the ground.
  • 17 September 2015: a Venezuelan Air Force Su-30MK2 crashed in Southern Venezuela, near the town of Elorza while intercepting a small drug-smuggling aircraft.[112] Both pilots died.
  • 3 May 2018: a Russian Su-30SM crashed off the coast of Syria’s Jabla. Accident occurred after take off.[113] Both pilots died.

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

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  • Gordon, Yefim and Peter Davison. Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker. Specialty Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58007-091-1.

Further reading

  • Eden, Paul (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
  • Gordon, Yefim. Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker: Air Superiority Fighter. Airlife Publishing, 1999. ISBN 1-84037-029-7.
  • Williams, Mel (ed.). "Sukhoi 'Super Flankers'". Superfighters: The Next Generation of Combat Aircraft. Norwalk, Connecticut: AIRtime Publishing Inc., 2002. ISBN 1-880588-53-6.

External links

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