Suez Canal

The Suez Canal (Arabic: قناة السويسqanāt as-suwēs) is a sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, it was officially opened on 17 November 1869. The canal offers watercraft a more direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian Oceans via the Mediterranean and Red Seas, thus avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian Oceans and thereby reducing the journey distance from the Arabian Sea to, for example, London by approximately 8,900 kilometres (5,500 mi).[1] It extends from the northern terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez. Its length is 193.30 km (120.11 mi), including its northern and southern access channels. In 2012, 17,225 vessels traversed the canal (an average of 47 per day).[2]

The original canal was a single-lane waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass and the Great Bitter Lake.[3] It contains no locks system, with seawater flowing freely through it. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez.[4]

The canal is owned and maintained by the Suez Canal Authority[5] (SCA) of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag".[6]

In August 2014, construction was launched to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km (22 mi) to speed the canal's transit time. The expansion was planned to double the capacity of the Suez Canal from 49 to 97 ships a day.[7] At a cost of $8.4 billion, this project was funded with interest-bearing investment certificates issued exclusively to Egyptian entities and individuals. The "New Suez Canal", as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015.[8]

On 24 February 2016, the Suez Canal Authority officially opened the new side channel. This side channel, located at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal. As the East Container Terminal is located on the Canal itself, before the construction of the new side channel it was not possible to berth or unberth vessels at the terminal while the convoy was running.[9]

Suez Canal
SuezCanal-EO
Specifications
Length193.3 km (120.1 miles)
Maximum boat beam77.5 m (254 ft 3 in)
Minimum boat draft20.1 m (66 ft)
Minimum boat air draft68 m (223 ft)
LocksNone
Navigation authoritySuez Canal Authority
History
Original ownerSuez Canal Company (Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez)
Construction began25 September 1859
Date completed17 November 1869
Geography
Start pointPort Said
End pointPort Tewfik, Suez
Iss016e019375
The southern terminus of the Suez Canal at Suez on the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea)

Precursors

Ancient west–east canals were built to facilitate travel from the Nile River to the Red Sea.[10][11][12] One smaller canal is believed to have been constructed under the auspices of Senusret II[13] or Ramesses II.[10][11][12] Another canal, probably incorporating a portion of the first,[10][11] was constructed under the reign of Necho II, but the only fully functional canal was engineered and completed by Darius I.[10][11][12]

2nd millennium BCE

The legendary Sesostris (likely either Pharaoh Senusret II or Senusret III of the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt[13][14]) may have started work on an ancient canal joining the Nile with the Red Sea (1897 BCE – 1839 BCE), when an irrigation channel was constructed around 1850 BCE that was navigable during the flood season, leading into a dry river valley east of the Nile River Delta named Wadi Tumilat.[15] (It is said that in ancient times the Red Sea reached northward to the Bitter Lakes[10][11] and Lake Timsah.[16][17])

In his Meteorology, Aristotle wrote:

One of their kings tried to make a canal to it (for it would have been of no little advantage to them for the whole region to have become navigable; Sesostris is said to have been the first of the ancient kings to try), but he found that the sea was higher than the land. So he first, and Darius afterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it.[18]

Strabo wrote that Sesostris started to build a canal, and Pliny the Elder wrote:

165. Next comes the Tyro tribe and, the harbour of the Daneoi, from which Sesostris, king of Egypt, intended to carry a ship-canal to where the Nile flows into what is known as the Delta; this is a distance of over 60 miles. Later the Persian king Darius had the same idea, and yet again Ptolemy II, who made a trench 100 feet wide, 30 feet deep and about 35 miles long, as far as the Bitter Lakes.[19]

In the second half of the 19th century, French cartographers discovered the remnants of an ancient north–south canal past the east side of Lake Timsah and ending near the north end of the Great Bitter Lake.[20] This proved to be the celebrated canal made by the Persian king Darius I, as his stele commemorating its construction was found at the site. (This ancient, second canal may have followed a course along the shoreline of the Red Sea when it once extended north to Lake Timsah.[17][20]) In the 20th century the northward extension of this ancient canal was discovered, extending from Lake Timsah to the Ballah Lakes.[21] This was dated to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt by extrapolating the dates of ancient sites along its course.[21]

The reliefs of the Punt expedition under Hatshepsut, 1470 BCE, depict seagoing vessels carrying the expeditionary force returning from Punt. This suggests that a navigable link existed between the Red Sea and the Nile.[22] Recent excavations in Wadi Gawasis may indicate that Egypt's maritime trade started from the Red Sea and did not require a canal. Evidence seems to indicate its existence by the 13th century BCE during the time of Ramesses II.[10][23][24][25]

Canals dug by Necho, Darius I and Ptolemy

Remnants of an ancient west–east canal through the ancient Egyptian cities of Bubastis, Pi-Ramesses, and Pithom were discovered by Napoleon Bonaparte and his engineers and cartographers in 1799.[11][26][27][28][29]

According to the Histories of the Greek historian Herodotus,[30] about 600 BCE, Necho II undertook to dig a west–east canal through the Wadi Tumilat between Bubastis and Heroopolis,[11] and perhaps continued it to the Heroopolite Gulf and the Red Sea.[10] Regardless, Necho is reported as having never completed his project.[10][11]

Herodotus was told that 120,000 men perished in this undertaking, but this figure is doubtless exaggerated.[31] According to Pliny the Elder, Necho's extension to the canal was about 57 English miles,[11] equal to the total distance between Bubastis and the Great Bitter Lake, allowing for winding through valleys.[11] The length that Herodotus tells, of over 1000 stadia (i.e., over 114 miles (183 km)), must be understood to include the entire distance between the Nile and the Red Sea[11] at that time.

With Necho's death, work was discontinued. Herodotus tells that the reason the project was abandoned was because of a warning received from an oracle that others would benefit from its successful completion.[11][32] Necho's war with Nebuchadnezzar II most probably prevented the canal's continuation.

Necho's project was completed by Darius I of Persia, who ruled over Ancient Egypt after it had been conquered by his predecessor Cambyses II.[33] It may be that by Darius's time a natural[11] waterway passage which had existed[10] between the Heroopolite Gulf and the Red Sea[34] in the vicinity of the Egyptian town of Shaluf[11] (alt. Chalouf[35] or Shaloof[17]), located just south of the Great Bitter Lake,[11][17] had become so blocked[10] with silt[11] that Darius needed to clear it out so as to allow navigation[11] once again. According to Herodotus, Darius's canal was wide enough that two triremes could pass each other with oars extended, and required four days to traverse. Darius commemorated his achievement with a number of granite stelae that he set up on the Nile bank, including one near Kabret, and a further one a few miles north of Suez. The Darius Inscriptions read:[36]

Saith King Darius: I am a Persian. Setting out from Persia, I conquered Egypt. I ordered this canal dug from the river called the Nile that flows in Egypt, to the sea that begins in Persia. When the canal had been dug as I ordered, ships went from Egypt through this canal to Persia, even as I intended.

— Darius Inscription

The canal left the Nile at Bubastis. An inscription[37] on a pillar at Pithom records that in 270 or 269 BCE, it was again reopened, by Ptolemy II Philadelphus. In Arsinoe,[11] Ptolemy constructed a navigable lock, with sluices, at the Heroopolite Gulf of the Red Sea,[34] which allowed the passage of vessels but prevented salt water from the Red Sea from mingling with the fresh water in the canal.[38]

Receding Red Sea and the dwindling Nile

The Red Sea is believed by some historians to have gradually receded over the centuries, its coastline slowly moving southward away from Lake Timsah[16][17] and the Great Bitter Lake.[10][11] Coupled with persistent accumulations of Nile silt, maintenance and repair of Ptolemy's canal became increasingly cumbersome over each passing century.

Two hundred years after the construction of Ptolemy's canal, Cleopatra seems to have had no west–east waterway passage,[10][11] because the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, which fed Ptolemy's west–east canal, had by that time dwindled, being choked with silt.[10][11]

Old Cairo to the Red Sea

By the 8th century, a navigable canal existed between Old Cairo and the Red Sea,[10][11] but accounts vary as to who ordered its construction—either Trajan or 'Amr ibn al-'As, or Omar the Great.[10][11] This canal was reportedly linked to the River Nile at Old Cairo[11] and ended near modern Suez.[10][39] A geography treatise by Dicuil reports a conversation with an English monk, Fidelis, who had sailed on the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea during a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the first half of the 8th century[40]

The Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur is said to have ordered this canal closed in 767 to prevent supplies from reaching Arabian detractors.[10][11]

Repair by al-Ḥākim

Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah is claimed to have repaired the Cairo to Red Sea passageway,[10][11] but only briefly, circa 1000 AD,[10][11] as it soon "became choked with sand".[11] However, we are told that parts of this canal still continued to fill in during the Nile's annual inundations.[10][11]

Conception by Venice

The successful 1488 navigation of southern Africa by Bartolomeu Dias opened a direct maritime trading route to India and the spice islands, and forever changed the balance of Mediterranean trade. One of the most prominent losers in the new order, as former middlemen, was the former spice trading center of Venice.

Venetian leaders, driven to desperation, contemplated digging a waterway between the Red Sea and the Nile—anticipating the Suez Canal by almost 400 years—to bring the luxury trade flooding to their doors again. But this remained a dream.

— Colin Thubron, Seafarers: The Venetians (1980), p. 102

Despite entering negotiations with Egypt's ruling Mamelukes, the Venetian plan to build the canal was quickly put to rest by the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517, led by Sultan Selim I.[41]

Ottoman attempts

During the 16th century, the Ottoman Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha attempted to construct a canal connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. This was motivated by a desire to connect Constantinople to the pilgrimage and trade routes of the Indian Ocean, as well as by strategic concerns -- as the European presence in the Indian Ocean was growing, Ottoman mercantile and strategic interests were increasingly challenged, and the Sublime Porte was increasingly pressed to assert its position. A navigable canal would allow the Ottoman Navy to connect its Red Sea, Black Sea, and White Sea fleets. However, this project was deemed too expensive, and was never completed.[42][43]

Napoleon's discovery of an ancient canal

During the French campaign in Egypt and Syria in late 1798, Napoleon showed an interest in finding the remnants of an ancient waterway passage. This culminated in a cadre of archaeologists, scientists, cartographers and engineers scouring northern Egypt.[44][45] Their findings, recorded in the Description de l'Égypte, include detailed maps that depict the discovery of an ancient canal extending northward from the Red Sea and then westward toward the Nile.[44][46]

Later, Napoleon, who would become French Emperor in 1804, contemplated the construction of a north–south canal to connect the Mediterranean with the Red Sea. But the plan was abandoned because it wrongly concluded that the waterway would require locks to operate. These would be very expensive and take a long time to construct. This decision was based on an erroneous belief that the Red Sea was 10 m (33 ft) higher than the Mediterranean. The error was the result of using fragmentary survey measurements taken in wartime during Napoleon's Egyptian Expedition.[47] In 1819 the Pacha of Egypt undertook some canal work.[48]

However, as late as 1861, the unnavigable ancient route discovered by Napoleon from Bubastis to the Red Sea still channeled water in spots as far east as Kassassin.[11]

History

Interim period

Suez1856
Bathymetric chart, northern Gulf of Suez, route to Cairo, 1856

Although the alleged difference in sea levels could be problematic for construction, the idea of finding a shorter route to the east remained alive. In 1830, F. R. Chesney submitted a report to the British government that stated that there was no difference in elevation and that the Suez Canal was feasible, but his report received no further attention. Lieutenant Waghorn established his "Overland Route", which transported post and passengers to India via Egypt. Linant de Bellefonds, a French explorer of Egypt, became chief engineer of Egypt's Public Works. In addition to his normal duties, he surveyed the Isthmus of Suez and made plans for the Suez Canal. French Saint-Simonianists showed an interest in the canal and in 1833, Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin tried to draw Muhammad Ali's attention to the canal but was unsuccessful. Alois Negrelli, the Austrian railroad pioneer, became interested in the idea in 1836. In 1846, Prosper Enfantin's Société d'Études du Canal de Suez invited a number of experts, among them Robert Stephenson, Negrelli and Paul-Adrien Bourdaloue to study the feasibility of the Suez Canal (with the assistance of Linant de Bellefonds). Bourdaloue's survey of the isthmus was the first generally accepted evidence that there was no practical difference in altitude between the two seas. Britain, however, feared that a canal open to everyone might interfere with its India trade and therefore preferred a connection by train from Alexandria via Cairo to Suez, which was eventually built by Stephenson.

Construction by the Suez Canal Company

SuezCanalKantara
Suez Canal, 1869

Preparations (1854–1858)

In 1854 and 1856, Ferdinand de Lesseps obtained a concession from Sa'id Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, to create a company to construct a canal open to ships of all nations. The company was to operate the canal for 99 years from its opening. De Lesseps had used his friendly relationship with Sa'id, which he had developed while he was a French diplomat in the 1830s. As stipulated in the concessions, Ferdinand convened the International Commission for the piercing of the isthmus of Suez (Commission Internationale pour le percement de l'isthme des Suez) consisting of 13 experts from seven countries, among them John Robinson McClean, later President of the Institution of Civil Engineers in London, and again Negrelli, to examine the plans developed by Linant de Bellefonds, and to advise on the feasibility of and the best route for the canal. After surveys and analyses in Egypt and discussions in Paris on various aspects of the canal, where many of Negrelli's ideas prevailed, the commission produced a unanimous report in December 1856 containing a detailed description of the canal complete with plans and profiles.[49] The Suez Canal Company (Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez) came into being on 15 December 1858.

Construction (1859–1869)

Work started on the shore of the future Port Said on 25 April 1859.

Suez Canal drawing 1881
1881 drawing of the Suez Canal

The excavation took some 10 years using forced labour (corvée) of Egyptian workers during the first years. Some sources estimate that over 30,000 people were working on the canal at any given period, that more than 1.5 million people from various countries were employed, and that thousands of labourers died, many of them from cholera and similar epidemics.[50][51]

The British government had opposed the project from the outset to its completion. As one of the diplomatic moves against the canal, it disapproved of the use of "slave labour" of forced workers. The British Empire was the major global naval force and officially condemned the forced work and sent armed Bedouins to start a revolt among workers. Involuntary labour on the project ceased, and the viceroy condemned the corvée, halting the project.[52]

Angered by the British opportunism, de Lesseps sent a letter to the British government remarking on the British lack of remorse a few years earlier when forced workers died in similar conditions building the British railway in Egypt.

Initially international opinion was skeptical and Suez Canal Company shares did not sell well overseas. Britain, Austria, and Russia did not buy a significant number of shares. However, with assistance from the Cattaui banking family, and their relationship with James de Rothschild of the French House of Rothschild bonds and shares were successfully promoted in France and other parts of Europe.[53] All French shares were quickly sold in France. A contemporary British skeptic claimed "One thing is sure... our local merchant community doesn't pay practical attention at all to this grand work, and it is legitimate to doubt that the canal's receipts... could ever be sufficient to recover its maintenance fee. It will never become a large ship's accessible way in any case."[54]

Inauguration (17 November 1869)

Suez Canal, Egypt. Lantern Slide
Suez Canal, Egypt. early 1900s. Goodyear Archival Collection. Brooklyn Museum

The canal opened under French control on 17 November 1869. The opening was performed by Khedive Isma'il Pasha of Egypt and Sudan, and at Ismail's invitation French Empress Eugenie in the Imperial yacht L'Aigle piloted by Napoléon Coste, upon whom the Khedive bestowed the Ottoman Order of the Medjidie.

Although L'Aigle was officially the first vessel through the canal, HMS Newport, captained by George Nares, passed through it first. On the night before the canal was due to open, Captain Nares navigated his vessel, in total darkness and without lights, through the mass of waiting ships until it was in front of L'Aigle. When dawn broke, the French were horrified to find that the Royal Navy was first in line and that it would be impossible to pass them. Nares received both an official reprimand and an unofficial vote of thanks from the Admiralty for his actions in promoting British interests and for demonstrating such superb seamanship.[55]

An Anchor Line ship, the S.S. Dido, became the first to pass through the Canal from South to North[56][57].

The first ship to follow L'Aigle through the canal was the British P&O liner Delta.[58][59] Fourth ship through the canal was the Swedish steam frigate Vanadis.[60]

Initial difficulties (1869–1871)

Although numerous technical, political, and financial problems had been overcome, the final cost was more than double the original estimate.

The Khedive, in particular, was able to overcome initial reservations held by both British and French creditors by enlisting the help of the Sursock family, whose deep connections proved invaluable in securing much international support for the project.[61]

After the opening, the Suez Canal Company was in financial difficulties. The remaining works were completed only in 1871, and traffic was below expectations in the first two years. De Lesseps therefore tried to increase revenues by interpreting the kind of net ton referred to in the second concession (tonneau de capacité) as meaning a ship's cargo capacity and not only the theoretical net tonnage of the "Moorsom System" introduced in Britain by the Merchant Shipping Act in 1854. The ensuing commercial and diplomatic activities resulted in the International Commission of Constantinople establishing a specific kind of net tonnage and settling the question of tariffs in its protocol of 18 December 1873.[62] This was the origin of the Suez Canal Net Tonnage and the Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate, both of which are still in use today.

Company rule after opening

Suez Canal (ca 1914)
Suez Canal, ca 1914

The canal had an immediate and dramatic effect on world trade. Combined with the American transcontinental railroad completed six months earlier, it allowed the world to be circled in record time. It played an important role in increasing European colonization of Africa. The construction of the canal was one of the reasons for the Panic of 1873, because goods from the Far East were carried in sailing vessels around the Cape of Good Hope and were stored in British warehouses. An inability to pay his bank debts led Said Pasha's successor, Isma'il Pasha, to sell his 44% share in the canal for £4,000,000 (about £91.3 million in 2018) to the government of Great Britain in 1875. French shareholders still held the majority.[63] Local unrest caused the British to invade in 1882 and take full control, although nominally Egypt remained part of the Ottoman Empire. The British representative 1883 to 1907 was Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer, who reorganized and modernized the government and suppressed rebellions and corruption. thereby facilitating increased traffic on the canal.[64]

The Convention of Constantinople in 1888 declared the canal a neutral zone under the protection of the British, who had occupied Egypt and Sudan at the request of Khedive Tewfiq to suppress the Urabi Revolt against his rule. The revolt went on from 1879 to 1882. As a result of British involvement on the side of Khedive Tewfiq, Britain gained control of the canal in 1882. The British defended the strategically important passage against a major Ottoman attack in 1915, during the First World War.[65] Under the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, the UK retained control over the canal. The canal was again strategically important in the 1939–1945 Second World War, and Italo-German attempts to capture it were repulsed during the North Africa Campaign, during which the canal was closed to Axis shipping. In 1951 Egypt repudiated the treaty and in October 1954 the UK agreed to remove its troops. Withdrawal was completed on 18 July 1956.

Suez Crisis

Port Said from air
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Port Said, 5 November 1956

Because of Egyptian overtures towards the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States withdrew their pledge to support the construction of the Aswan Dam. Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser responded by nationalizing the canal on 26 July 1956[66] and transferring it to the Suez Canal Authority, intending to finance the dam project using revenue from the canal. On the same day that the canal was nationalized Nasser also closed the Straits of Tiran to all Israeli ships.[67] This led to the Suez Crisis in which the UK, France, and Israel invaded Egypt. According to the pre-agreed war plans under the Protocol of Sèvres, the Israelis invaded the Sinai Peninsula on 29 October, forcing Egypt to engage them militarily, and allowing the Anglo-French partnership to declare the resultant fighting a threat to stability in the Middle East and enter the war - officially to separate the two forces but in reality to regain the Canal and bring down the Nasser government.

To save the British from what he thought was a disastrous action and to stop the war from a possible escalation, Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester B. Pearson proposed the creation of the first United Nations peacekeeping force to ensure access to the canal for all and an Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula. On 4 November 1956, a majority at the United Nations voted for Pearson's peacekeeping resolution, which mandated the UN peacekeepers to stay in Sinai unless both Egypt and Israel agreed to their withdrawal. The United States backed this proposal by putting pressure on the British government through the selling of sterling, which would cause it to depreciate. Britain then called a ceasefire, and later agreed to withdraw its troops by the end of the year. Pearson was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. As a result of damage and ships sunk under orders from Nasser the canal was closed until April 1957, when it was cleared with UN assistance.[68] A UN force (UNEF) was established to maintain the free navigability of the canal, and peace in the Sinai Peninsula.

Arab–Israeli wars of 1967 and 1973

Egyptianbridge
Egyptian vehicles crossing the Suez Canal on 7 October 1973, during the Yom Kippur War
Israeli Tanks Cross the Suez Canal - Flickr - Israel Defense Forces
Israeli tank crossing the Suez Canal, 1973

In May 1967, Nasser ordered the UN peacekeeping forces out of Sinai, including the Suez Canal area. Israel objected to the closing of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. The canal had been closed to Israeli shipping since 1949, except for a short period in 1951–1952.

After the 1967 Six-Day War, Israeli forces occupied the Sinai peninsula, including the entire east bank of the Suez Canal. Unwilling to allow the Israelis to use the canal, Egypt immediately imposed a blockade which closed the canal to all shipping. 15 cargo ships, known as the "Yellow Fleet", were trapped in the canal, and would remain there until 1975.

In 1973, during the Yom Kippur War, the canal was the scene of a major crossing by the Egyptian army into Israeli-occupied Sinai and a counter-crossing by the Israeli army to Egypt. Much wreckage from this conflict remains visible along the canal's edges.

Mine clearing operations (1974–75)

After the Yom Kippur War the United States initiated Operation Nimbus Moon. The amphibious assault ship USS Inchon (LPH-12) was sent to the Canal, carrying 12 RH-53D minesweeping helicopters of HM-12. These partly cleared the canal between May and December 1974. She was relieved by the LST USS Barnstable County (LST1197). The British Royal Navy initiated Operation Rheostat and Task Group 65.2 provided for Operation Rheostat One[69] (six months in 1974), the minehunters HMS Maxton, HMS Bossington, and HMS Wilton, the Fleet Clearance Diving Team (FCDT)[70] and HMS Abdiel, a practice minelayer/MCMV support ship; and for Operation Rheostat Two[71] (six months in 1975) the minehunters HMS Hubberston and HMS Sheraton, and HMS Abdiel. When the Canal Clearance Operations were completed, the canal and its lakes were considered 99% clear of mines. The canal was then reopened by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat aboard an Egyptian destroyer, which led the first convoy northbound to Port Said in 1975.[72] At his side stood the Iranian Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi, delegated to represent his father, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. The cruiser USS Little Rock was the only American naval ship in the convoy.[73]

UN presence

The UNEF mandate expired in 1979. Despite the efforts of the United States, Israel, Egypt, and others to obtain an extension of the UN role in observing the peace between Israel and Egypt, as called for under the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty of 1979, the mandate could not be extended because of the veto by the Soviet Union in the UN Security Council, at the request of Syria. Accordingly, negotiations for a new observer force in the Sinai produced the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO), stationed in Sinai in 1981 in coordination with a phased Israeli withdrawal. It is there under agreements between the United States, Israel, Egypt, and other nations.[74]

Bypass expansion

In the summer of 2014, months after taking office as President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi ordered the expansion of the Ballah Bypass from 61 metres (200 ft) wide to 312 metres (1,024 ft) wide for 35 kilometres (22 mi). The project was called the New Suez Canal, as it would allow ships to transit the canal in both directions simultaneously.[75][76] The project cost more than $8 billion and was completed within one year. Sisi declared the expanded channel open for business in a ceremony on 6 August 2015.[77]

Timeline

Mittelholzer-suezkanal
Suez Canal in February 1934. Air photograph taken by Swiss pilot and photographer Walter Mittelholzer
USS America (CV-66) in the Suez canal 1981
USS America (CV-66), an American aircraft carrier in the Suez Canal
SuezCanal4 byDanielCsorfoly
Container ship Hanjin Kaohsiung transiting the Suez Canal
  • Circa 1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte conquers Egypt and orders a feasibility analysis. This reports a supposed 10-metre (33 ft) difference in sea levels and a high cost, so the project is put on hold.
  • Circa 1840 – A second survey finds the first analysis incorrect. A direct link between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea is possible and not as expensive as previously estimated.
  • 30 November 1854 – The former French consul in Cairo, Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps, obtains the first license for construction and subsequent operation from the Viceroy for a period of 99 years.
  • 6 January 1856 – de Lesseps is provided with a second, more detailed license.
  • 15 December 1858 – de Lesseps establishes the "Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez", with Said Pasha acquiring 22% of the Suez Canal Company; the majority is controlled by French private holders.
  • 25 April 1859 – construction officially starts.
  • 17 November 1869 – The canal is opened, owned and operated by Suez Canal Company.
  • 18 December 1873 – The International Commission of Constantinople establishes the Suez Canal Net Ton and the Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate (as known today)
  • 25 November 1875 – Britain becomes a minority share holder in the company, acquiring 44%, with the remainder being controlled by French business syndicates.
  • 20 May 1882 – Britain invades Egypt, with French assistance, and begins its occupation of Egypt.
  • 25 August 1882 – Britain takes control of the canal.
  • 2 March 1888 – The Convention of Constantinople renews the guaranteed right of passage of all ships through the canal during war and peace; these rights were already part of the licenses awarded to de Lesseps, but are recognised as international law.
  • 14 November 1936 – Following a new treaty, Britain theoretically pulls out of Egypt, but establishes the 'Suez Canal Zone' under its control.
  • 13 June 1956 – Suez Canal Zone is restored to Egyptian sovereignty, following British withdrawal and years of negotiations.
  • 26 July 1956 – Egypt nationalizes the company; its Egyptian assets, rights and obligations are transferred to the Suez Canal Authority, which compensates the previous owners at the established pre-nationalization price. Egypt closes the canal to Israeli shipping as part of a broader blockade involving the Straits of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.
  • 31 October 1956 to 24 April 1957 – the canal is blocked to shipping following the Suez Crisis, a conflict that leads to an Israeli, French and British occupation of the canal zone.
  • 22 December 1956 – The canal zone is restored to Egyptian control, following French and British withdrawal, and the landing of UNEF troops.
  • 5 June 1967 to 10 June 1975 – the canal is blocked by Egypt, following the war with Israel; it becomes the front line during the ensuing War of Attrition and the 1973 war, remaining closed to international shipping, until general agreement was near.
  • 1 January 2008 – New rules of navigation passed by the Suez Canal Authority come into force.
  • 6 August 2015 – The new canal extensions are opened.

Layout and operation

When built, the canal was 164 km (102 mi) long and 8 m (26 ft) deep. After several enlargements, it is 193.30 km (120.11 mi) long, 24 m (79 ft) deep and 205 metres (673 ft) wide.[79] It consists of the northern access channel of 22 km (14 mi), the canal itself of 162.25 km (100.82 mi) and the southern access channel of 9 km (5.6 mi).[80]

The so-called New Suez Canal, functional since 6 August 2015,[81] currently has a new parallel canal in the middle part, with its length over 35 km (22 mi). The current parameters of the Suez Canal, including both individual canals of the parallel section are: depth 23 to 24 metres (75 to 79 ft) and width at least 205 to 225 metres (673 to 738 ft) (that width measured at 11 metres (36 ft) of depth).[82]

Capacity

The canal allows passage of ships up to 20 m (66 ft) draft or 240,000 deadweight tons and up to a height of 68 m (223 ft) above water level and a maximum beam of 77.5 m (254 ft) under certain conditions.[83][84] The canal can handle more traffic and larger ships than the Panama Canal, as Suezmax dimensions are greater than both Panamax and New Panamax. Some supertankers are too large to traverse the canal. Others can offload part of their cargo onto a canal-owned boat to reduce their draft, transit, and reload at the other end of the canal.

Navigation

SuezCanal ElBallah
Ships moored at El Ballah during transit
MEDCURR
Predominant currents in the Mediterranean Sea for June

The canal has no locks because of the flat terrain, and the minor sea level difference between each end is inconsequential for shipping. As the canal has no sea surge gates, the ports at the ends would be subject to the sudden impact of tsunamis from the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea, according to a 2012 article in the Journal of Coastal Research.[85]

There is one shipping lane with passing areas in Ballah-Bypass near El Qantara and in the Great Bitter Lake. On a typical day, three convoys transit the canal, two southbound and one northbound. The passage takes between 11 and 16 hours at a speed of around 8 knots (15 km/h; 9 mph). The low speed helps prevent erosion of the banks by ships' wakes.

By 1955, about two-thirds of Europe's oil passed through the canal. Around 8% of world sea trade is carried via the canal. In 2008, 21,415 vessels passed through the canal and the receipts totaled $5.381 billion,[83] with an average cost per ship of $251,000.

New Rules of Navigation came into force on 1 January 2008, passed by the board of directors of the Suez Canal Authority (SCA) to organise vessels' transit. The most important amendments include allowing vessels with 62-foot (19 m) draught to pass, increasing the allowed breadth from 32 metres (105 ft) to 40 metres (130 ft) (following improvement operations), and imposing a fine on vessels using divers from outside the SCA inside the canal boundaries without permission. The amendments allow vessels loaded with dangerous cargo (such as radioactive or flammable materials) to pass if they conform with the latest amendments provided by international conventions.

The SCA has the right to determine the number of tugs required to assist warships traversing the canal, to achieve the highest degree of safety during transit.[86]

Operation

Capesize bulk carrier at Suez Canal Bridge
Post-deepening, a capesize bulk carrier approaches the Friendship Bridge
Bittersee suezkanal
Northbound convoy waits in the Great Bitter Lake as southbound convoy passes, October 2014

Before August 2015, the canal was too narrow for free two-way traffic, so ships would pass in convoys and use bypasses. The by-passes were 78 km (48 mi) out of 193 km (120 mi) (40%). From north to south, they are: Port Said by-pass (entrances) 36.5 km (23 mi), Ballah by-pass & anchorage, 9 km (6 mi), Timsah by-pass 5 km (3 mi), and the Deversoir by-pass (northern end of the Great Bitter Lake) 27.5 km (17 mi). The bypasses were completed in 1980.

Typically, it would take a ship 12 to 16 hours to transit the canal. The canal's 24-hour capacity was about 76 standard ships.[87]

In August 2014, Egypt chose a consortium that includes the Egyptian army and global engineering firm Dar Al-Handasah to develop an international industrial and logistics hub in the Suez Canal area,[88] and began the construction of a new canal section from km 60 to km 95 combined with expansion and deep digging of the other 37 km of the canal.[89] This will allow navigation in both directions simultaneously in the 72 km long central section of the canal. These extensions were formally opened on 6 August 2015 by President Al-Sisi.[7][90][91]

Convoy sailing

Since the canal does not cater to unregulated two-way traffic, all ships transit in convoys on regular times, scheduled on a 24-hour basis. Each day, a single northbound convoy starts at 04:00 from Suez. At dulka lane sections, the convoy uses the eastern route.[92][93][94] Synchronised with this convoy's passage is the southbound convoy. It starts at 03:30 from Port Said and so passes the Northbound convoy in the two-lane section.

Canal crossings

Suez canal english
The canal in 2015

From north to south, the crossings are:

A railway on the west bank runs parallel to the canal for its entire length.

Six new tunnels for cars and trains are also planned across the canal.[97] Currently the Ahmed Hamdi is the only tunnel connecting Suez to the Sinai.

Alternative routes

Cape Agulhas

The main alternative is around Cape Agulhas, the southernmost point of Africa, commonly referred as the Cape of Good Hope route. This was the only sea route before the canal was constructed, and when the canal was closed. It is still the only route for ships that are too large for the canal. In the early 21st century, the Suez Canal has suffered from diminished traffic due to piracy in Somalia, with many shipping companies choosing to take the long route instead.[98][99] Between 2008 and 2010, it is estimated that the canal lost 10% of traffic due to the threat of piracy, and another 10% due to the financial crisis. An oil tanker going from Saudi Arabia to the United States has 2,700 mi (4,345 km) longer to go when taking the route south of Africa rather than the canal.[100]

Before the canal's opening in 1869, goods were sometimes offloaded from ships and carried overland between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.[101]

Northern Sea Route

Northern Sea Route vs Southern Sea Route
A graphical comparison between the Northern Sea Route (blue) and an alternative route through Suez Canal (red)

In recent years, the shrinking Arctic sea ice has made the Northern Sea Route feasible for commercial cargo ships between Europe and East Asia during a six-to-eight-week window in the summer months, shortening the voyage by thousands of miles compared to that through the Suez Canal. According to polar climate researchers, as the extent of the Arctic summer ice pack recedes the route will become passable without the help of icebreakers for a greater period each summer.[102][103][104]

The Bremen-based Beluga Group claimed in 2009 to be the first Western company to attempt using the Northern Sea Route without assistance from icebreakers, cutting 4000 nautical miles off the journey between Ulsan, Korea and Rotterdam, the Netherlands.[105]

Negev desert railroad

Israel has declared that it will construct a railroad through the Negev desert to compete with the canal, with construction partly financed by China.[106]

Environmental impact

The opening of the canal created the first salt-water passage between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. Although the Red Sea is about 1.2 m (4 ft) higher than the eastern Mediterranean,[107] the current between the Mediterranean and the middle of the canal at the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. The current south of the Bitter Lakes is tidal, varying with the tide at Suez.[4] The Bitter Lakes, which were hypersaline natural lakes, blocked the migration of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean for many decades, but as the salinity of the lakes gradually equalised with that of the Red Sea the barrier to migration was removed, and plants and animals from the Red Sea have begun to colonise the eastern Mediterranean. The Red Sea is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, so the Red Sea species have advantages over Atlantic species in the less salty and nutrient-rich eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly, most Red Sea species invade the Mediterranean biota, and only few do the opposite. This migratory phenomenon is called Lessepsian migration (after Ferdinand de Lesseps) or "Erythrean invasion". Also impacting the eastern Mediterranean, starting in 1968, was the operation of Aswan High Dam across the Nile. While providing for increased human development, the project reduced the inflow of freshwater and ended all natural nutrient-rich silt entering the eastern Mediterranean at the Nile Delta. This provided less natural dilution of Mediterranean salinity and ended the higher levels of natural turbidity, additionally making conditions more like those in the Red Sea.

Invasive species originating from the Red Sea and introduced into the Mediterranean by the canal have become a major component of the Mediterranean ecosystem and have serious impacts on the ecology, endangering many local and endemic species. About 300 species from the Red Sea have been identified in the Mediterranean, and there are probably others yet unidentified. The Egyptian government's intent to enlarge the canal has raised concerns from marine biologists, fearing that this will worsen the invasion of Red Sea species.[108]

Construction of the canal was preceded by cutting a small fresh-water canal called Sweet Water Canal from the Nile delta along Wadi Tumilat to the future canal, with a southern branch to Suez and a northern branch to Port Said. Completed in 1863, these brought fresh water to a previously arid area, initially for canal construction, and subsequently facilitating growth of agriculture and settlements along the canal.[109]

Suez Canal Economic Zone

The Suez Canal Economic Zone, sometimes shortened to the Suez Canal Zone, describes the set of locations neighbouring the canal where customs rates have been reduced to zero in order to attract investment. The zone comprises over 600km2 within the governorates of Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. Projects in the zone are collectively described as the Suez Canal Area Development Project (SCADP).[110][111]

The plan focuses on development of East Port Said and the port of Ain Sokhna, and hopes to extend to four more ports at West Port Said, El-Adabiya, Arish and El Tor.[112]

The zone incorporates the three "Qualifying Industrial Zones" at Port Said, Ismailia and Suez, a 1996 American initiative to encourage economic ties between Israel and its neighbours.[113]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "The Suez Canal - A vital shortcut for global commerce" (PDF). http://www.worldshipping.org. External link in |website= (help)
  2. ^ "Yearly Number & Net Tone by Ship Type, Direction & Ship Status". Suez Canal. Archived from the original on 2010-02-15. Retrieved 23 Apr 2014.
  3. ^ Suez Canal Authority
  4. ^ a b The Red Sea Pilot. Imray Laurie Norie & Wilson. 1995. p. 266.
  5. ^ "Official Web Site of the Suez Canal Authority". Missing or empty |url= (help)
  6. ^ Constantinople Convention of the Suez Canal of 2 March 1888 still in force and specifically maintained in Nasser's Nationalization Act.
  7. ^ a b "New Suez Canal project proposed by Egypt to boost trade". Cairo News.Net. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  8. ^ Tadros, Sherine (6 August 2015). "Egypt Opens New £6bn Suez Canal". Sky News. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  9. ^ "Egypt opens East Port Said side channel for navigation - Xinhua". News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Suez Canal" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 22–25.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Rappoport, S. (Doctor of Philosophy, Basel). History of Egypt (undated, early 20th century), Volume 12, Part B, Chapter V: "The Waterways of Egypt", pages 248–257. London: The Grolier Society.
  12. ^ a b c Hassan, F. A. & Tassie, G. J. Site location and history (2003). Kafr Hassan Dawood On-Line, Egyptian Cultural Heritage Organization. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
  13. ^ a b Please refer to Sesostris#Modern research.
  14. ^ J. H. Breasted attributes the ancient canal's early construction to Senusret III, up through the first cataract. Please refer to J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part One, Chicago 1906, §§642–648
  15. ^ Fisher, William B.; Smith, Charles Gordon. "Suez Canal". www.britannica.com. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  16. ^ a b The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, s.v. "Suez Canal" Archived 14 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
  17. ^ a b c d e Naville, Édouard. "Map of the Wadi Tumilat" (plate image), in The Store-City of Pithom and the Route of the Exodus (1885). London: Trubner and Company.
  18. ^ "Meteorology (1.15)". Ebooks.adelaide.edu.au. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  19. ^ The Elder Pliny and John Healey Natural History (6.33.165) Penguin Classics; Reprint edition (5 February 2004) ISBN 978-0-14-044413-1 p. 70 [1]
  20. ^ a b Carte hydrographique de l'Basse Egypte et d'une partie de l'Isthme de Suez (1855, 1882). Volume 87, page 803. Paris. See [2].
  21. ^ a b Shea, William H. "A Date for the Recently Discovered Eastern Canal of Egypt", in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 226 (April 1977), pp. 31–38.
  22. ^ Sanford (1938), p. 72; Garrison (1999), p. 36.
  23. ^ Hess, Richard S. Rev. of Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition, by James K. Hoffmeier. The Denver Journal 1 (1 January 1998). Retrieved 14 May 2008.
  24. ^ Hassan, Fekri A. Kafr Hassan Dawood On-line, 17 August 2003. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
  25. ^ (in Spanish) Martínez Babon, Javier. "Consideraciones sobre la Marinay la Guerra durante el Egipto Faraónico" Archived 1 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
  26. ^ Descriptions de l'Égypte, Volume 11 (État Moderne), containing Mémoire sur la communication de la mer des Indes à la Méditerranée par la mer Rouge et l'Isthme de Sueys, par M. J.M. Le Père, ingénieur en chef, inspecteur divisionnaire au corps impérial des ponts et chaussées, membre de l'Institut d'Égypte, pp. 21–186
  27. ^ Their reports were published in Description de l'Égypte
  28. ^ Montet, Pierre. Everyday Life in the Days of Ramesses The Great (1981), page 184. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  29. ^ Silver, Morris. Ancient Economies II (6 April 1998), "5c. Evidence for Earlier Canals." ANCIENT ECONOMIES II. Retrieved 8 August 2008. Economics Department, City College of New York.
  30. ^ Herodotus ii.158.
  31. ^ "The figure ‘120,000’ is doubtless exaggerated. Mehemet Ali lost only 10,000 in making the Mahmûdieh Canal (from the Nile to Alexandria)." remarked W. W. How and J. Wells, A Commentary on Herodotus.
  32. ^ According to Herodotus, work on the project was "stayed by a prophetic utterance that he [Necho] was toiling beforehand for the barbarian. The Egyptians call all men of other languages barbarians." (Herodotus, eo. loc..)
  33. ^ "Cambyses II - king of Persia".
  34. ^ a b Apparently, Ptolemy considered the Great Bitter Lake as a northern extension of the Red Sea, whereas Darius had not, because Arsinoe is located north of Shaluf. (See Naville, "Map of the Wadi Tumilat", referenced above.)
  35. ^ Please refer to Darius the Great's Suez Inscriptions.
  36. ^ Jona Lendering. "Darius' Suez Inscriptions". Livius.org. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  37. ^ "Pithom Stele - translation of inscription". www.attalus.org.
  38. ^ R. E. Gmirkin, "Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus: Hellenistic Histories and the Date of the Pentateuch", p. 236
  39. ^ Petermann, A. Karte Der Bai Von Súes (1856). Nach der Engl. Aufnahme v. Comm. Mansell.
  40. ^ Tuchman, Barbara Bible and Sword: How the British came to Palestine MacMillan, London (1987) ISBN 0-333-33414-0
  41. ^ Starthern, P (2013) "The Venetians" p. 175
  42. ^ Ortega, Stephen (2012). "The Ottoman Age of Exploration". The Historian. 74 (1): 89.
  43. ^ Rossi, N.; Rosand, David (2013). "Italian Renaissance Depictions of the Ottoman Sultan: Nuances in the Function of Early Modern Italian Portraiture". ProQuest.
  44. ^ a b Hall, Linda. The Search for the Ancient Suez Canal. Kansas City, Missouri. Archived from the original on 2009-02-14.
  45. ^ Please refer to Description de l'Égypte.
  46. ^ Descriptions de l'Égypte, Volume 11 (État Moderne), containing Mémoire sur la communication de la mer des Indes à la Méditerranée par la mer Rouge et l'Isthme de Sueys, par M. J.M. Le Père, ingénieur en chef, inspecteur divisionnaire au corps impérial des ponts et chaussées, membre de l'Institut d'Égypte, pp. 21–186
  47. ^ Wilson, The Suez Canal
  48. ^ "[untitled]". The Hobart Town Gazette. 26 February 1820. p. 2, col. 1. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  49. ^ Percement de l'isthme de Suez. Rapport et Projet de la Commission Internationale. Documents Publiés par M. Ferdinand de Lesseps. Troisième série. Paris aux bureaux de l'Isthme de Suez, Journal de l'Union des deux Mers, et chez Henri Plon, Éditeur, 1856. On Google Books (french)
  50. ^ Arnold. T. Wilson, The Suez Canal
  51. ^ "Le canal de Suez – ARTE". Arte.tv. 13 August 2006. Archived from the original on 19 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  52. ^ Oster (2006)
  53. ^ There is differing information on the exact amounts
  54. ^ (reported by German historian Uwe A. Oster) Archived 19 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ "The People: Captain Nares". HMS Challenger. University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  56. ^ Glasgow Herald, 17 November 1903
  57. ^ History of the Anchor Line 1852-1911. 1911. Glasgow, UK: John Horn, for Anchor Line.
  58. ^ "The Suez Canal". Russojapanesewar.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  59. ^ Haddad, Emily A. (Spring 2005). "Digging to India: Modernity, Imperialism, and the Suez Canal". Victorian Studies. Indiana University Press. 47 (3): 363. JSTOR 3830220. (Subscription required (help)).
  60. ^ "Ångkorvetter Byggda I Karlskrona". vhfk.se. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  61. ^ Kassir, Samir. Beirut, First Edition. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  62. ^ Protocol of the Commission (in french)
  63. ^ Hicks, Geoffrey (2012). "Disraeli, Derby and the Suez Canal, 1875: Some Myths Reassessed". History. 97 (2 (326)): 182–203. doi:10.1111/j.1468-229X.2012.00548.x. JSTOR 24429312.
  64. ^ Tignor, Robert L. (1963). "Lord Cromer: Practitioner and Philosopher of Imperialism". Journal of British Studies. 2 (2): 142–159. doi:10.1086/385467. JSTOR 175255.
  65. ^ First World War – Willmott, H.P. Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 87
  66. ^ "The Suez Canal formally opened to ships". stratscope.com. StratScope. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  67. ^ "1956: Egypt seizes Suez Canal". 26 July 1956 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  68. ^ The Other Side of Suez (documentary) – 2003
  69. ^ "OPERATION RHEOSTAT ONE – ROYAL NAVY MINESWEEPERS ARRIVE AT PORT SAID TO HELP CLEAR THE SUEZ CANAL [Allocated Title]". www.iwm.org.uk.
  70. ^ "OPERATION RHEOSTAT ONE – FLEET CLEARANCE DIVING TEAM AT WORK ON THE WRECK OF THE MECCA [Allocated Title]". www.iwm.org.uk.
  71. ^ "OPERATION RHEOSTAT TWO – THE SUEZ CANAL IS REOPENED [Allocated Title]". www.iwm.org.uk.
  72. ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backissues/1970s/1974/sep74.pdf
  73. ^ "The Stars and Stripes". 1975-06-07. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015.
  74. ^ (Multinational Force and Observers)
  75. ^ Lakshmi, Aiswarya (17 July 2015). "Egypt Completes New Waterway in Suez Canal". MarineLink. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  76. ^ "Egypt completes dredging for new waterway in Suez Canal". Al-Ahram. 16 July 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  77. ^ Knecht, Eric (6 August 2015). "Egypt's Sisi launches nationalist New Suez Canal celebration". Reuters. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  78. ^ "New Suez Canal". Government of Egypt (Suez Canal Authority). Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  79. ^ "Canal Characteristics". Suez Canal Authority. 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
  80. ^ "Characteristics of the canal". Archived from the original on 9 March 2009.
  81. ^ "Navigation Circular "The New Suez Canal" No 5/2015". Suez Canal Authority. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
  82. ^ ""Attached Charts" to Navigation Circular "The New Suez Canal" No 5/2015" (PDF). Suez Canal Authority. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
  83. ^ a b Suez Canal Authority http://www.suezcanal.gov.eg
  84. ^ "Canal Characteristics". Suez Canal Authority. 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  85. ^ Finkl, Charles W.; Pelinovsky, Efim; Cathcart, Richard B. (2012). "A Review of Potential Tsunami Impacts to the Suez Canal". Journal of Coastal Research. 283: 745–759. doi:10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-12A-00002.1. ISSN 0749-0208.
  86. ^ SC News
  87. ^ "Traffic system". Egyptian Maritime Data Bank (EMDB). Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  88. ^ Saleh, Stephen Kalin and Yasmine. "Egypt awards Suez hub project to consortium that includes army: sources".
  89. ^ http://www.suezcanal.gov.eg/sc.aspx?show=69
  90. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (5 August 2014). "Egypt to build new Suez canal" – via www.theguardian.com.
  91. ^ "Egypt launches Suez Canal expansion". BBC News. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  92. ^ "Traffic system".
  93. ^ "Navigation Circular 5/2015".
  94. ^ "Navigation, Convoy System". Suez Canal Authority. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  95. ^ "Kajima History". Kajima. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  96. ^ "Salt-Corroded Tunnel Undergoes Major Renovation". Kajima.co.jp. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  97. ^ "Six tunnels under Suez Canal". Tunnelbuilder. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  98. ^ Liam Stack, Arab countries meet to tackle Somali pirate threatThe Christian Science Monitor (21 November 2008).
  99. ^ Louis Wasser, Somali piracy costs Suez Canal business, San Francisco Chronicle (29 April 2009).
  100. ^ Bowden, Anna et al. The Economic Cost of Maritime Piracy Archived 29 June 2012 at Archive-It page 13. One Earth Future, December 2010. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  101. ^ Overland Mail by Thomas Fletcher Waghorn, Railway Alexandria – Cairo – Suez built by Robert Stephenson
  102. ^ "The Final Frontier: The Northern Sea Route".
  103. ^ "Bye pirates, hello Northeast Passage". AsianCorrespondent.com. 3 January 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  104. ^ "Melting ice cap opens up Northeast Passage to British ships". Daily Mail. 12 September 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  105. ^ "German vessels ready for the Northern Sea Route". BarentsObserver.com. 5 August 2009. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  106. ^ "(In Estonian) Israel builds a railroad between the Mediterranean and the Red sea". E24.ee. 5 February 2012.
  107. ^ Madl, Pierre (1999). Essay about the phenomenon of Lessepsian Migration, Colloquial Meeting of Marine Biology I, Salzburg, April 1999 (revised in Nov. 2001).
  108. ^ Galil and Zenetos (2002)
  109. ^ Britannica (2007)
  110. ^ "Suez Canal Economic Zone". GAFI. Ministry of Investment, Egypt. 6 January 2016.
  111. ^ "Egypt aims to attract $30 bln in investment in Suez Canal Zone within 5 years: Investment minister". Ahram Online. 25 July 2017.
  112. ^ Abdel-Razek, Sherine (4 August 2015). "Canal corridor developments". Al Ahram Weekly.
  113. ^ "Qualifying Industrial Zones". American Chamber of Commerce in Egypt. March 2018.

References

  • Britannica (2007) "Suez Canal", in: The new Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed., 28, Chicago, Ill. ; London : Encyclopædia Britannica, ISBN 1-59339-292-3
  • Farnie, D.A. East and West of Suez: Suez Canal in History, 1854-1956, a stanmdard scholarly history; 870pp
  • Galil, B.S. and Zenetos, A. (2002). "A sea change: exotics in the eastern Mediterranean Sea", in: Leppäkoski, E., Gollasch, S. and Olenin, S. (eds), Invasive aquatic species of Europe : distribution, impacts, and management, Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic, ISBN 1-4020-0837-6, p. 325–336
  • Garrison, Ervan G. (1999) A history of engineering and technology : artful methods, 2nd ed., Boca Raton, Fla. ; London : CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-9810-X
  • Hallberg, Charles W. The Suez Canal: Its History and Diplomatic Importance (1931), a standard scholarly history; 440pp; online
  • Karabell, Zachary (2003) Parting the Desert: The Creation of the Suez Canal, Knopf, ISBN 978-0-375-40883-0
  • Oster, Uwe (2006) Le fabuleux destin des inventions : le canal de Suez, TV documentary produced by ZDF and directed by Axel Engstfeld (Germany)
  • Rathbone, William (1882). Great Britain and the Suez Canal . London: Chapman and Hall, Limited.
  • Sanford, Eva Matthews (1938) The Mediterranean world in ancient times, Ronald series in history, New York : The Ronald Press Company, 618 p.
  • Pudney, John. Suez; De Lesseps' Canal. New York: Praeger, 1969. Print.
  • Wilson, Sir Arnold T. The Suez Canal (1939) online

External links

Coordinates: 30°42′18″N 32°20′39″E / 30.70500°N 32.34417°E

Ferdinand de Lesseps

Ferdinand Marie, Vicomte de Lesseps, GCSI (French: [də lesɛps]; 19 November 1805 – 7 December 1894) was a French diplomat and later developer of the Suez Canal, which in 1869 joined the Mediterranean and Red Seas, substantially reducing sailing distances and times between Europe and East Asia.

He attempted to repeat this success with an effort to build a Panama Canal at sea level during the 1880s, but the project was devastated by epidemics of malaria and yellow fever in the area, as well as beset by financial problems, and the planned de Lesseps Panama Canal was never completed. Eventually, the project was bought out by the United States, which solved the medical problems and changed the design to a non-sea level canal with locks. It was completed in 1914.

Great Bitter Lake

The Great Bitter Lake (Arabic: البحيرة المرة الكبرى‎; transliterated: al-Buhayrah al-Murra al-Kubra) is a saltwater lake in Egypt, connected to the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea via the Suez Canal. It is connected to the Small Bitter Lake (Arabic: البحيرة المرة الصغرى; transliterated: al-Buhayrah al-Murra as-Sughra), through which the canal also runs. Before the canal was built (1869), the site was a dry salt valley or basin. References are made to the Great Bitter Lake in the ancient Pyramid Texts. Ships traveling through the Suez Canal use the Great Bitter Lake as a "passing lane", where they can change their position in line or turn around.

Gulf of Suez

The Gulf of Suez (Arabic: خليج السويس‎, translit. khalīǧ as-suwais; formerly بحر القلزم, baḥar al-qulzum, lit. "Sea of Calm") is a gulf at the northern end of the Red Sea, to the west of the Sinai Peninsula. Situated to the east of the Sinai Peninsula is the smaller Gulf of Aqaba. The gulf was formed within a relatively young but now inactive Gulf of Suez Rift rift basin, dating back about 26 million years. It stretches some 300 kilometres (190 mi) north by northwest, terminating at the Egyptian city of Suez and the entrance to the Suez Canal. Along the mid-line of the gulf is the boundary between Africa and Asia. The entrance of the gulf lies atop the mature Gemsa oil and gas field.

Ismailia

Ismailia (Arabic: الإسماعيلية‎ al-Ismāʻīlīyah Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [lesmæʕiˈlejjæ]) is a city in north-eastern Egypt. Known in Egypt as "The City of Beauty and Enchantment", Ismailia is situated on the west bank of the Suez Canal, it is the capital of the Ismailia Governorate. The city has a population of 366,669 as of 2012 (or approximately 750,000, including surrounding rural areas). It is located approximately halfway between Port Said to the north and Suez to the south. The Canal widens at that point to include Lake Timsah, one of the Bitter Lakes linked by the Canal.

Lessepsian migration

The Lessepsian migration (also called Erythrean invasion) is the migration of marine species across the Suez Canal, usually from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, and more rarely in the opposite direction. When the canal was completed in 1869, fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other marine animals and plants were exposed to an artificial passage between the two naturally separate bodies of water, and cross-contamination was made possible between formerly isolated ecosystems. The phenomenon is still occurring today. It is named after Ferdinand de Lesseps, the French diplomat in charge of the canal's construction.

The migration of invasive species through the Suez Canal from the Indo-Pacific region has been facilitated by many factors, both abiotic and anthropogenic, and presents significant implications for the ecological health and economic stability of the contaminated areas; of particular concern is the fisheries industry in the Eastern Mediterranean. Despite these threats, the phenomenon has allowed scientists to study an invasive event on a large scale in a short period of time, which usually takes hundreds of years in natural conditions.

In a wider context, the term Lessepsian migration is also used to describe any animal migration facilitated by man-made structures, i.e. one which would not have occurred had it not been for the presence of an artificial structure.

Port Fuad

Port Fuad or Port Fouad (Egyptian Arabic: بور فؤاد‎ Borfoʾād or Porfoʾād, IPA: [boɾ.foˈʔæːd, poɾ.foˈʔæːd]) is a city in Port Said Governorate, Egypt. Port Fuad is located in northeastern Egypt at the northwestern-most tip of the Sinai Peninsula, across from the city of Port Said on the Asian side of the Suez Canal. Port Fuad is considered a suburb of Port Said and together they form a metropolitan area of over one million residents, one of only two in the world that spans two continents along with Istanbul, Turkey. Port Fuad has a population of 81,591 (as of 2015).

Port Said

Port Said (Egyptian Arabic: بورسعيد‎ Borsaʿīd or Porsaʿīd) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about 30 kilometres (19 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010). The city was established in 1859 during the building of the Suez Canal.

There are numerous old houses with grand balconies on all floors, giving the city a distinctive look. Port Said's twin city is Port Fuad, which lies on the eastern bank of the canal. The two cities coexist, to the extent that there is hardly any town centre in Port Fuad. The cities are connected by free ferries running all through the day, and together they form a metropolitan area with over a million residents that extends both on the African and the Asian sides of the Suez Canal. The only other metropolitan area in the world that also spans two continents is Istanbul.

Port Said acted as a global city since its establishment and flourished particularly during the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century when it was inhabited by various nationalities and religions. Most of them were from Mediterranean countries, and they coexisted in tolerance, forming a cosmopolitan community. Referring to this fact Rudyard Kipling once said "If you truly wish to find someone you have known and who travels, there are two points on the globe you have but to sit and wait, sooner or later your man will come there: the docks of London and Port Said".

Raid on the Suez Canal

The Raid on the Suez Canal, also known as Actions on the Suez Canal, took place between 26 January and 4 February 1915 after a German-led Ottoman Army force advanced from Southern Palestine to attack the British Empire-protected Suez Canal, before the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I.

Substantial Ottoman forces crossed the Sinai peninsula, but their attack failed mainly because of strongly held defences and alert defenders.

Sinai Peninsula

The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually SY-ny, also SY-nee-eye and US: SY-nay-eye) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia. It is situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, and is a land bridge between Asia and Africa. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1,400,000 people. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates: the South Sinai Governorate and the North Sinai Governorate. Three other governorates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez Governorate on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia Governorate in the center, and Port Said Governorate in the north.

The Sinai Peninsula has been a part of Egypt from the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (c. 3100 BC). This comes in stark contrast to the region north of it, the Levant (present-day territories of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Palestine), which, due largely to its strategic geopolitical location and cultural convergences, has historically been the center of conflict between Egypt and various states of Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. In periods of foreign occupation, the Sinai was, like the rest of Egypt, also occupied and controlled by foreign empires, in more recent history the Ottoman Empire (1517–1867) and the United Kingdom (1882–1956). Israel invaded and occupied Sinai during the Suez Crisis (known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression due to the simultaneous coordinated attack by the UK, France and Israel) of 1956, and during the Six-Day War of 1967. On 6 October 1973, Egypt launched the Yom Kippur War to retake the peninsula, which was unsuccessful. In 1982, as a result of the Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979, Israel withdrew from all of the Sinai Peninsula except the contentious territory of Taba, which was returned after a ruling by a commission of arbitration in 1989.

Today, Sinai has become a tourist destination due to its natural setting, rich coral reefs, and biblical history. Mount Sinai is one of the most religiously significant places in the Abrahamic faiths.

Suez

Suez (Arabic: السويس‎ as-Suways ; Egyptian Arabic: es-Sewēs, el-Sewēs pronounced [esseˈweːs]) is a seaport city (population of about 750,000 as of August 2018) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate. It has three harbours, Adabya, Ain Sukhna and Port Tawfiq, and extensive port facilities. Together they form a metropolitan area.

Railway lines and highways connect the city with Cairo, Port Said, and Ismailia. Suez has a petrochemical plant, and its oil refineries have pipelines carrying the finished product to Cairo, in the flag of the governorate: the blue background refer to the sea, the gear refer to the fact that Suez an industrial governorate, and the flame refer to the petroleum firms in it.

Suez Canal Area Development Project

The Suez Canal Corridor Area Project (Arabic: مشروع تطوير محور قناة السويس‎) is a megaproject in Egypt that was launched on 5 August 2014 by president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. The project's aim is to increase the role of the Suez Canal region in international trading and to develop the three canal cities: Suez, Ismailia, and Port Said.

The project involved building a new city (new Ismailia city), an industrial zone, fish farms, completing the technology valley, building seven new tunnels between Sinai and Ismailia and Port Said, improving five existing ports, and digging a new canal parallel to the Suez Canal. The new canal has increased the canal capacity by allowing ships to sail in both directions at the same time for a greater proportion of the canal. The project transformed the canal cities into an important trading center globally. It also built new centers on the Suez Canal for logistic and ship services.

El-Sisi announced that the New Suez Canal project will operate after a year (instead of three years). The project's authority said that the revenues of the canal will increase from 5 billion dollars to 12.5 billion dollars annually. The new canal channel and the seven tunnels were under construction simultaneously. Construction of the rest of the projects (which include building the city, industrial zone, technology valley, and fish farms) began in February 2015.

The project is also known as "The Great Egyptian Dream" because it will help the economy of Egypt recover after years of unrest and corruption.

The Egyptian Armed Forces participated in the project by helping in designing and digging the canal and the tunnels. It also protects the project's location from terrorists in Sinai.

Suez Canal Authority

Suez Canal Authority (SCA) is a state owned authority which owns, operates and maintains the Suez Canal. It was set up by Egypt to replace the Suez Canal Company in the 1950s which resulted in the Suez Crisis. After the UN intervened, Egypt agreed to pay millions of dollars to shareholders of the nationalized Suez Canal Company.

Suez Canal Bridge

The Mubarak Peace Bridge, also known as the Egyptian-Japanese Friendship Bridge, Al Salam Bridge, or Al Salam Peace Bridge, is a road bridge crossing the Suez Canal at El-Qantara, whose name means "the bridge" in Arabic. The bridge links the continents of Africa and Asia.

Suez Canal Company

The Universal Maritime Suez Canal Company (French: Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, or simply Compagnie de Suez for short) was the corporation that constructed the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869 and operated it until the 1956 Suez Crisis. It was formed by Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1858, and it owned and operated the canal for many years thereafter. Initially, French private investors were the majority of the shareholders, with Egypt also having a significant stake.

When Isma'il Pasha became Wāli of Egypt and Sudan in 1863, he refused to adhere to portions of the concessions to the Canal company made by his predecessor Said. The problem was referred during 1864 to the arbitration of Napoleon III, who awarded £3,800,000 (equivalent to £347 million in 2016) to the company as compensation for the losses they would incur by the changes to the original grant which Ismail demanded. During 1875, a financial crisis forced Isma'il to sell his shares to the government of the United Kingdom for only £3,976,582 (equivalent to £379 million in 2016).The company operated the canal until its nationalization by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1956, which led to the Suez Crisis. In 1962, Egypt made its final payments for the canal to the Universal Suez Ship Canal Company and took full control of the Suez Canal. Today the canal is owned and operated by the Suez Canal Authority.

In 1997, the company merged with Lyonnaise des Eaux to form Suez S.A., which was later merged with Gaz de France on 22 July 2008 to form GDF Suez., which became known as Engie in April, 2015.

Suez Canal University

The Suez Canal University is an Egyptian university serving the Suez Canal area, having its faculties divided among the Suez Canal governorates (Port Said, Suez & Ismailia Governorates). It was established in 1964. It is notable for its non-classic research. It has 48 faculties (16 in Ismaïlia, 13 in Port Said, 10 in Suez and 9 in Arish) with a total number of students reaching 21,325.The University has about 53 special units for research, education and community development.The university also includes number of centers and units which offer different types of services which are:

The Center Of Open Education

Which aim to provide an opportunity of continuing education for anyone who is holding a high school degree or a technical diploma who desires to raise their educational and cultural level and achieve a bachelor's degree grant by the faculties which participates in center's program as well as to give specializations to the bachelor's degree holders who want to have a specialization degrees in the areas which are taught by the Center

Suez Canal University Hospitals

Accredited Suez Canal University Hospitals provides evidence-based health care services that utilize top-notch technologies to serve the Egyptian community

Faculty members and leaders Development Center

which aim to provide continuing professional development opportunities for faculty members and leaders at the university

Information and Communication Technology Center

Which provides all the information about the university and its educational systems and the various details on programs of study various colleges

Suez Canal overhead powerline crossing

The Suez Canal overhead powerline crossing is a major electrical power line built across the Suez Canal in 1998, located near Suez, Egypt. It is designed for two 500 kV circuits.

Because the required clearance over the Suez Canal is 152 metres (499 ft), the overhead line has two 221 metres (725 ft) high pylons (one on either side of the crossing) in spite of its small span width of 600 metres (2,000 ft). The pylons each have four crossarms: three for the conductors and one for catching the conductors in case of an insulator string failure.

Suez Crisis

The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression in the Arab world and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War in Israel, was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The aims were to regain Western control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had just nationalized the canal. After the fighting had started, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. The episode humiliated the United Kingdom and France and strengthened Nasser.On 29 October, Israel invaded the Egyptian Sinai. Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to cease fire, which was ignored. On 5 November, Britain and France landed paratroopers along the Suez Canal. The Egyptian forces were defeated, but they did block the canal to all shipping. It later became clear that the Israeli invasion and the subsequent Anglo-French attack had been planned beforehand by the three countries.

The three allies had attained a number of their military objectives, but the canal was useless. Heavy political pressure from the United States and the USSR led to a withdrawal. U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower had strongly warned Britain not to invade; he threatened serious damage to the British financial system by selling the US government's pound sterling bonds. Historians conclude the crisis "signified the end of Great Britain's role as one of the world's major powers". The Suez Canal was closed from October 1956 until March 1957. Israel fulfilled some of its objectives, such as attaining freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran, which Egypt had blocked to Israeli shipping since 1950.As a result of the conflict, the United Nations created the UNEF Peacekeepers to police the Egyptian–Israeli border, British Prime Minister Anthony Eden resigned, Canadian Minister of External Affairs Lester Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize, and the USSR may have been emboldened to invade Hungary.

Suezmax

"Suezmax" is a naval architecture term for the largest ship measurements capable of transiting the Suez Canal in a laden condition, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. Since the canal has no locks, the only serious limiting factors are draft (maximum depth below waterline), and height because of the Suez Canal Bridge.

Sweet Water Canal

Sweet Water Canal, also known as Fresh Water Canal and currently known as Ismaïlia Canal, is a canal which was dug by thousands of Egyptian fellahin to facilitate the construction of the Suez Canal. The canal travels east-west across Ismailia Governorate.It was dug to provide fresh water to the arid area, from Lake Timsah to Suez and Port Said. The canal facilitated the growth of agriculture settlements along the Suez Canal, and it is particularly important for supplying water to the city of Port Said. Like the Suez Canal, it was designed by French engineers; construction lasted from 1861 until 1863. It runs through the now-dry distributary of the Wadi Tumilat, incorporating portions of an ancient Suez Canal that existed between Old Cairo and the Red Sea.

Suez Canal
km
Mediterranean Sea
W
E
Approaches
(Southward convoy waiting area)
0.0
Port Said
0.0
Port Said
lighthouse, fishing harbour, cruise terminal
Port Said (city), former headquarters
Port Said harbour, Port Fuad (city),
East Port, SCCT container terminal
E-class turning dock
51.5
Ballah (former by-pass)
59.9
Eastern lane: second shipping lane, New Suez Canal[78]
76.5
Lake Timsah
95.0
Deversoir
Great Bitter Lake
Small Bitter Lake
162
Suez, Suez Port
Petroleum Dock, Port Tewfik
Gulf of Suez
(Northward convoy waiting area)
Red Sea


Legend:
Navigable canal
Anchorage
Dock, industrial or logistical area
Village or town, feature
Railroad (defunct) with swing bridge
Suez Canal
Authorities
Cities and ports
Infrastructure
Marine life
History
Egypt Egypt topics
Napoleon's Survey (1798 - 1801)
Planning (1833 - 1859)
Construction (1859 - 1869)

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