Sudetendeutsches Freikorps

Sudetendeutsches Freikorps (Sudeten German Free Corps, also known as the Freikorps Sudetenland, Freikorps Henlein and Sudetendeutsche Legion) was a paramilitary Nazi organization founded on 17 September 1938 in Germany on direct order of Adolf Hitler. The organization was composed mainly of ethnic German citizens of Czechoslovakia with pro-Nazi sympathies who were sheltered, trained and equipped by the German army and who were conducting cross border terrorist operations into Czechoslovak territory from 1938 to 1939. They played an important part in Hitler's successful effort to occupy Czechoslovakia and annex the region known as Sudetenland into the Third Reich under Nazi Germany.[1][2][3][4]

Sudetendeutsches Freikorps was a factual successor to Freiwillinger Schutzdienst, also known as Ordnersgruppe, an organization that had been established by the Sudeten German Party in Czechoslovakia unofficially in 1933 and officially on 17 May 1938, following the example of Sturmabteilung, the original paramilitary wing of the German Nazi Party. Officially being registered as promoter organization, the Freiwillinger Schutzdienst was dissolved on 16 September 1938 by the Czechoslovak authorities due to its implication in large number of criminal and terrorist activities. Many of its members as well as leadership, wanted for arrest by Czechoslovak authorities, had moved to Germany where they became the basis of Sudetendeutsches Freikorps, conducting Freikorps' first cross-border raids into Czechoslovakia only few hours after its official establishment.[5] Due to the smooth transition between the two organizations, similar membership, Nazi Germany's sponsorship and application of the same tactic of cross-border raids, some authors often don't particularly distinguish between the actions of Ordners (i.e. up to 16 September 1938) and Freikorps (i.e. from 17 September 1938).

Relying on the Convention for the Definition of Aggression, Czechoslovak president Edvard Beneš[6] and the government-in-exile[7] later regarded 17 September 1938, the day of establishment of the Sudetendeutsches Freikorps and beginning of its cross-border raids, as the beginning of the undeclared German-Czechoslovak war. This understanding has been assumed also by the contemporary Czech Constitutional court.[8]

Sudeten German Free Corps
Sudetendeutsches Freikorps
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1972-026-51, Anschluss sudetendeutscher Gebiete
Sudetendeutsches Freikorps members
Active1938 to 1939
Country Nazi Germany
AllegianceAdolf Hitler
TypeTerrorist organization
RoleBreak-up of Czechoslovakia
EngagementsUndeclared German-Czechoslovak war
De facto commander Friedrich Köchling
Formal commanderFlag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Konrad Henlein
Vice-commanderFlag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Karl Hermann Frank
Chief of staffFlag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Anton Pfrogner


Czech districts with an ethnic German population in 1934 of 25% or more (pink), 50% or more (red), and 75 % or more (dark red)[9] in 1935

From 1918 to 1938, after the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, more than 3 million ethnic Germans were living in the Czech part of the newly created state of Czechoslovakia.

In 1933, as Adolf Hitler assumed power in Germany, Sudeten German pro-Nazi leader Konrad Henlein founded Sudeten German Party (SdP) that served as the branch of the Nazi Party for the Sudetenland.[10] By 1935, the SdP was the second largest political party in Czechoslovakia.[10] Shortly after the anschluss of Austria to Germany, Henlein met with Hitler in Berlin on 28 March 1938, where he was instructed to raise demands unacceptable to the Czechoslovak government led by president Edvard Beneš. On 24 April, the SdP issued a series of demands upon the government of Czechoslovakia, that were known as the Carlsbad Program. [11] Among the demands, Henlein demanded autonomy for Germans living in Czechoslovakia.[10] The Czechoslovakian government responded by saying that it was willing to provide more minority rights to the German minority but it refused to grant them autonomy.[10]

By June 1938, the party had over 1.3 million members, i.e. 40.6% of ethnic-German citizens of Czechoslovakia (40% of that women). During last free democratic elections before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the May 1938 communal elections, the party gained 88% of ethnic-German votes, taking over control of most municipal authorities in the Czech borderland. The country's mass membership made it one of the largest fascist parties in Europe at the time.[12]

The first major crisis took place in May 1938 after partial Czechoslovak army mobilization. Activities of pro-Nazi ethnic Germans in the area led to large flight of ethnic-Czech civilians and especially Jews. Hitler's increasing threats of attacking Czechoslovakia led to full mobilization on 22 September 1938. Many ethnic-Germans refused to follow the Czechoslovak army mobilization order and either ran across the border to Germany and joined Freikorps, continuing cross border raids from there, or established Grün Freikorps units which were operating from Czechoslovak forests, receiving arms and equipment from Germany, and continuing raids against Czechoslovak authorities, Jews and Czechs, up until the German occupation of the Czechoslovak border areas following the Munich agreement.

Ordnersgruppe, Freiwilliger Schutzdienst

Freiwilliger Schutzdienst
Karl Hermann Frank, FS's vice-Führer who was receiving orders directly from Hitler
Active17 May 1938 to 16 September 1938
Country Czechoslovakia
Allegiance Germany
TypeTerrorist organization
RoleBreak-up of Czechoslovakia
FührerFlag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Konrad Henlein
Vice-FührerFlag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Karl Hermann Frank
SecretaryFlag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Fritz Köllner
Chief of staffFlag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Willi Brandner

Forming of the organization

Immediately after establishing the Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront (later Sudeten German Party, SdP) in 1933, the party started forming its informal Ordnungsdienst (Order Service, its members called in German Ordners) which was officially supposed to preserve order during meetings and assemblies of the party and protect it against its political adversaries. In reality, however, these were from the beginning attack squads with potentially terrorist assignments,[13] following the example of Sturmabteilung (a.k.a. "Brown shirts" or "Storm Troopers"), the original paramilitary wing of the German Nazi Party.[5] More systematic build-up of the paramilitary wing started before the 1935 elections, when the SdP's leadership decided that each local SdP organization should establish its own squad of Ordners.[14]

On 14 May 1938, the Ordnersgruppe was formally transformed into new official organization called the Freiwilliger Schutzdienst (FS) which was openly built up following the example of the Nazi Sturmabteilung.[15] SdP's chief Konrad Henlein was the Schutzdienst's Führer, with Fritz Köllner becoming its secretary and Willi Brandner the chief of staff, also responsible for the buildup of squad groups. By 17 May 1938, the date of the organization's official registration, Schutzdienst had over 15.000 members.[15]

Schutzdienst started a wide recruitment program in June 1938. Its members were divided into three categories:[15]

  • Category A: The most trusted and physically capable members that were supposed to carry out the duty of guardians of "inner purity" of the SdP. The Category A was composed of the so-called "surveillance departments" and was directly subordinate to the SdP. Apart from functions within the organization, its members were also collecting information on political opponents and conducting military espionage.[15]
  • Category B: Wider selection of members. Its members were trained for propaganda activities and for conducting terrorist and sabotage assaults.[15]
  • Category C: Mostly older members of FS, mainly former soldiers with World War I front line experience. Their main task was providing training to the B category members as well as being the FS's reserve force.[15]

FS squads were being built up as militias with local, district and regional formations and central staff. FS further created special squads: communication, medical and rear. FS's squad leaders were trained directly by Nazi Sturmabteilung in Germany.[15]

FS became instrumental for the psychological warfare of the operation Fall Grün, smuggling weapons through "green border" from Germany, conducting various provocations of Czechoslovak armed forces and provocations on the borderline with Germany.[16]

Attempted putsch

Bergmann MP18.1
Bergmann MP18. Ordners were supplied with a large number of sub-machineguns provided by, and smuggled from, Germany
Sudeten German Party Putsch
Part of German occupation of Czechoslovakia
Date10–15 September 1938
Result Putsch quashed, SdP & SF banned and dissolved

Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Sudeten German Party

  • Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Freiwilliger Schutzdienst
Commanders and leaders
  • Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Konrad Henlein
  • Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Karl Hermann Frank
  • Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Fritz Köllner
  • Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Willi Brandner
Czechoslovakia Milan Hodža
Casualties and losses
10 dead, over dozen wounded over 23 dead, over 60 wounded
Violence led large number of Jews, Czechs and anti-fascist Germans to flee from borderlands further to inland Czechoslovakia. Following restoration of order by Czechoslovak authorities, tens of thousands of pro-Nazi ethnic Germans fled to Germany to avoid either arrest or Czechoslovak army mobilization order.

German Nazi Party was convening its 10th congress between 5–12 September 1938 in Nuremberg, where it was expected that Hitler will make clear his further plans as regards Czechoslovakia. FS squads were kept in state of high alert, ready to conduct any orders that may come from "higher up". On 10 September 1938, all FS district headquarters received order to start large scale demonstrations, which escalated to a number of wounded members of Czechoslovak law enforcement as well as FS members in numerous cities already the next day.[17] FS Vice-Führer Karl Hermann Frank was in direct contact with Hitler, receiving instructions for the following days.[18]

Immediately after the highly anticipated Hitler's final speech on 12 September 1938, in which Hitler claimed to take care of German interests "under any circumstances" and to "prevent creation of second Palestine in the heart of Europe where the poor Arabs are defenseless and abandoned, while Germans in Czechoslovakia are not defenseless, nor abandoned", FS initiated widespread violence in the whole borderland.[18] In Cheb alone, K.H.Frank's hometown, ethnic-German mob plundered 38 Czech and Jewish shops.[18] Other main targets included buildings of the German Social Democratic Party and Czechoslovak authorities, including schools.[18] FS conducted over 70 armed assaults against Czechoslovak authorities and assaulted also selected Czechs and ethnic-German anti-fascists.[18] Czechoslovak law enforcement was meanwhile ordered not to intervene in order not to further fuel up Hitler's propaganda.[18]

As it became clear that SdP was attempting to push the Czechoslovak authorities out of the towns in borderland and replace them with own governance, and with rising death toll that included, inter alia, murder of four Gendarme officers by FS in Habartov, the Czechoslovak government responded by declaring martial law in 13 worst struck districts and by dispatching military.[19] Major assaults on Czechoslovak law enforcement as well as military continued throughout 14 September 1938, with the last one taking place on 15 September in Bublava.[19] Altogether, the violence led to 13 dead and numerous injuries on 12–13 September and culminated with 23 dead (13 Czechoslovak authorities personnel, 10 ethnic Germans) and 75 seriously wounded (of that 14 ethnic Germans) on 14 September, however the attempted putsch was thwarted.[19]

On 14 September 1938, SdP's leadership ran across border to Selb, Germany, where K.H. Frank unsuccessfully demanded immediate military intervention from Hitler.[20] The leadership's flight had chilling effect on the FS members, especially those that had taken part in the violence and now feared criminal prosecution. On 15 September 1938, German radio broadcast Henlein's speech, who was purportedly speaking live from in Czechoslovakia.[20] By this time, the SdP's flight to Germany had become public knowledge and according to the then German ambassador in Prague, instead of stimulating SdP's members to further actions, it led to a serious rift in its ranks.[20]

On 16 September 1938, Czechoslovak authorities banned and dissolved SdP as well as FS. Large number of its functionaries as well as members that were wanted for arrest in connection with the preceding violence fled to Germany, while a number of town mayors elected for SdP compelled FS members to keep calm and expressed their support to the commanders of Gendarme stations situated in their towns.[20]

1. máj 1938 v Liberci 2

SdP's assembly on 1 May 1938 in Liberec

K.H. Frank na sjezdu Sudetoněmecké strany 24.4.1938

K.H.Frank speaking during 1938 SdP congress

Pohřeb padlých českých obětí

Funeral of Czech victims in Sokolov, including 4 Gendarme officers murdered in Habartov

Sudetoněmecký puč, Aš - září 1938

Main street in Aš, where SdP's leadership met on 13 September 1938 before fleeing to Germany

Čs. vojáci v Krásné Lípě

Czechoslovak soldiers patrolling in Česká Lípa



Teroristická akce sudetoněmeckého Freikorpsu
A 1938 Freikorps action

Czechoslovakia conducted partial mobilization in May 1938. Many young ethnic-Germans didn't follow the mobilization order and deserted across the border to Germany instead. Thousands more fled as they were receiving mobilization orders after 12 September 1938.[21] Wehrmacht first initiated a plan of including Czechoslovak ethnic-Germans of 20–35 years of age, who had previously undergone military training in the Czechoslovak army, into its own ranks.[22] This was however abandoned as soon as Hitler ordered the establishment of the Sudetendeutsches Freikorps on 17 September 1938.[22] Konrad Henlein was formally named the Freikorp's commanding officer, with Wehrmacht's liaison officer lieutenant colonel Friedrich Köchling, previously serving as liaison officer at Hitler Jugend, being Freikorp's de facto commander.[22] The official purpose of Freikorps, as stated in telegram to the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, was the "protection of Sudeten Germans and maintaining further unrest and armed clashes."[23] Wehrmacht was further instructed to conceal its cooperation with Freikorps due to "political reasons".[23]

The Freikorp's ranks were filling up rather fast. It had 10,000-15,000 members by 20 September 1938, 26,000 members by 22 September 1938, with many more deserters coming after the general Czechoslovak mobilization that took place on 23 September 1938[24] and reaching 41.000 by 2 October 1938.[25] Apart from Konrad Henlein, its leadership consisted of K.H.Frank (vice-commander in chief), Hans Blaschek (2nd vice-commander in chief), until-then SdP's senator Anton Pfrogner (chief of staff).[24] Freikorp's headquarters was situated in a castle near Bayreuth, Germany.[24] Freikorp's was divided into 4 groups alongside the whole German-Czechoslovak border. Groups were further divided into battalions and companies. Depending on the border length and local conditions, there were also sometimes "sections" as an interstage between the battalion and companies.[26]

Group Reorganized Staff Details Position Commanding officer
Group 1 Silesia Group 5 Lower Silesia
Group 6 Wroclaw
Wroclaw 11 battalions, 6,851 members (27 September 1938) From Racibórz to Zittau SA-Logo.svg Fritz Köllner
Group 2 Sachsen Group 4 Sachsen
Dresden 8 battalions, 7,615 members (27 September 1938)
14 battalions, 13,264 members (1 October 1938)
From Zittau to Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Franz May
Group 3 Bavaria Ostmark Bayreuth 7 battalions, 5,999 members (27 September 1938) From to Bayerisch Eisenstein SA-Logo.svg Willi Brandner
Group 4 Alps and Danuber Group 1 Vienna
Group 2 Linz
Vienna 9 battalions, 7,798 members (29 September 1938) From Bayerisch Eisenstein to Poysdorf Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Friedrich Bürger
I swear by Almighty God, that as a fighter of the Freikorps, I am aware of my duties and I pledge steadfast allegiance to Adolf Hitler until my death. I swear I shall be brave and loyal fighter of the Freikorps, that I shall be obedient to my superiors and that I shall fulfill all of my duties
— Freikorps Oath[27]

Companies had 150-200 men each and were stationed in German towns and villages along the German-Czech border, each of them being fully equipped for independent cross border raids and assaults.[28] Although the official directive allowed only ethnic-Germans with Czechoslovak citizenship to be part of the Freikorps, due to low number of officers among the deserters their places were filled with members of Nazi Sturmabteilung.[28] SA was further providing training, material support and equipment to Freikorps.[28] All members were getting regular pay for their service.[28] Most members did not have any standardized uniform and were only distinguished by armband with swastika.[29] Formally, they were not part of Wehrmacht and were prohibited from wearing Wehrmacht uniforms.[30]

Members of Freikorps were trained and hosted in Nazi Germany[31] but operated across the border in Czechoslovakia attacking the infrastructure, administrative, police and military buildings and personnel, as well as the pro-government and antifascist ethnic-German civilians, Jews, Jewish owned businesses and ethnic Czech civilians. They committed assassinations, robberies and bombing attacks, retreating over the border to Germany when faced with serious opposition. They murdered more than 110 and abducted to Germany more than 2000 Czechoslovak personnel, political opponents or their family members.[32]

Intelligence service

Freikorps also had its own intelligence service, established on 19 September 1938 with headquarters in Selb, Germany. It was headed by Richard Lammel. The intelligence was gathering information for Freikorps as well as for Abwehr, Sicherheitsdienst (SD) and Gestapo.

Green Cadres

Many ethnic-Germans who deserted after receiving mobilization order didn't go across the border to Germany, but rather established own guerrilla units. Operating from forests in Czechoslovakia, they received name the Green Cadres, sometimes being referred to as Green Freikorps, although they were not officially incorporated as part of German Freikorps.


In order to conceal the level of cooperation between Wehrmacht and Freikorps, the original orders stated that Freikorps should be armed only with weapons from warehouses of the former Austrian army.[23] This however led to delays in arming of Freikorps and became outright impossible as regards ammunition and explosives, which were being delivered from Wehrmacht's own supplies.[29] Most common weapons were Mannlicher 1895 8×56 Msch., K98k 8×56 JS, pistols P08 9mm Parabellum, Bergmann machine guns and sub-machine guns and German hand grenades. Due to the initial Czechoslovak orders forbidding use of firearms apart from self-defense, Freikorps also captured Czechoslovak weapons, mostly vz.24 rifles and vz.26 machine guns.

Meanwhile, the Green Cadres as well as other ordners that didn't join Freikorps were armed with variety of hunting rifles and shotguns, pistols, as well as large number of sub-machine guns that had been previously supplied by Germany to the Ordnersgruppe/Freiwilliger Schutzdienst. Scoped hunting rifles in hands of skilled ordners proved especially deadly.

Czechoslovak security forces

Following the Remilitarization of the Rhineland, Czechoslovak authorities came to the conclusion that any future war would most probably take place by a sudden attack without formal declaration of war. At the time, protection of borders was mostly vested into the authority of the Customs Administration (also called Financial Police), which was controlling the border crossings and collecting customs duties, while Gendarme officers were taking care of general law enforcement mainly within towns. This was deemed insufficient as the Customs Administration could merely enforce the custom duties and general order at border crossings, but not security along the whole border.[19] In 1936, the State Defense Guard was established. Normally, SDG would function only in a very limited way necessary to ensure full readiness of its structure (under authority of Ministry of Interior), with its ranks being filled up with personnel in case of emergency (under military command). Its main task was protecting the Czechoslovak border and it was supposed to be able to immediately close and defend the border for the time that would be necessary for the army to reach the attacked areas in full combat readiness. Initially, the State Defense Guard was composed of selected members of Customs Administration, Gendarme and State Police, but later its ranks were filled also with reliable civilians. In case of any unrest, its squads were further boosted by army soldiers. State Defense Guard included also ethnic-Germans that were deemed loyal to Czechoslovak state (mostly Social Democrats and communists). The State Defense Guard has thus became the main target of the Freikorps' activities.

Up to 22 September 1938 the Czechoslovak security forces were under general orders not to use their firearms apart from self-defense.

Republikanische Wehr

Republikanische Wehr was Czechoslovak ethnic-German anti-fascists militia with several thousand members. Known also as Rote Wehr (Red Defense), its members also took part in the fights, supporting the Czechoslovak authorities. Several of its members were killed by the Nazi forces during the clashes, with thousands more being interned in concentration camps following the Munich Agreement and occupation of Czechoslovakia.

Undeclared German–Czechoslovak War

Undeclared German–Czechoslovak war
Part of German occupation of Czechoslovakia
Pochod Freikorpsu v Hazlové u Aše 1938

Marching Freikorps unit
Date17 September – early October 1938
Result Military: Czechoslovak Army deployment mostly restored order.
Political: Appeasement through the Munich Agreement.
Strategical: German occupation of Czechoslovak borderland


Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Sudeten German Party

  • Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Grüne Cadres


Commanders and leaders
  • Friedrich Köchling
  • Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Konrad Henlein
  • Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Karl Hermann Frank
  • Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Fritz Köllner
  • Flag of the Sudets (without CoA).Svg Willi Brandner
Casualties and losses


  • Killed: 52
  • Wounded: 65
  • Missing in action: 19
Other: Unknown

Armed forces:

  • Killed: 110
  • Wounded: 50
  • Abducted: 2029 (including railway employees, postal workers, judges, other functionaries and their family members)
Civilians: Unknown (both volunteers as well as innocent victims of Freikorps terror)
Violence led large number of Jews, Czechs and anti-fascist Germans to flee from borderlands further to inland Czechoslovakia. Assaults continued also after Czechoslovakia ceded the borderlands to Germany.

Freikorps number accroding to official Freikorps closing report, real tally probably much higher.

The first Freikorps assaults took place already in the night from 17 to 18 September 1938 in the area of . Other major Freikorps assaults included, inter alia:

18 September 1938

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
Unknown number of Freikorps members Several Customs officers
Municipality of Aš
A large number of Freikorps members surrounded customs house about 100 meters within Czechoslovak territory during the night of 18 to 19 September. The building was under intense fire from firearms as well as hand grenades. Czechoslovak Policemen fired a flare to signal distress to other Czechoslovak units and barricaded themselves. They did not return fire outside of the building in order to prevent any possible accusation of Czechoslovak forces shooting across the border to Germany.[33]
2 Customs officers seriously wounded
Bílá Voda Unknown number of Freikorps members Several Gendarme officers, several Customs officers
Jeseník District
Customs house in Bílá Voda, which was located directly on the Czech–German border, had been targeted by gun fire from Germany since 18 September. Its personnel was ordered not to return any fire over the border towards Germany and was allowed to retreat only in the afternoon of 22 September, when it joined the local SDG squad in its attempt to get further inland (see below).[34]
1 Gendarme officer seriously wounded

19 September 1938

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
Český Heršták Unknown number of Freikorps members SDG Squad
Český Krumlov District
SDG Squad No. 16 dug a trench near railway line 700 meters from the German border. Freikorps charged their position but failed, losing one. Then, Freikorps carried out sporadic gunfire from beyond the German border with the knowledge that SDG is under orders not to return fire into German territory. Customs officer Ladislav Krch was hit and seriously wounded. SDG Squad laid covering fire into the German territory in order to enable Krch's transport towards hospital.[35]
1 Customs Officer serious wounded

1 Freikorps member dead
Horní Malá Úpa
  • Unknown number of Freikorps members
  • SA-Logo.svg SA men[36][37]
Customs house
  • several Gendarme officers
  • several Customs officers
Trutnov District
Burned out Customs house in Horn Malá Úpa
Freikorps attacked customs house in Horní Malá Úpa in the evening of 19 September 1938. The building was burned to the ground. Several wounded officers managed to retreat. Two Gendarme officers were captured and abducted to Germany. Constable Eduard Šíma was killed and his body was also abducted to Germany.[34]
1 Gendarme officer killed
Several officers wounded
2 Czechoslovak state official abducted and interned in a prison in Hirschberg, Germany
District Ústí nad Orlicí
Assault on SDG squad
Rychnůvka 8 members of Freikorps SDG Motorcycle messenger
Český Krumlov District
Freikorps designated the Chief of local Gendarme station Jan Trněný as a "Dangerous Czech" and targeted him for assassination. Trněný was supposed to be delivering messages to forward SDG Squads during the evening of 19 September. Unbeknown to Freikorps, Trněný was swapped by Gendarme officer Antonín Měsíček. Měsíček was well liked by local German population and received warning about possible Freikorps assault, however, decided to carry on with his orders. Měsíček was ambushed while on road in the woods leading back to his home station in Rychnůvka with rifle fire and grenades. Freikorps ran away after SDG Squad that was nearby fired a flare when they heard the gunfire. Měsíček died in hospital the next day. Back in Germany, Freikorps member Franz Bayer was awarded 200 Reichsmarks for killing Měsíček.[35]
Gendarme Officer Antonín Měsíček killed
Starostín Unknown number of Freikorps members Several Customs officers
Náchod District
A large number of Freikorps members surrounded customs house in Starostín. With heavy machine gun and rifle fire, they managed to get directly to the building, however they fled after the Policemen used several hand grenades.[34]
2 Customs officers seriously wounded
Znojmo Up to 300 Freikorps members Customs Administration
Znojmo District
Železná Ruda
Klatovy District
Assault on customs house

20 September 1938

On 20 September 1938, Freikorps headquarters issued Order No. 6 signed by Henlein.[38] According to the order, each of the groups was supposed to undertake at least 10 major raids into Czechoslovak before morning of 21 September.[38] The order further specified that Freikorps shall take no regard to any aversion to the armed assaults that it had previously encountered from some ethnic-German civilians.[39] Moreover, each group was ordered to establish its own intelligence staff that would be providing information to the center in Selb.[39] In line with the order, Freikorps attacks increased both in their frequency as well as brutality.[14]

21 September 1938

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
  • Crowd of several hundred ethnic Germans
  • unknown number of Freikorps members
50 members of Czechoslovak State Police and local police force
Municipality of Aš
The city of Aš borders with Germany from three sides and had only two main access roads from inland Czechoslovakia. Heads of local state authorities were advised that they shall not receive further reinforcements from inland, however at the same time they were ordered to hold their posts. On the evening of 21 September, the Chief of local State Police station was summoned to a meeting held by the head of the Aš District, an ethnic German. The meeting was attended by a number of Sudeten German Party officials, who requested that the policemen lay down their firearms and hand the area over to the SDP party. The Chief refused and returned to the station. Soon after a mob of people broke down the main gate leading to the station's courtyard and apprehended the Chief. The rest of the policemen, still being under general order not to use firearms (which were changed only the following day) surrendered.

Meanwhile, Freikorps took over also local gendarme station after they threatened to set the station ablaze with hand grenades.[40]
50 policemen abducted and interned in a concentration camp in Germany
Police Chief abducted and imprisoned by Gestapo in Nuremberk
Bartulovice Unknown number of Freikorps members State Defense Guard
  • 10 members of Customs Administration
  • 5 soldiers
  • 2 Gendarme officers
Bruntál District
About 30 Freikorps members and other local ethnic-German citizens came to the customs house in Bartulovice, demanding the SDG members to hand over the building as well as their weapons. SDG chief first wanted to request orders from his superiors, however the local post office, where the telephone switchboard was situated, had already been occupied by the Freikorps. The SDG decided to retreat from the municipality fully armed, passing a truck full of heavily armed Freikorps members from neighboring Jiříkov without incident. One Customs officer remained in the building unarmed in order to formally resist occupation of the building by the Freikorps. After doing so, Freikorps abducted him to Germany where he was interned in a concentration camp. Rest of the SDG unit continued its retreat on foot through the woods towards Holčovice, which they reached some 15 hours later and where they regrouped with other 10 SDG units that had retreated under similar circumstances.[41]
1 Czechoslovak state official abducted and interned in a concentration camp in Germany
Habartice Unknown number of Freikorps members
SA-Logo.svg SA officer leading the assault
State Defense Guard squad (18 members)
Liberec District
On 20 September 1938, SDG members stationed in the border crossing station in the town Habartice observed maneuvers of German army units taking place over the border in Germany, leading them to fortify the building with sandbags and boarding. In the evening, electricity supply was shut off on both sides of the border. SDG further observed that several trucks arrived at 10 PM on the German side of the border. Germans started crossing border bridge at about 3 AM on 21 September 1938 and mounted 4 attack waves with 30-40 men each against the SDG building, using not only firearms, but also hand grenades and dynamite. Freikorps set off explosives which led to collapse of the entire front wall of the building; the rest however remained standing. SDG successfully defended the building, also using 36 hand grenades. SDG squad chief had also called for reinforcements, however the soldiers had to dismount their truck after being targeted by machine guns shooting over the border from Germany. The soldiers reached Habartice by crawling in ditches in the morning only after the attack had been repelled. SDG suffered 4 seriously wounded servicemen, one of them permanently losing eyesight. During the day after the night fight, Czechoslovak SDG members and army soldiers ostentatiously played volleyball right on the border line, some of them with bandages covering their wounds.[42][43]
4 SDG members seriously wounded

3 dead, 16 wounded assailants
Nové Vilémovice Unknown number of Freikorps members 8 Customs officers
Jeseník District
A large number of Freikorps members surrounded building of Customs Administration in Nové Vilémovice. Six officers that were inside surrendered without a shot. After this, Freikorps tried to capture another two officers that were on a patrol on the town's outskirt. A shootout ensued, in which one officer was killed while the other managed to retreat through forest. Perpetrators buried the victim's body in a secret location and then ran over the border to Germany to avoid arrest by Czechoslovak authorities. The perpetrators were not found and the court proceedings that took place in 1945 didn't lead to any convictions.[44]
1 Customs officer killed
Assault on customs house
Wies (Cheb)
Cheb District
Assault on customs house

22 September 1938

On the night of 21 September 1938, German radio broadcast a false information that Czechoslovakia agreed to cede its border areas to Germany. Next day, most ethnic-German majority towns were full of German Nazi flags and Hitler's portraits, while Freikorps and ethnic-German mobs unleashed a wave of attacks against state authorities and non-German civilians.[45]

On 22 September, Adolf Hitler gave orders to provide Freikorps also with German weaponry, ammunition and equipment (until that moment, Freikorps were to be armed only with weapons that Germany obtained with Anschluss of Austria).[46]

Czechoslovak forces' order not to use firearms except in self-defense was called off during the day.

By 24 September 1938, Freikorps conducted over 300 raids against Czechoslovak authorities.

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
Bartošovice v Orlických horách Unknown number of Freikorps members Customs house
  • 2 customs officers
  • 6 soldiers
District Rychnov nad Kněžnou
During the night from 22 to 23 September, Freikorps attacked a customs house located in the border town Bartošovice with heavy machinegun fire and grenades. Reinforcements sent to the customs house found themselves also under heavy fire and unable to reach it. During the fourth consecutive assault wave, the custom's house roof caught fire and started collapsing. All Czechoslovak personnel managed to retreat without any loss of life.[47]
Customs house burned to the ground.
Bernartice Unknown number of Freikorps members
  • 15 members of State Defense Guard
  • 5 Gendarme officers
Jeseník District
Freikorps members ambushed a 15 members of SDG and 5 members of Gendarme in Bernartice. The soldiers and policemen were disarmed and abducted to Germany where they were interned by local authorities in a concentration camp.[48]
20 Czechoslovak state officials abducted and interned in a concentration camp in Germany.
Bílá Voda Unknown number of Freikorps members State Defense Guard squad
Jeseník District
State Defense guard house in Bílá Voda, which was located directly on the Czech–German border, had been under fire since 18 September. The personnel received orders to retreat in the afternoon of 22 September. Retreating squad was ambushed by Freikorps. A part of the squad broke through, however 15 members of SDG were captured by the ethnic-German terrorists, disarmed and abducted to Germany where they were interned by local authorities in a concentration camp.[49]
15 Czechoslovak state officials abducted and interned in a concentration camp in Germany.
Cetviny 150 Freikorps members
  • Gendarme officers
  • SDG Squad
Český Krumlov District
About 150 Freikorps members crossed border river Malše and ambushed Gendarme and SDG Squad in Cetviny; entire squad was kidnapped to Germany. Meanwhile, SDG Squad that was stationed in the vicinity heard the gunfire and sent two members to scout the situation. One of them, Václav Klimeš, was shot dead and other seriously wounded and kidnapped to Germany.

Czechoslovak forces recaptured the area after heavy fights in the following days. Considering it too vulnerable, it was then left without permanent presence.[50]

Several Czechoslovak officials wounded and kidnapped to Germany
Černá brána ner Varnsdorf 70 Freikorps Members SDG Squad
SDG squad stationed in mountain cabin on the borderline outside of Varnsdorf assaulted at 6AM with grenades and rifle fire.[51] Assault on Varnsdord undertaken later at 10AM (see below).
Two wounded soldiers
Černá Voda ethnic-German mob
  • 2 Customs officers
  • 4 Gendarme officers
Jeseník District
2 members of the Customs Administration were being lynched by ethnic-German pro-Nazi mob in Černá Voda. When four members of Gendarme intervened, members of Freikorps opened fire from hunting rifles, pistols and a light machine gun. Two members of Freikorps were wounded in the skirmish.[48]
2 Customs officers lynched

2 Freikorps members shot and wounded
Dolní Podluží
Děčín District
After 2PM, SDG Squad No. 76 was retreating from border town Varnsdorf which was overran by pro-Nazi German ethnic mob and where was stationed also another SDG Squad, whose leader collaborated with Nazis and ordered its members to surrender weapons to Freikorps. The squad stopped close to a gas pump in Dolní Podluží, with three customs officers driving to it to fill their motorbikes and others establishing a defensive position nearby. While pumping gas, they were ambushed by Freikorps. In the ensuing gunfight, customs officers Václav Kozel and Jan Teichman were shot dead and customs officer Miroslav Bernard was severally wounded and kidnapped to Germany. Gas pump owner Rudolf Stelzig was also shot and died. The gunfight continued until SDG Squad 77 reached the place and covered 76's retreat. Both squads retreated to Czechoslovak Army defense post in Nová Huť.
Memorial to Jan Teichman and Josef Kozel
2 customs officers killed
1 customs officer wounded and kidnapped
1 civilian killed

Unknown number of Freikorps members

2 infantry fighting vehicles with crews

Liberec District
Freikorps occupied SDG headquarters and other strategic buildings in the town Frýdlant and hanged out Nazi swastika flags on a large number of buildings in the town. Czechoslovak army dispatched two infantry fighting vehicles with crews from Liberec. After arriving in the town, the soldiers announced that they would consider every building and person with a swastika as a hostile one, Freikorps packed the flags and withdrew from the town.[42]
Freikorp's attempt to take over town thwarted by mere army presence.

Unknown number of Freikorps members

2 unarmed civilians
Liberec District
Freikorps occupied part of municipality of Heřmanice. Local SDG unit was stationed on a hill overlooking the municipality, secured its position and did not further intervene in the municipality itself. Generally, the control over the municipality was unclear with Freikorps occupying part lying further away from SDG and no mutual engagement. Two civilians loyal to Czechoslovak state, teacher from Frýdlant school Mr. Otakar Kodeš and ethnic-German communist Mr. Perner decided to inquire what is the actual situation in Heřmanice. On the road leading to Heřmanice, they passed SDG patrol that unsuccessfully recommended them not to continue into Freikorps controlled territory. Shortly after passing the SDG patrol, they were both shot. Mr. Kodeš was shot dead, while wounded Mr. Perner was abducted to Germany. Mr. Perner, Czechoslovak citizen, was taken to Dresden, Germany, where he was tried and convicted for treason. Mr. Perner was interned in a concentration camp, not surviving through the war. Mr. Kodeš' murderer was found, tried, sentenced and hanged in 1947.[42]
1 civilian murdered, 1 civilian abducted, interned and murdered in a concentration camp in Germany
Heřmánkovice 60 Freikorps members SDG squad
Náchod District
Freikorps attacked local SDG squad at 7PM. Attempt to take the town over failed.[52]
Attempt to take town over thwarted.
Hnanice 200 Freikorps members Custom House
  • 8 Customs Officers
  • 5 soldiers
Znojmo District
Freikorps attacked customs house in Hnanice early in the morning. While their first wave failed, Czechoslovak officers retreated during the second attack without sustaining any losses. Later, two SDG squads recaptured the customs house after heavy fighting, only to lose it again on 26 September. SDG Squad leader Otmar Chlup killed in action.[53]
1 dead, several wounded SDG members
24 dead, 37 wounded Freikorps members
Hrádek nad Nisou 200 Freikorps members SDG Station
Liberec District
During the evening, some 200 Freikorps members started attack on a local assembly hall that was being used as an SDG station. The gunfight lasted for five hours and ended up with Freikorps retreat.[54]
two dead, about 50 wounded Freikorps members
Javorník 100+ members of Freikorps State Defense Guard
  • 11 members of Customs Administration
  • 2 soldiers
  • several Gendarme officers
Jeseník District
A State Defense Guard squad that was retreating further inland. When they reached outskirt of Javorník, a group of Freikorps members offered them safe passage. While passing through the town, the squad was ambushed. The Czechoslovak servicemen were disarmed and abducted to Germany where they were interned by local authorities in the concentration camp in Patschkau (apart from two who were released and one who escaped during transport).[55] Apart from soldiers, Freikorps abducted also a district court Judge and his clerk, who were too taken to the concentration camp in Patschkau.[56]
15 Czechoslovak state officials abducted and interned in a concentration camp in Germany.
Libná (town doesn't exist today)


Horní Adršpach
Unknown number of Freikorps SDG
Náchod District
Freikorps attacked customs house in border town Libná. SDG Squad leader Robert Jokl was wounded and abducted to Germany, while the rest of the squad was forced to retreat further inland. Being severally outnumberes, other SDG squads were forced to retreat from nearby municipalities of Zdoňov and Horní Adršpach. All units met at hamlet Krčnov, were they established a new point of defense. Later in the evening SDG was reinforced by 9th Company of 48th Infantry Regiment with two armored vehicles and took control of all of the three towns; while retreating to Germany, Freikorps set the customs house in Libná on fire, burning it to the ground. Czechoslovak units in the area were facing further attacks until being ordered to retreat on 28 September.[52]
Several wounded

SDG officer wounded and abducted to Germany

customs house burned to the ground
  • 150-180 ethnic German mob
  • Unknown number of Freikorps members
6 Gendarme officers
Bruntál District
Murdered Gendarme officer Vítězslav Hofírek
A mob of 150-180 ethnic-Germans, unknown number of them being Freikorps members armed with sub-machine guns supplied from Germany, surrounded Gendarme station in Liptaň. Freikorps overran the station, with three Germans being killed in the process. All six wounded policemen were dragged out and lynched by the mob to death. Their bodies were transported over the border to German town Lischwitz where they were buried in an unmarked mass grave.[57]

The victims (Rudolf Mokrý, František Čech, Inocenc Dostál, Václav Hofírek, Vilém Lehel, Ludvík Svoboda) were later exhumed and ceremonially buried in Czechoslovakia after World War II. The main persons that directed the attack on station were never captured (although having been identified), however three other Germans that took part in the attack were arrested, tried and executed by hanging after the war.[57]

6 Gendarme officers lynched to death

3 assailants killed
Malonty Several dozen Freikorps members Several members of Gendarme
Český Krumlov District
Local Gendarme station was facing heavy gunfire. All officers successfully retreated further inland.[54]
Retreat of local Gendarme
Mikulovice Unknown number of Freikorps members State Defense Guard squad
Náchod District
Freikorps members ambushed a SDG squad in Mikulovice. The servicemen were disarmed and forced to wait for a train to Germany at a local train station. Meanwhile, a train going in opposite direction was passing through the station and the soldiers hopped on it before the Freikorps could stop them. The squad got to Jeseník and engaged Freikorps in numerous firefights in the following days, arresting five.[48]
5 Freikorps members arrested.
Studánky (Vyšší Brod) Freikorps Customs Administration
Český Krumlov District
Takeover of Customs house[54]
Vápenná - Supíkovice - Rejvíz Unknown number of Freikorps members Gendarme
Jeseník District
After Freikorps overran the town of Javorník (see above), local Gendarmerie supported by some of the soldiers that managed to retreat from Javorník, established a new defense posts on the line between municipalities of Vápenná - Supíkovice - Rejvíz. Gendarme officers were repeatedly attacked by Freikorps, with six ending up wounded and one killed in action in the following days.[58]
1 Gendarme officer killed in action, 6 wounded
Varnsdorf Several hundred Freikorps members Several dozen SDG members
Customs house on the border in Varnsdorf was attacked at 2AM with several hand grenades, however, attackers immediately retreated behind the border.

At 10AM a train led by SdP's Czechoslovak Parliament member Franz Werner and full of Freikorps crossed the border. Freikorps took over the train station and captured six soldiers and several railway workers. After some negotiations, SDG squads stationed in the town started retreating inland. One SDG leader collaborated with the enemy and ordered his unit to surrender firearms.

There was an army unit with three tanks stationed in nearby Rumburk, however, they were ordered not to relieve SDG in Varnsdorf. At 5PM, the army unit also left Rumburk and retreated further inland.[59]

Varnsdorf retaken by army the following day (see below)
Town taken over by Freikorps

Unknown number of Freikorps members

  • 2 Gendarme officers
  • State Defense Guard squad
Jeseník District
A large mob of Czechoslovak ethnic-Germans that had previously left to Germany came to the border crossing in the town Vidnava carrying Nazi swastika banners. Among them was a number of Freikorps members, who used the commotion and got right to the two Gendarme officers on duty and disarmed them. The mob released the two officers and continued towards the town center. After briefing the two disarmed Gendarme officers, SDG squad leader Josef Novák contacted the town's mayor, an ethnic-German Göbel, who promised that he will negotiate return of the Gendarme's firearms. Officers Novák and Pospíšil left SDG station and went towards the town center, now in hands of Freikorps. There, they were both immediately attacked and lynched to death. Before dying, Pospíšil tossed away a hand grenade, wounding several assailants. Later that day Freikorps members lynched to death also an ethnic-German communist Fitz. Groups of heavily armed Freikorps started taking over the whole town. Remaining SDG members and Gendarme officers decided to lay covering fire and evacuate several civilians as well as themselves towards train station. There they fortified several wagons and drove away. Meanwhile, however, Freikorps blocked the railway line leading to the next train station in Velká Kraš and took positions in a school building overlooking the line. After the train stopped before the blockage just in front of the school, Freikorps opened fire from rifles and started tossing hand grenades. The train occupants ran away from the building and train towards fields, leaving behind one dead civilian and two wounded SDG members and several wounded civilians, who were captured by Freikorps and delivered to Germany. There they were first treated and later released. The rest managed to get away and under constant covering fire reached the train station in Velká Kraš. Here, Freikorps leader Latzel first persisted that the SDG personnel must surrender. The SDG squad, now consisting of 13 seriously wounded and a few light wounded members, refused and stated intent to either get further inland or die trying. Freikorps then let the seriously wounded be taken on a train with expelled Czech-ethnic civilians bound for Jeseník while the few remaining SDG members left on foot through woods to Zighartice. In Jeseník hospital, ethnic-German doctors with swastika pins on their lapels refused to treat the seriously wounded SDG members, only after one of the SDG members threatened to discharge hand grenades they received treatment.[60]
2 SDG members lynched to death
2 civilians murdered
15 seriously wounded SDG members
several seriously wounded civilians
Zlaté Hory
  • ethnic-German mob of several hundred
  • several dozens Freikorps members
  • two trucks with unmarked heavily armed men from Germany proper
10 Gendarme officers
Jeseník District
Mob of several hundred ethnic-Germans and several dozens Freikorps members, who were placing women and children in front of them, surrounded Gendarme station in Zlaté Hory and demanded surrender of the officers. After arrival of two trucks with unmarked armed men from Germany proper, the officers surrendered and were abducted to Germany, where they were held first in prison in Glatz (now Kłodzko in Poland), later in a concentration camp in Dresden[57]
10 Czechoslovak state officials abducted and interned in a concentration camp in Germany.

23 September 1938

Freikorps leadership ordered to consider captured Czechs as prisoners of war, and those that can prove they are Slovaks and Hungarians as refugees.[63]

At 11AM, Czechoslovak authorities declared they are unable to exercise its authority in two border districts (Osoblaha and Jindřichov).[63]

Meanwhile, Czechoslovak army started recapturing areas in and around Varnsdorf, from which SDG squads retreated in the previous days.[63]

At 22:30, Czechoslovakia declared full army mobilization and full stationing of Czechoslovak border fortifications.[63]

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
Srbská Unknown number of Freikorps members Customs Administration (5 officers)
State Defense Guard (12 members)
Liberec District
Already on 9 September, German customs house on the other side of the border had its windows facing Czechoslovakia boarded up, leaving only small visors for shooting. On 23 September 1938 at 11 PM, two ethnic-Germans entered the Czechoslovak customs house in order to be cleared to pass the border to Germany. While Customs officer Václav Čep was dealing with necessary formalities, not facing the two Germans, one of them shot him from point blank into temple. At the same moment the other German opened fire on two Customs officers present in the room, instantly killing officer Josef Vojta and mortally wounding officer Bohumil Hošek (shot in the back). As the two Germans ran across border to Germany, other assailants opened machine gun fire, forcing two remaining Customs officers (not present in the room at the time of shooting) to withdraw to another building in the municipality held by SDG squad. 3 SDG members were killed in subsequent gunfight.[42]
3 Customs officers murdered
3 SDG servicemen killed in action
Krásná Lípa
Freikorps Czechoslovak army
  • 1st Battalion of 47th Infantry Regiment
  • emergency platoons of 47th Infantry Regiment
  • tank platoon
  • armored train
At 6AM, Czechoslovak units started moving forward from the border fortifications around Varnsdorf and recapturing territory from which SDG left the previous day. By 10AM the army started assault on Krásná Lípa and Varnsdorf. Both were taken by 5PM without any soldiers lost. Army captured a number of Freikorps members that didn't manage to retreat to Germany as well as large stockpiles of arms and ammunition.[25]
Šluknov Hook recaptured.

24 September 1938

Freikorps leadership gave out an order that Freikorps fighting units must compel ethnic German mayors of Czechoslovak border towns to send telegraphs to the Führer asking for immediate German intervention. The order specifically mentioned that telegrams must reach Hitler before his planned meeting with Chamberlain, and at the same time they shall be sent in a manner that does not connect them back to Freikorps nor does it raise suspicion of concerted action.[64]

Czechoslovak full army mobilization had a chilling effect on Freikorps membership and led to a lower number of attacks.[64] As the Czechoslovak forces started retaking territory lost in previous days, retreating Freikorps were looting public buildings and "confiscating" money and valuables from bank vaults.[64]

German Army (Wehrmacht) was given sole authority over German border areas with Czechoslovakia. This led to quarrels between Freikorps lower officers and Wehrmacht officers over the actual line of command. Freikorps was ordered to conduct raids over the border only after briefing respective local leader of German border guard.[64]

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
Brandov 8 Freikorps 2 State policemen
2 State policemen on a motorbike with a sidecar were patrolling the area around local branch of Česká zbrojovka small arms maker when they were ambushed by 8 Freikorps members. Driver Václav Staňek was shot in the backbone and immobilized, while Josef Hřích remained lying on the ground. As Freikorps emerged from their cover and approached the scene, Hřích unholstered his pistol and started shooting, wounding two. Staňek later died in hospital while Freikorps retreated over the border to Germany with their wounded.[65]

Heavy fight over the factory started few days later, see below
1 policeman killed

2 Freikorps members wounded
Bruntál Unknown number of Freikorps members State Defense Guard
  • 10 District office clerks
  • 2 State Police officers
  • 8 Gendarme officers
  • 15 army soldiers
  • 5 army officers
  • 35 Gendarme cadets
Bruntál District
State Defense Guard units in Bruntál and surrounding areas have been under sporadic attacks since May 1938. The frequency of assaults rose up in September and culminated between 24 and 26 September. The main attack started on noon of 24 September and continued through the night with Freikorps members shooting from buildings as well as rooftops. The next day authorities found 1 dead and 8 severely wounded Freikorps members, as well as a large number of others' pools of blood. The large scale battle led many civilians to leave the town while authorities declared martial law. Fight broke out also next evening and continued throughout whole night. SDG members resorted to defending own buildings and swept town next morning, finding large number of blood pools but no bodies or wounded Freikorps members. In the following nights the SDG sent most of its personnels patrolling streets and no other fights broke out. In total, 6 SDG members were wounded. Number of Freikorps casualties remained unknown but was presumed to be as high as 80, which was the death-toll that Freikorps sustained in a similar size assault that was taking place meanwhile in Krnov and which matched the number of large bloodpools that were found in the mornings following the night fights.[44]
6 SDG members seriously wounded

1 dead, 8 wounded Freikorps members confirmed, up to 80 Freikorps casualties unconfirmed

25 September 1938

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
Libá (Aš District)
  • 700 Freikorps members & armed civilians (mainly WW1 veterans)
  • 160-180 Flag of the Schutzstaffel.svg SS soldiers with light canons
  • State Defense Guard squad (30 members) with 2 light tanks
  • several armed civilians (mainly young German Social Democratic Party members)
Municipality of Libá within the Aš District
After taking control of Aš during the night of 21 to 22 September (see above), SdP started executing control over the territory of Aš District, blocking main roads from inland Czechoslovakia and pushing further inland as far as the municipality of Libá. Freikorps push inland was stopped at a hamlet two kilometers from Libá and the line of contact stabilized at this place for a few days with sporadic exchanges of rifle fire. During the afternoon of 25 September, two light tanks of the SDG squad drove forward in order to test the enemy's strength. An exchange of fire ensued and the light tanks started retreating. Germans on foot engaged the tanks with machinegun fire and hand grenades, with no effect. As the tanks retreated back to the hamlet, Germans took cover in haystacks in its vicinity. Severe exchange of gunfire continued until the haystacks were set on fire and Germans forced to retreat.[40]

Severity of the skirmish led to panic in SdP ranks which requested reinforcements from Germany: SdP reported that they have mere 700 armed men (Freikorps sent from Germany and civilians, mainly members of WW1 veterans association) at their disposal and that they will not be able to hold in case of counterattack. Two SS companies were sent from Germany and replaced Freikorps at the point of contact. The line remained stable with continuous exchanges of rifle and machinegun fire until the evening of 28 September when SDG squad was ordered to retreat. The hamlet was taken over by SS on 29 September[40]

The hamlet was severally damaged in the fighting and immediately used by German propaganda as an example of "Czech terror against German civilians".[40]
Several wounded SDG members

Several German casualties

26 September 1938

Adolf Hitler ordered Freikorps to conduct more assaults. The number of assaults became higher than in previous days, but didn't reach the intensity of 21–22 September.[66]

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
Javorník (Jeseník District)
  • Flag of the Schutzstaffel.svg SS
  • Freikorps
Jeseník District
A large number of SS and Freikorps crossed border into the town of Javorník and its vicinity. SDG units present retreated inland towards border fortification line without fight.
Javorník area under German control.

27 September 1938

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
Brandov 200 Freikorps SDG
200 well armed Freikorps members crossed border into Brandov and assaulted local SDG unit. SDG briefly retreated, however after receiving reinforcements pushed Freikorps out of the town.

Freikorps recaptured the entire town as well as local small arms factory the next day, only to be pushed back again by SDG on 29 September.[65]
8 soldiers seriously wounded, 1 captured and beaten to death by Freikorps (private Michal Vimi, 2nd Unit of 1st Battalion of 28th Regiment)

15 dead and 25 wounded Freikorps members
Rychnůvka Unknown number of Freikorps SDG Squad
Český Krumlov District
Freikorps attempted to seize the town, starting assault during midnight change of SDG shifts. Heavy exchange of rifle and machinegun fire and use of a large number of grenades by both sides. Freikorps retreated to Germany before morning, leaving behind several pools of blood.[35]
Several wounded SDG members

Several wounded or dead Freikorps members

28 September 1938

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
Horní Lomany

(now part of Františkovy Lázně)
Unknown number of Freikorps members Customs patrol

SDG squad
Františkovy Lázně
The line of contact at the area had been stable for several days with Freikorps controlling municipality of Házlov by the German border and Czechoslovak authorities controlling municipality of Horní Lomany lying between Házlov and first major Czechoslovak town, Františkovy lázně. On 28 September at 2 AM, a motorbike with two men drove towards Czechoslovak fortified checkpoint by the railway tracks near Horní Lomany. The men were shouting in broken Czech: "Don't shoot, we are German Social Democrats, we are your friends." Customs officer Rudolf Josiek left the barricade to talk to them, was ambushed and shot dead. Both perpetrators, Freikorps members, managed to escape.[67]

The same day in the evening, Freikorps opened fire from Házlov towards a position of SDG in Horní Lomany. SDG squad carried out assault against the enemy in an infantry fighting vehicle, killing two Freikorps members before retreating back to original position.[67]
1 Customs officer ambushed and killed

2 Freikorps members killed
Lísková Monument in Dolní Podluží commemorating Josef Röhrich, member of the Czechoslovak Customs Administration, killed by the Germans on 28 September 1938 (Plzeň Region, Czech Republic).
Memorial to Josef Röhrich
1 Customs officer killed
Načetín (Kalek) 60 Freikorps members 3 SDG members
Chomutov District
SDG patrol consisting of two Customs officers (Dostál, Trojan) and one soldier (private Novák) was attacked by a large group of Freikorps. SDG, armed with rifles and one light machinegun, defended their position and seriously wounded 14 Freikorps members, two of them later died. By the time 7 other members of SDG came to relieve them, Freikorps were already retreating with their wounded.
12 Freikorps wounded, 2 dead

29 September 1938

Place Assailants Assaulted Details Outcome
Pohraničí (Reizenhain) Large number of Freikorps SDG Squad (23 members)
Chomutov District
SDG Squad (armed with rifles, hand grenades, and one light machinegun) established a defensive post in the woods next to the municipal graveyard and sent 4 members to patrol near a train stop by the border. Shortly after midnight, several dozen members of Freikorps attacked the patrol by the train stop. The patrol was relieved by the rest of the SDG and pushed the Freikorps behind the border, only to face even more of them shortly afterward. Facing heavy machinegun fire and being several times outnumbered, SDG retreated further inland without losses. The next day SDG recaptured the area with help of army reinforcements that included three tanks.[68]
Several wounded Freikorps members
Načetín (Kalek) Freikorps 3 SDG members
Chomutov District
Undeterred by the losses of previous day (see above), Freikorps again attacked SDG patrol. This time, Freikorps were armed also with machineguns. Patrol held their ground until the arrival of an infantry fighting vehicle, which forced Freikorps to retreat.
Freikorps pushed back

30 September 1938

Following the signing of the Munich Agreement, Freikorps leadership gave orders to seize cross-border assaults.[69] At the same time, Hitler decided that Freikorps shall be subordinate to SS Command, and not to Wehrmacht as were his previous orders. Freikorps were supposed to conduct police powers within the territory of occupied Czechoslovakia.[69]

According to a final report of Friedrich Köchling, officially Wehrmacht's liaison officer to Freikorps but its de facto leader up to 4 October 1938, Freikorps had killed 110 people, wounded 50 and kidnapped 2,029 to Germany. The report lists 164 successful and 75 unsuccessful operations that lead to 52 fatalities, 65 seriously wounded and 19 lost members of Freikorps.[70]

From 7 October 1938, Freikorps was headquartered in a former Czechoslovak Bank building in Cheb. On 10 October 1938 Freikorps was officially disbanded.[71]

As Freikorps operations involved a large scale looting and "borrowing" in its area of operation, aggrieved parties were given up to 15 November 1938 to request damages from newly established German authorities in the occupied area. Court cases dealing with these claims were running as far as 1942.[71]

Criminal liability


Being aware that Freikorps actions involved a large-scale criminal activity, Adolf Hitler issued a decree on 7 June 1939, according to which all of the actions that were criminal under Czech law shall be considered lawful under German law, and those that were criminal under German law were pardoned.[72]


Majority of Freikorps members were formally Czechoslovak army deserters (especially after the full army mobilization order of 23 September) and their mere membership in Freikorps was punishable by life imprisonment under Czechoslovak act No. 50/1923, on the protection of the Republic. Meanwhile, their active participation in crossborder raids which included murders, attempted murders and kidnapping was punishable by death under the 1852 Criminal Code.[73]

The vast majority of the perpetrators avoided justice through the postwar Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia.[72]

Individual cases were decided by a Special Tribunal set up in the city of Cheb. The Tribunal decided 62 cases, last on 29 October 1948. 10 Freikorps members were sentenced to death (of which 6 were carried out), 16 to life imprisonment, 5 to 30 years imprisonment, 10 to 25 years imprisonment and 16 to 20 years imprisonment. The majority were however released and expelled to Germany already in 1955, which was the year in which Czechoslovakia officially declared the end of the war with Germany that started on 17 September 1938 with first Freikorps crossborder operations.[72]

Brandenburg Division

Based on the successful utilization of Freikorps' tactics against Czechoslovakia and in psychological warfare against Czechoslovak allies, Abwehr later in September 1939 established the so-called "1st Construction Training Company for special purposes" (1. Baulehr-Kompanie Brandeburg z.b.V.) that had former Freikorps members as their core. This later rose to the size of division. The division was known for large scale use of tactics that involved its soldiers wearing enemy uniforms, conducting saboteur actions behind enemy lines and a large number of war crimes.[74]


  1. ^ Munich, 1938: Appeasement and World War II By David Faber page 316 "His chosen method was the establishment of the Sudeten German Freikorps, a terrorist organization which brought together and armed all those Sudeten Germans who had fled Czechoslovakia for Germany"
  2. ^ The Surreal Reich - Page 144 Joseph Howard Tyson 2010 Political agitator Konrad Henlein, with the collusion of Nazi secret service agencies, engaged in terrorism against Prague's government. Over one hundred of his Freikorps irregulars had been killed in two-hundred-some “commando raids
  3. ^ Czechoslovakia between Stalin and Hitler - Page 212 Igor Lukes 1996 The party's specialists in low-level warfare, the Sudetendeutsches Freikorps, were among those who eagerly awaited an opportunity to attack. 14 They had been trained in the art of terrorism by Wehrmacht, SS, and SA instructors
  4. ^ Canaris: The Life and Death of Hitler's Spymaster - Page 134 Michael Mueller 2007 to guarantee the protection of the Sudeten Germans and maintain the unrest and disturbances; terror squads were to be formed from the Freikorps's sub-unit to create constant unrest in the border region
  5. ^ a b "Finanční stráž na Jesenicku během sudetoněmeckého povstání v roce 1938", Martin Ivan, Jesenicko v roce 1938, retrieved 13 September 2015
  6. ^ President Beneš' declaration made on 16 December 1941
  7. ^ Note of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile dated 22 February 1944
  8. ^ Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic (1997), Ruling No. II. ÚS 307/97 (in Czech), Brno Check date values in: |accessdate= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help) Stran interpretace "kdy země vede válku", obsažené v čl. I Úmluvy o naturalizaci mezi Československem a Spojenými státy, publikované pod č. 169/1929 Sb. za účelem zjištění, zda je splněna podmínka státního občanství dle restitučních předpisů, Ústavní soud vychází z již v roce 1933 vypracované definice agrese Společnosti národů, která byla převzata do londýnské Úmluvy o agresi (CONVENITION DE DEFINITION DE L'AGRESSION), uzavřené dne 4. 7. 1933 Československem, dle které není třeba válku vyhlašovat (čl. II bod 2) a dle které je třeba za útočníka považovat ten stát, který první poskytne podporu ozbrojeným tlupám, jež se utvoří na jeho území a jež vpadnou na území druhého státu (čl. II bod 5). V souladu s nótou londýnské vlády ze dne 22. 2. 1944, navazující na prohlášení prezidenta republiky ze dne 16. 12. 1941 dle § 64 odst. 1 bod 3 tehdejší Ústavy, a v souladu s citovaným čl. II bod 5 má Ústavní soud za to, že dnem, kdy nastal stav války, a to s Německem, je den 17. 9. 1938, neboť tento den na pokyn Hitlera došlo k utvoření "Sudetoněmeckého svobodného sboru" (Freikorps) z uprchnuvších vůdců Henleinovy strany a několik málo hodin poté už tito vpadli na československé území ozbrojeni německými zbraněmi.
  9. ^ Statistický lexikon obcí v Republice československé I. Země česká. Prague. 1934.
    Statistický lexikon obcí v Republice československé II. Země moravskoslezská. Prague. 1935.
  10. ^ a b c d Eleanor L. Turk. The History of Germany. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Press, 1999. ISBN 9780313302749. Pp. 123.
  11. ^ Noakes & Pridham 2010, pp. 100–101, Vol. 3.
  12. ^ Hruška, Emil (2013), Boj o pohraničí: Sudetoněmecký Freikorps v roce 1938 (1st ed.), Prague: Nakladatelství epocha, Pražská vydavatelská společnost, p. 11
  13. ^ Hruška, Emil (2013), Boj o pohraničí: Sudetoněmecký Freikorps v roce 1938 (1st ed.), Prague: Nakladatelství epocha, Pražská vydavatelská společnost, p. 9
  14. ^ a b Hruška, p. 12
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Hruška, p. 13
  16. ^ Hruška, p. 14
  17. ^ Hruška, p. 14
  18. ^ a b c d e f Hruška, p. 15
  19. ^ a b c d Hruška, p. 17
  20. ^ a b c d Hruška, p. 30
  21. ^ Hruška, p. 33
  22. ^ a b c Hruška, p. 34
  23. ^ a b c Hruška, p. 35
  24. ^ a b c Hruška, p. 37
  25. ^ a b Hruška, p. 73
  26. ^ Hruška, p. 38
  27. ^ Hruška, p. 37
  28. ^ a b c d Hruška, p. 42
  29. ^ a b Hruška, p. 43
  30. ^ Hruška, p. 44
  31. ^ Lukeš, I (1996) Czechoslovakia between Stalin and Hitler, The Diplomacy of Edvard Beneš in the 1930s, Oxford University Press, P212
  32. ^ Zimmermann, Volker: 'Die Sudetendeutschen im NS-Staat. Politik und Stimmung der Bevölkerung im Reichsgau Sudetenland (1938-1945). Essen 1999. (ISBN 3884747703)
  33. ^ Hruška, pages 44-5.
  34. ^ a b c Hruška, page 47.
  35. ^ a b c, TRIMA CB Advertisement,. "Horký podzim 1938 v jihočeském pohraničí – 4. část". Budějcká Drbna - zprávy z Českých Budějovic a jižních Čech (in Czech). Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  36. ^
  37. ^ "Stráž obrany státu při obraně republiky 1938-1939". Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  38. ^ a b Hruška, p. 47
  39. ^ a b Hruška, p. 48
  40. ^ a b c d Hruška, p. 58-61
  41. ^ Procházka, pages 78-80.
  42. ^ a b c d "Příhraniční incidenty na Frýdlantsku v září 1938", Jiří Dub, Vá, retrieved 16 October 2004
  43. ^ Hruška, p. 49
  44. ^ a b Procházka, pages 39-41.
  45. ^ Procházka, pages 44.
  46. ^ Hruška, p. 68
  47. ^ Havelka, Ladislav. "Útok na celní úřad v Bartošovicích; 22. září 1938". (in Czech). Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  48. ^ a b c Procházka, pages 13.
  49. ^ Procházka, pages 14.
  50. ^
  51. ^ Hruška, p. 71
  52. ^ a b František VAŠEK, Diverzní a psychologické operace II. oddělení Abwehru v severovýchodních Čechách a severozápadní Moravě 1936 – 1939, část II., s. 56, Historie okupovaného pohraničí 2, Univerzita Jana Evangelisty Purkyně Ústí nad Labem, 1998.
  53. ^ Hruška, p. 70
  54. ^ a b c d Hruška, p. 70
  55. ^ Procházka, Petr (2007), Příběhy z pohraničí (1st ed.), Jeseník: Hnutí Brontosaurus Jeseníky, p. 13
  56. ^ Procházka, Petr (2007), Příběhy z pohraničí (1st ed.), Jeseník: Hnutí Brontosaurus Jeseníky, pp. 17–19
  57. ^ a b c Procházka, pages 35-38.
  58. ^ Procházka, pages 20-22.
  59. ^ Hruška, p. 71
  60. ^ Procházka, pages 60-67.
  61. ^ a b c Erik Goldstein, Igor Lukes (1999), The Munich Crisis, 1938: Prelude to World War II, New York, p. 122, retrieved 18 September 2018
  62. ^ Jesenský, Marcel, The Slovak–Polish Border, 1918-1947, retrieved 18 September 2018
  63. ^ a b c d Hruška, p. 72
  64. ^ a b c d Hruška, p. 74
  65. ^ a b
  66. ^ Hruška, p. 77
  67. ^ a b Hruška, p. 64
  68. ^ Hruška, p. 80
  69. ^ a b Hruška, p. 81
  70. ^ Hruška, p. 95
  71. ^ a b Hruška, p. 96
  72. ^ a b c Hruška, p. 102
  73. ^ Hruška, p. 101
  74. ^ Hruška, p. 100
Army of the Czech Republic

The Army of the Czech Republic (Czech: Armáda České republiky, AČR), also known as the Czech Army or Czech Armed Forces, is the military service responsible for the defence of the Czech Republic in compliance with international obligations and treaties on collective defence. It is also set to support peacekeeping, rescue and humanitarian operations both within the national territory and abroad. Armed Forces consist of the General Staff, the Land Forces, the Air Force and support units.From the late 1940s to 1989, the extensive Czechoslovak People's Army (about 200,000) formed one of the pillars of the Warsaw Pact military alliance. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic is completing a major reorganisation and reduction of the armed forces, which intensified after the Czech Republic joined NATO on 12 March 1999.As defined by the Czech Law No. 219/1999 Coll., the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (Czech: ozbrojené síly České republiky) are the military forces of the Czech Republic. They consist of the Army of the Czech Republic, the Military Office of President of the Republic and the Castle Guard.

Fall Grün (Czechoslovakia)

Fall Grün (German for Case Green) was a German plan for an aggressive war against Czechoslovakia before World War II. Some of the plan's psychological warfare and use of paramilitary actions were carried out, but the planned open war failed to occur because of the Munich Agreement.


Freikorps (German: [ˈfʁaɪˌkoːɐ̯], "Free Corps") were German military volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality. In German-speaking countries, the first so-called Freikorps ("free regiments", German: Freie Regimenter) were formed in the 18th century from native volunteers, enemy renegades and deserters. These sometimes exotically equipped units served as infantry and cavalry (or more rarely as artillery), sometimes in just company strength, sometimes in formations up to several thousand strong; there were also various mixed formations or legions. The Prussian von Kleist Freikorps included infantry, jäger, dragoons and hussars. The French Volontaires de Saxe combined uhlans and dragoons.

In the aftermath of World War I and during the German Revolution of 1918–19, Freikorps consisting largely of World War I veterans were raised as right-wing paramilitary militias, ostensibly to fight on behalf of the government against the Soviet-backed German Communists attempting to overthrow the Weimar Republic. However, the Freikorps also largely despised the Republic and were involved in assassinations of its supporters.


Habartov (German: Habersbirk) is a small town in the Czech Republic.

History of Czechoslovakia

With the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy at the end of World War I, the independent country of Czechoslovakia (Czech, Slovak: Československo) was formed as a result of the critical intervention of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, among others.

The Czechs and Slovaks were not at the same level of economic and technological development, but the freedom and opportunity found in an independent Czechoslovakia enabled them to make strides toward overcoming these inequalities. However, the gap between cultures was never fully bridged, and this discrepancy played a disruptive role throughout the seventy-five years of the union.

History of Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)

The First Czechoslovak Republic emerged from the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in October 1918. The new state consisted mostly of territories inhabited by Czechs and Slovaks, but also included areas containing majority populations of other nationalities, particularly Germans (22,95 %), Hungarians (5,47 %) and Ruthenians (3,39 %). The new state comprised the total of Bohemia whose borders did not coincide with the language border between German and Czech. Despite initially developing effective representative institutions alongside a successful economy, the deteriorating international economic situation in the 1930s gave rise to growing ethnic tensions. The dispute between the Czech and German populations, fanned by the rise of National Socialism in neighbouring Germany, resulted in the loss of territory under the terms of the Munich Agreement and subsequent events in the autumn of 1938, bringing about the end of the First Republic.

Index of World War II articles (S)

S-1 Uranium Committee




S. A. Ayer

S. J. Warmington

S.L.A. Marshall

S.S. Doomtrooper

S.S. Pink Star

Sławomir Maciej Bittner

Sōkichi Takagi

Sōsaku Suzuki

Søren Kam

S1 Scout Car

Sa vz. 58

Saar Offensive

Sabine Ulibarrí

Sabine Zlatin

Saboteur (2008 video game)

Sabu Dastagir

Saburō Kurusu

Saburo Sakai

Sachsenburg (concentration camp)

Sachsenhausen concentration camp

Sackville Pelham, 5th Earl of Yarborough

Sacramento Mather Airport

Sacred Band (World War II)

Sadae Inoue

Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes

Sadako Kurihara

Sadako Sasaki

Sadamichi Kajioka

Sadao Araki

Sadao Munemori

Sadatoshi Tomioka

Sadayoshi Yamada

Sadeq Hedayat

Safeguarding Military Information

Saga (singer)

Saga of the Franklin

Sahara (1943 American film)


Said bin Taimur

Sailor of the King


Saint-Ambroise (Paris Métro)

Saint-Augustin (Paris Métro)

Saint-Augustin Church (Paris)

Saint-Denis - Université (Paris Métro)

Saint-Fargeau (Paris Métro)

Saint-François-Xavier (Paris Métro)

Saint-Georges (Paris Métro)

Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris Métro)


Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois

Saint-Jacques (Paris Métro)

Saint-Jacques Tower


Saint-Lazare (Paris Métro)


Saint-Louis-en-l'Île Church

Saint-Mandé (Paris Métro)

Saint-Marcel (Paris Métro)


Saint-Michel (Paris Métro)


Saint-Paul (Paris Métro)

Saint-Philippe du Roule (Paris Métro)

Saint-Placide (Paris Métro)

Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse (Paris RER)

Saint-Sulpice (Paris Métro)

Saint-Sébastien - Froissart (Paris Métro)

Saint-Séverin (Paris)

Saint-Vincent-de-Paul church, Paris

Saint-Vincent Cemetery

Saint-George Ashe

Saint Julien Memorial

Saint Pierre de Montmartre



Saints and Soldiers

Saints Innocents Cemetery

Saitō Makoto

Saitō Takao

Sajmište concentration camp

Sakae Oba

Sakhalin Koreans

Sakuma Samata


Salah Assad

Salamaua-Lae campaign

Salerno landings

Salerno Mutiny

Salim Jay

Salinas Municipal Airport

Salinas Sports Complex

Salle du Manège

Sally-Anne Stapleford

Sally B

Salmon-class submarine

Salo Landau

Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch

Salome Zourabichvili

Salomon Gluck

Salomon Isacovici

Salomon James de Rothschild

Salomon Olembé

Salon (Paris)

Salon d'Automne

Salon Kitty

Salote Tupou III of Tonga

Salpa Line

Saltash Passage

Salute to the Marines

Salvador Bacarisse

Salvatore John Cavallaro

Salvatore Scarpitta

Salvatore Tripoli


Sam Barry

Sam Chapman

Sam Dalrymple

Sam Davis Presley

Sam Dente

Sam Edwards (physicist)

Sam Ferris

Sam Francis (American football)

Sam Gibbons

Sam Goldman

Sam Kydd

Sam Walton

Sam West

Samisdat Publishers

Sammy Davis, Jr.

Sammy Traoré

Samochód pancerny wz. 29

Samochód pancerny wz. 34

Samson (1961 Polish film)

Samson Siasia

Samuel A. Goldblith

Samuel Abraham Goudsmit

Samuel Adams (naval officer)

Samuel Adler (composer)

Samuel B. Griffith

Samuel B. Roberts

Samuel Beckett

Samuel Bing

Samuel Bowers

Samuel C. Phillips

Samuel Chappuzeau

Samuel T. Cohen

Samuel D. Sturgis, Jr.

Samuel D. Waksal

Samuel David Dealey

Samuel E. Anderson

Samuel Fuller

Samuel G. Fuqua

Samuel Glasstone

Samuel Hahnemann

Samuel Jaskilka

Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita

Samuel Kahanamoku

Samuel King Allison

Samuel L. Gravely, Jr.

Samuel Meekosha

Samuel Murray Robinson

Samuel Pearson Goddard, Jr.

Samuel Ramos

Samuel Sharman

Samuel Stockton Miles

Samuel Underhill

Samuel V. Wilson

Samuel Vance (sport shooter)

Samuel W. Koster

San Andreas (novel)

San Marcos Army Air Field

Sandakan Death Marches

Sandro Pertini

Sands of Iwo Jima

Sandweiler German war cemetery

Sandy Jack

Sandy Pearson

Saneyoshi Yasuzumi

Saneyuki Akiyama

Sangamon-class escort carrier

Sankt Georgen an der Gusen

Sannō Shrine

Sano Tsuneha

Sansei Japanese American

Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre

Santa Ana Army Air Base

Santa Anita Park

Santa Maria al Bagno

Santa Maria Public Airport

Santiago Amat

Santos-Dumont 14-bis

Santos Urdinarán

Sapper army

Sara Payne Hayden

Sara Yorke Stevenson

Sarah Bernhardt

Sarah Monette

Sarah Churchill (daughter of Winston Churchill)

Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport

Sarath Amunugama


Sargent Shriver

Sargo-class submarine

Sark during the German occupation of the Channel Islands

Sarmiza Bilcescu

Sarny Fortified Area

Sasebo Naval Arsenal

Sasha Fillipov

Sat Okh

Satō Tetsutarō

Satchel charge

Satsuma-class battleship

Sauer 38H

Saul Amarel

Saul Friedländer

Saul Zaentz

Saunders-Roe SR.A/1

Saunders-Roe Lerwick


Sava Kovačević (Yugoslav partisan)


Savić Marković Štedimlija

Saving Private Ryan

Saving the Port

Savitri Devi

Savoia-Marchetti heavy fighter prototypes

Savoia-Marchetti S.74

Savoia-Marchetti S.83

Savoia-Marchetti SM.73

Savoia-Marchetti SM.79

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 operational history

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 propulsion

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81

Savoia-Marchetti SM.82

Savoia-Marchetti SM.89

SB2A Buccaneer

SB2C Helldiver

SB2U Vindicator

SBD Dauntless

SC convoys

SC Seahawk

SC250 bomb

Scalphunter (Marvel Comics)

Scammell Pioneer Semi-trailer

Scammell Pioneer

Scarlat Callimachi (communist activist)

Schalburg Corps

Schalburg Cross


Scharnhorst-class battleship

Schiller International University

Schindler's List


Schlachtgeschwader 2

Schloss Hartheim





Schofield tank

Schola Cantorum

Schrödinger (Hellsing)

Schräge Musik

Schutzstaffel unit insignia


Schuyler Enck

Schwarze Kapelle

Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission

Schweizerischer Vaterländischer Verband


Schwere Wehrmachtschlepper

Schwerer Gustav

Schwerer Panzerspähwagen

Science and technology in Nazi Germany

Scots College (Paris)

Scott Atran

Scott Corbett

Scouting in displaced persons camps

SCR-268 radar

SCR-270 radar


SCR-584 radar

Scrap Iron Flotilla

Screamin' Jay Hawkins

Scribner Army Airfield

Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon

Sd.Kfz. 10

Sd.Kfz. 11

Sd.Kfz. 2

Sd.Kfz. 250

Sd.Kfz. 251

Sd.Kfz. 252

Sd.Kfz. 253

Sd.Kfz. 254

Sd.Kfz. 4

Sd.Kfz. 6

Sd.Kfz. 7

Sea of Azov coastal advance

Sea of Sand

Seabees in World War II

Seagoing cowboys

Search for HMAS Sydney and German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation

Sebastian Haffner

Sebring Regional Airport

Sechsschartenturm, Heavy MG bunker, La Mare Mill

Second Air Force

Second anti-Partisan offensive

Second Army (Australia)

Second Army (United Kingdom)

Second Artillery Corps

Second Australian Imperial Force

Second Battle of El Alamein order of battle

Second Battle of El Alamein

Second Battle of Kharkov

Second Battle of Sirte

Second Battle of the Java Sea

Second Cairo Conference

Second East Turkestan Republic

Second Encirclement Campaign against Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign against Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign

Second French Indochina Campaign

Second Great Fire of London

Second Guangxi Campaign

Second Happy Time

Second Infantry Fusiliers Division

Second Philippine Republic

Second Quebec Conference

Second Raid on Schweinfurt

Second Sino-Japanese War

Second Taiwan Strait Crisis

Second United Front

Second United States Army

Second Vienna Award

Second World War at Sea series

Secret Agent (1947 film)

Secret Agent X-9 (1945 serial)

Secret Army (Belgium)

Secret Army (TV series)

Secret Polish Army

Secret Service in Darkest Africa

Secret Weapons Over Normandy

Security Battalions

Security Division (Germany)

Sedgley OSS .38


Seeds of Destiny


Seetakt radar


Sefanaia Sukanaivalu

Seigo Kosaku

Seiichi Itō

Seiichi Kuno

Seiji Yoshida


Seishirō Itagaki

Sekula Drljević

Selarang Barracks Incident



Selective Training and Service Act of 1940

Self-Government Guiding Board

Self-portrait with a friend (Raphael)

Self determination

Selim Ben Achour

Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger

Selvino children

Selâhattin Ülkümen


Semovente 105/25

Semovente 47/32

Semovente 75/18

Semovente 75/34

Semovente 90/53

Semovente da 149/40

Semyon Krivoshein

Semyon Rudniev

Semyon Timoshenko

Senate of France

Sendai-class cruiser

Senger Line


Senjūrō Hayashi

Senjinkun military code



Sentarō Ōmori

Sentier (Paris Métro)

Sentimental Journey (aircraft)

Sentinel tank


Sepp Dietrich

Seppo Lindström

September Massacres

Serbia (1941-1944)

Serbian State Guard

Serbian Volunteer Corps

Serge and Beate Klarsfeld

Serge Elisséeff

Serge Gainsbourg

Serge Le Dizet

Serge Moscovici

Serge Nigg

Serge Thion

Serge Weinberg

Sergei Ivanovich Tiulpanov

Sergei Khudyakov

Sergei Semak

Sergey Belavenets

Sergey Biryuzov

Sergey Kavtaradze

Sergio Osmeña

Sergio Parisse

Sergio Pignedoli

Series E bond

Serjeant's Inn

Serrate radar detector

Service d'ordre légionnaire

Service for Poland's Victory

Servicemen's Readjustment Act (USA)

Services Reconnaissance Department

Seán Russell

Seth Neddermeyer

Settela Steinbach

Seven anti-Partisan offensives

Seven Beauties

Seven Wise Dwarfs

Seventeen Moments of Spring

Seventeenth Air Force

Seventeenth Army (Japan)

Seventh Air Force

Seventh United States Army

Severin Louis Rombach


Seweryn Franciszek Czetwertyński-Światopełk

Sexton (artillery)

Sexual enslavement by Nazi Germany in World War II

Seymour Benzer

Seymour W. Terry


SG-43 Goryunov

SGH War Memorial

Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos

Sgt. Rock (comics)

Sh'erit ha-Pletah

Shōji Nishimura

Shōjirō Iida

Shōwa Restoration

Shōzō Murata

Shaanxi Y-8

Shaanxi Y-9

Shadi Air Base

Shadow of Suribachi: Raising the Flags on Iwo Jima

Shadows of Memory

Shafter Airport

Shag Crawford

Shah Nawaz Khan (general)

Shah Seyyed Ali Kazemi


Shakespeare and Company (bookstore)

Shakhbut Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

Shalom Yoran

Shalva Maghlakelidze

Shang Zhen

Shangdang Campaign

Shangguan Yunxiang

Shanghai Campaign

Shanghai Expeditionary Army

Shanghai ghetto


Shantou-class gunboat

Shaukat Malik

Shchuka-class submarine

Sheffield Blitz

Shefqet Verlaci

Shek Kong Airfield

Shelby Storck

Shell Shock

Shelling of Mainila

Shenton Thomas

Shenyang J-11

Shenyang J-5

Shenyang J-6

Shenyang J-8

Shenyang Military Region


Sher Bahadur Thapa

Sher Shah (VC)

Sheriff Andy Taylor

Sherman Firefly

Sherman W. Tribbitt

Sherwood H. Hallman

Sherwood Lett

Sherwood Schwartz

Shetland bus boats

Shetland bus

Shevah Weiss


Shi Yousan

Shiba Gorō

Shibayama Yahachi

Shigekazu Shimazaki

Shigematsu Sakaibara

Shigenori Tōgō

Shigeru Fukudome

Shigeru Honjō

Shigetarō Shimada

Shigeyoshi Inoue

Shigeyoshi Miwa

Shigiyasu Suzuki

Shiing-Shen Chern

Shikata ga nai

Shikishima-class battleship

Shimamura Hayao

Shimane Maru-class escort aircraft carrier

Shimushu-class coastal defense ship

Shimushu escort

Shin guntō

Shin Onna Tachiguishi-Retsuden


Shinozaki Mamoru

Shintarō Hashimoto

Shinyei Nakamine

Shinyo (suicide boat)

Shinzo Hamai

Ship of Fools (painting)

Ships of the People's Liberation Army Navy

Shipyard Railway

Shirō Ishii

Shiratsuyu-class destroyer

Shiro Azuma

Shiva N'Zigou

Shizo Kanakuri

Shizuichi Tanaka

Shizuo Yokoyama

Shizuya Hayashi

Shlomo Carlebach (rabbi)

Shmuel Alexandrov

Shmuel Dovid Ungar

Shmuel Tamir

Sho Ito

Shoah (film)

Shoah Foundation

Shocker (Kamen Rider)

Shoes on the Danube Promenade

Shohatsu-class landing craft

Shoichi Yokoi

Shony Alex Braun

Shoo Shoo Baby (aircraft)


Shoreham Aircraft Museum

Short Seaford

Short Sunderland

Showa Steel Works

Shozo Sakurai

Shuangduiji Campaign

Shukri al-Quwatli

Shunji Isaki

Shunkichi Kikuchi

Shunroku Hata

Shyaulyay Offensive Operation

Sibiu Literary Circle



Sichuan invasion

Sid Luckman

Sid McMath

Sid Scales

Sidney Bates

Sidney Cotton

Sidney Dillon Ripley

Sidney Drell

Sidney George Rogerson

Sidney Hinds

Sid Jelinek

Sidney Keyes

Sidney Kirkman

Sidney Mashbir

Sidney R. Yates

Sidney Sheldon

Siebel Si 204

Sieg Heil

Sieg im Westen

Siege of Bastogne

Siege of Breslau

Siege of Calais (1940)

Siege of Changchun

Siege of Dunkirk

Siege of Malta (World War II)

Siege of Mogilev

Siege of Odessa (1941)

Siege of Sevastopol (1941-1942)

Siege of Tobruk

Siege of Warsaw (1939)

Siegfried Alkan

Siegfried Flesch

Siegfried Freytag

Siegfried Gumbel

Siegfried Handloser

Siegfried Hecker

Siegfried Kasche

Siegfried Knappe

Siegfried Line

Siegfried Müller (mercenary)

Siegfried Rasp

Siegfried Rädel

Siegfried Seidl

Siegfried Uiberreither

Siegfried Verbeke

Siegfried Wolfgang Fehmer

Siegmund Sredzki

Siemens-Schuckert D.I

Siemens-Schuckert D.III

Siemens-Schuckert D.IV

Siemens and Halske T52

Sieradz National Defence Brigade

Sig Rune


Sigfrid Lindberg

Siggie Nordstrom

Sigismund-Helmut von Dawans

Sigismund Payne Best


Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Rascher

Sigmund Sobolewski

Signe Johansson-Engdahl

Sigrid Hunke

Sigrid Schultz

Sikorski-Mayski Agreement

Sikorsky Memorial Airport

Silas Rhodes


Silent Hunter 4: Wolves of the Pacific

Silent Hunter II

Silent Hunter III

Silent Hunter

Silent Raiders

Silent Running: My Years on a World War II Attack Submarine

Silent Service (video game)

Silent Service II

Silesian Offensives

Silver Star


Silvestre de Sacy

Silvestre S. Herrera

Silvio Cator

Simcha Rotem

Simcha Zorin

Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

Šimun Katalinić

Simion Stoilow

Simmon Latutin

Simo Dubajić

Simo Häyhä

Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.

Simon Dubnow

Simon Emil Koedel

Simon François Ravenet

Simon Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat

Simon Kitson

Simon Sabiani

Simon Sheppard (far-right activist)

Simon Srebnik

Simon Vouet

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wilton Phipps

Simon Zimny

Simone and Cino Del Duca Foundation

Simone Del Duca

Simone Signoret

Simone Veil

Simone Weil

Simplon (Paris Métro)

Sin (Marvel Comics)

Sinan Hasani

Since You Went Away

Sinclair Ross

Sink the Bismarck!

Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse

Sino-German cooperation (1911–1941)

Sino-Japanese relations (1931-1937)

Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)

Siping Campaign


Sir Alfred Rawlinson, 3rd Baronet

Sir Charles Madden, 2nd Baronet

Sir Edmund Bacon, 13th Baronet

Sir Edmund Paston-Bedingfeld, 9th Baronet

Sir George Dick-Lauder, 12th Baronet

Sir Godfrey Nicholson, 1st Baronet

Sir Guy Campbell, 5th Baronet

Sir Henry Aubrey-Fletcher, 6th Baronet

Sir Hugh Barrett-Lennard, 6th Baronet

Sir Ivar Colquhoun, 8th Baronet

Sir James Hutchison, 1st Baronet

Sir John Arbuthnot, 1st Baronet

Sir John Aubrey-Fletcher, 7th Baronet

Sir John Dick-Lauder, 11th Baronet

Sir John Gilmour, 3rd Baronet

Sir John Smyth, 1st Baronet

Sir Louis Spears, 1st Baronet

Sir Martin Lindsay, 1st Baronet

Sir Max Aitken, 2nd Baronet

Sir Peter Proby, 2nd Baronet

Sir Richard Wallace, 1st Baronet

Sir Robert Cary, 1st Baronet

Sir Ronald Ross, 2nd Baronet

Sir Rupert Clarke, 3rd Baronet

Sir Standish O'Grady Roche, 4th Baronet

Sir Stephen Bull, 2nd Baronet

Sir William Gladstone, 7th Baronet

Sir William Mount, 2nd Baronet

Sir Winston Churchill High School

Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School (Vancouver)


Sisak children's concentration camp

Sisters in Resistance

Site A/Plot M Disposal Site

Situation Hopeless ... But Not Serious

Situation Hopeless... But Not Serious

Sixteenth Air Force

Sixteenth Army (Japan)

Sixth anti-Partisan offensive

Sixth United States Army Group

Sixth United States Army

SJ radar

Skink anti-aircraft tank

Skip bombing

Skitch Henderson

Skoda 100 mm Model 16/19

Skoda 100 mm Model 1916

Skoda 105 mm Model 1939

Skoda 150 mm Model 1918

Skoda 37 mm A7

Skoda 37 mm Model 1934

Skoda 37 mm Model 1937

Skoda 75 mm Model 15

Skoda 75 mm Model 1928

Skoda 75 mm Model 1936

Skoda 75 mm Model 1939

Skoda K-series

Skokie (film)

Skorpa, Møre og Romsdal

Skorpa prisoner of war camp

Skåne Line

Slaughterhouse-Five (film)


Slavko Šlander

Slavko Kvaternik

Slavko Stanzer

Sliač Airport

Slim Aarons

Sloan Doak

Sloan Wilson

Slobodan Jovanović

Slovak-Hungarian War

Slovak Insurgent Air Force

Slovak invasion of Poland

Slovak National Uprising

Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

Slovene Home Guard

Slovenská pospolitosť - Národná strana

Slutsk Affair

Small Box Girder

Small Scale Raiding Force



Smilo Freiherr von Lüttwitz

Smith & Wesson M&P

Smith Gun

SMK tank

Smoky (dog)

Smyth Report

SN machine gun

SNCF Class Z 20500

Sniper's Badge

Sniper! (board game)


Snow White's Scary Adventures

So Proudly We Hail!

SO3C Seamew

Soap made from human corpses

Sobhuza II of Swaziland

Sobibor extermination camp

Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany

Social Pact

Society of Red Tape Cutters

Sociétaires of the Comédie-Française

SOE F Section networks

SOE F Section timeline

Soemu Toyoda

Sofiane Feghouli

Soldau concentration camp

Soldier of Orange

Soldier, what did you see?

Soldiers at War

Soldiers: Heroes of World War II

Solférino (Paris Métro)

Solko van den Bergh

Solomon Blatt, Jr.

Solomon Islands campaign

Solomon Islands Labour Corps

Solothurn S-18/1000

Solovyovo, Priozersky District, Leningrad Oblast

Solveig Dommartin

Some Punkins

Somerset Arthur Maxwell


Somua S35

Sonderaktion 1005

Sonderaktion Krakau

Sonderkommando Elbe




Song of Russia

Song Xilian

Song Zheyuan

Songs of the Third Reich

Sonja Morgenstern

Sonja Mugoša


Sonnenstein castle

Sonny Bupp

Sonya Butt

Sonya Olschanezky

Soobrazitelny-class destroyer

Sook Ching massacre

Soong Mei-ling

Sophie's Choice (film)

Sophie Gengembre Anderson

Sophie Scholl

Sophie Zawistowski

Sophoklis Venizelos


Sorley MacLean

Sotirios Versis


Souleymane Bamba

Soup Nazi

South-East Asian theatre of World War II

South-East Asian Theatre of World War II

South Alberta Regiment

South Atlantic air ferry route in World War II

South Atlantic Station

South by Java Head

South East Asia Command

South Manchuria Railway

South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command

South Pacific Scouts

South Quay Estate

South Sea Fleet

South Seas Detachment

South Seas Force

South West Pacific Area (command)

South West Pacific Area

South West Pacific theatre of World War II

Southampton Blitz

Southeast Area Fleet

Southern California Logistics Airport

Southern Expeditionary Army Group

Southern Front (Soviet Union)

Southern Jiangsu Campaign

Southern Rhodesia in World War II

Southwest Area Fleet

Southwestern Front (Soviet Union)

Souviens-toi du jour

Soviet-Japanese Border Wars

Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact

Soviet Air Forces Order of Battle 1 May 1945

Soviet armored fighting vehicle production during World War II

Soviet battleship Sovetskaya Ukraina

Soviet cruiser Kirov

Soviet cruiser Krasnyi Krym

Soviet cruiser Maxim Gorky

Soviet deportations from Bessarabia

Soviet deportations from Estonia

Soviet destruction battalion 1941

Soviet gunboat Krasnoye Znamya

Soviet helmets during World War II

Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

Soviet occupation of Hungary

Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940

Soviet occupation of Romania

Soviet occupation zone

Soviet order of battle for invasion of Poland in 1939

Soviet partisan brigade 1941-1944

Soviet partisan detachment 1941-1944

Soviet partisan group 1941-1944

Soviet partisan regiment 1941-1944

Soviet partisan united formation 1941-1944

Soviet partisans in Poland

Soviet partisans

Soviet propaganda during World War II

Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939-1946)

Soviet S-class submarine

Soviet special camps

Soviet submarine L-3

Soviet tank production during World War II

Soviet Tankmen's Song

Soviet Union

Soviet VHF transceiver A7

Soviet Volunteer Group

Soviet war crimes

Soviet women in the Great Patriotic War

Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact

Sovremenny-class destroyer

Space Mountain (Disneyland, Paris)

Space Mountain: Mission 2

Space Nazis

Spain in World War II

Spallation Neutron Source

Spandau Prison

Spanish Cross

Sparrow Force


Spartacus Educational

Spear of Destiny (video game)

Spearhead (novel)

Special Bureau for India

Special Courts

Special Engineering Detachment

Special Intelligence Service

Special Interrogation Group

Special Operations Executive

Special Repair Service

Specifications for World War II infantry weapons

Speculation about Mona Lisa

Speer und Er

Spica-class torpedo boat

Spike Milligan

Spirit of the Winter War

Spiru Haret


Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes

Spook Louder

Sportpalast speech

Spring 1945 offensive in Italy

Springbok Club

Springer (tank)


Squad Leader Scenarios

Squad Leader

Squander Bug

Square Montholon

Squid (weapon)

SR West Country and Battle of Britain Classes

Srbe na vrbe!

Srbosjek (knife)

Sreten Žujović

Srul Bronshtein

SS-Begleitkommando des Führers






SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers

SS-Sturmbrigade Dirlewanger




SS A. B. Hammond

SS A. Frank Lever

SS A. J. Cermak

SS A. Mitchell Palmer

SS Abner Doubleday

SS Abraham Clark

SS Admiral Nakhimov

SS Adolph Woermann

SS Aenos (1910)

SS Aenos (1944)

SS Albert M. Boe

SS Alexander Macomb

SS Amelia Earhart

SS American Victory

SS Amerigo Vespucci

SS and Police Leader

SS Andrew Furuseth

SS Annie Oakley

SS Antenor (1924)

SS Assyrian (1914)

SS Athenia

SS Audacious (1913)

SS Beatus

SS Benjamin Harrison

SS Bessemer Victory

SS Blairspey

SS blood group tattoo

SS Booker T. Washington

SS Brigade Westfalen

SS British Premier

SS Caribou

SS Castilian

SS Ceramic (1912)

SS Charles Bulfinch

SS Charles H. Cugle

SS Charles H. Herty

SS Chivalry

SS City of Benares

SS City of Cairo

SS City of Flint (1919)

SS City of Johannesburg

SS City of Nagpur

SS City of Paris (1922)

SS City of Pretoria

SS City of Venice

SS Clan Alpine

SS Clan Campbell (1937)

SS Clan Chisholm

SS Clan Forbes

SS Clan Fraser

SS Clan Macwhirter

SS Clara Barton

SS Clearton

SS Commissaire Ramel

SS Corinthic (1924)

SS Daniel Webster

SS David E. Hughes

SS Davidson Victory

SS Deutschland (1923)

SS Donau (1929)

SS Duchess of York

SS Eaglescliffe Hall

SS Emidio

SS Empire Brigade

SS Empire Elgar

SS Empire Miniver

SS English Trader

SS Fanad Head

SS Fiscus

SS Flynderborg (1930)

SS Führungshauptamt

SS Fort La Monte

SS Fort Lee

SS General von Steuben

SS George Calvert (MC Hull 29)

SS George E. Badger

SS George Washington Carver

SS Geronimo

SS Gouverneur Morris

SS Gustaf E. Reuter

SS Harriet Tubman

SS Hat Creek

SS Heimwehr Danzig

SS Henry Bacon

SS Henry R. Schoolcraft

SS James B. Stephens

SS James Longstreet

SS Jeremiah O'Brien

SS John Barry

SS John Harvey

SS John Stagg

SS John W. Brown

SS Khedive Ismail

SS Kościuszko

SS Kurtuluş

SS Lane Victory

SS Leopoldville (1929)

SS Long Service Award

SS Malakand (1919)

SS Marine Electric

SS Maritime Victory

SS marschiert

SS Martin Behrman

SS Martti Ragnar (1934)

SS Mayagüez

SS Meriwether Lewis

SS MIT Victory

SS Montfort Stokes

SS Mount Ida

SS Nitta Maru

SS Noronic

SS Ohio

SS Oliver Ellsworth

SS Patrick Henry

SS Paul Hamilton

SS Peleus

SS Pierre L'Enfant

SS Politician

SS Potrero del Llano

SS President Coolidge

SS Rajputana

SS Ranchi

SS Red Oak Victory

SS Richard K. Call

SS Richard Montgomery

SS River Afton

SS Robert E. Peary

SS Robert M. T. Hunter

SS Robin Moor

SS Russell A. Alger

SS Sacketts Harbor

SS Samarkand

SS Samuel Huntington

SS Santa Teresa

SS Sauternes

SS Scoresby

SS Soesterberg

SS Somersby

SS St. Louis

SS Stanford White

SS Stephen Hopkins

SS Storaa

SS Suevic

SS Thistlegorm

SS Thomas T. Tucker

SS Thorøy

SS Tiberton

SS Timothy Bloodworth

SS Timothy Pickering

SS Tjisalak


SS uniform

SS Uriah M. Rose

SS Vega (1913)

SS Volo

SS Volunteer Grenadier Brigade Landstorm Nederland

SS William A. Graham

SS William and Mary Victory

SS Winona

SS Yarmouth Castle

SS Yawata Maru

SS Zachary Taylor

Sándor Büchler

Sándor Lumniczer

Sándor Prokopp

Sára Salkaházi

St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church

St-Michel - Notre-Dame (Paris RER)

St Augustine Watling Street

St Martin's Church, Bladon

St Mildred, Bread Street

St Swithin, London Stone

St. George (Raphael)

St. John Graham Young

St. John the Baptist (Leonardo)

St. Michael (Raphael)

St. Michael Vanquishing Satan (Raphael)

St. Nazaire Raid

St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport

St. Sebastian (Mantegna)

St. Victor's Abbey, Paris

Stab-in-the-back legend

Stab (Luftwaffe designation)

Stabilizing Automatic Bomb Sight

Stabschef (SA)



Stade de France

Stade de la Beaujoire

Stade de Paris

Stade des Alpes

Stade Français Paris (football)

Stade Français Paris in cup finals

Stade Français

Stade Jean-Bouin

Stade Lesdiguières

Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir

Stade Pierre de Coubertin

Stade Roland Garros

Stade Sébastien Charléty

Staf De Clercq




Stalag 133

Stalag 17

Stalag fiction

Stalag II-A

Stalag II-B

Stalag II-D

Stalag III-A

Stalag III-C

Stalag IV-A

Stalag IV-B

Stalag IV-E

Stalag IV-G

Stalag IX-B

Stalag IX-C

Stalag Luft 7

Stalag Luft I

Stalag Luft III

Stalag Luft IV

Stalag Luft VI

Stalag V-A

Stalag VI-B

Stalag VI-C

Stalag VI-K

Stalag VII-A

Stalag VIII-A

Stalag VIII-B

Stalag VIII-C

Stalag VIII-D

Stalag VIII-E

Stalag VIII-F

Stalag X-B

Stalag XI-A

Stalag XI-B

Stalag XI-C

Stalag XIII-C

Stalag XIII-D

Stalag XVIII-A

Stalag XVIII-D

Stalag XX-A

Stalag XX-B

Stalag XXI-D


Stalin's Missed Chance

Stalin's speech on August 19, 1939

Stalin Line

Stalingrad (2005 video game)

Stalingrad (book)

Stalingrad (1989 film)

Stalingrad (1993 film)

Stalingrad (2013 film)

Stalingrad (Paris Métro)

Stalingrad (wargame)

Stan Cullis

Stan Frankel

Stan Free

Stan Lopata

Stan Musial

Stan Rowley

Stan Spence

Stand Up for Justice: The Ralph Lazo Story

Standard Beaverette


Stanisław Broniewski

Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz

Stanisław Dobosiewicz

Stanisław Grodzicki

Stanisław Grzesiuk

Stanisław Grzmot-Skotnicki

Stanisław Jankowski

Stanisław Kętrzyński

Stanisław Kasznica

Stanisław Leśniewski

Stanisław Maczek

Stanisław Mikołajczyk

Stanisław Mrozowski

Stanisław Patek

Stanisław Ruziewicz

Stanisław Ryniak

Stanisław Sedlaczek

Stanisław Skalski

Stanisław Skarżyński

Stanisław Staszewski

Stanisław Swianiewicz

Stanisław Taczak

Stanisław Urban

Stanisław Zaremba (mathematician)

Stanislas de Boufflers

Stanislas Dehaene

Stanislas Julien

Stanislav Zimprich

Stanislaw Ulam

Stanley A. Prokop

Stanley Bender

Stanley Burton Centre for Holocaust Studies

Stanley Dunham

Stanley Forman Reed

Stanley G. Benner

Stanley Hollis

Stanley Internment Camp

Stanley James Woodbridge

Stanley K. Hathaway

Stanley Matthews

Stanley R. Christianson

Stanley Rogers Resor

Stanley Savige

Stanley Warren

Stanley Waters

Star Bonifacio Echeverria, S.A.

Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross

Star Tours

Stara Gradiška concentration camp

Starfish site

Starry Night Over the Rhone

Stars (film)

Stasys Lozoraitis

State of Burma

State racism

Statute on Jews

Stawka większa niż życie

Steel Panthers (series)

Steen Rømer Larsen

Steeve Joseph-Reinette

Stefan de Walden

Stefan Filipkiewicz

Stefan Frankowski

Stefan Heym

Stefan Inglot

Stefan Jaracz

Stefan Kieniewicz

Stefan Kisielewski

Stefan Korboński

Stefan Lichański

Stefan Lux

Stefan Mazurkiewicz

Stefan Rowecki

Stefan Starzyński

Stefan Strzemieński

Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski

Stefan Wolpe

Stefan Wyszyński

Stefan Zweig

Stefanie Zweig

Stefanos Sarafis

Stella Isaacs, Marchioness of Reading

Stella Kübler

Sten Mellgren

Sten Pettersson

Sten submachine gun

Stendhal University


Stepan Bandera

Stepan Kretov

Stephan Sinding

Stephanie von Hohenlohe

Stephen Ambrose

Stephen Bungay

Stephen Clarkson

Stephen Dodgson

Stephen Fleck

Stephen H. Norwood

Stephen Halden Beattie

Stephen Hastings

Stephen L.R. McNichols

Stephen M. Young

Stephen R. Gregg

Stephen Roskill

Stephen W. Groves

Stephen Worobetz

Steppe Front

Sterling Hayden

Stevan Dedijer

Stevan Sekereš

Steve Gohouri

Steve Hutchinson (figure skater)

Steve Reeves

Steve Shirley

Steven Derounian

Steven T. Katz

Stevo Žigon

Stew Bowers

Stewart Farrar

Stewart McDonald

Stewart Menzies

Stewart Udall

Steyr-Münichholz subcamp



Sticky bomb

Stien Kaiser

Stinson Municipal Airport

Stitch Encounter

Stjepan Filipović

Stockton Metropolitan Airport

Stolpersteine in the district of Braunau am Inn


Storm Across Europe

Storm Over Arnhem

Storm Over the Pacific

Storm Warning (Higgins novel)

Storming of the Bastille

Storybook Land Canal Boats

Stoyan Stoyanov

Straža na Drini


Straight Flush (B-29)

Strange Cargo (B-29)

Strasbourg - Saint-Denis (Paris Métro)

Strategic bombing during World War II

Strategic Bombing Survey (Atomic attacks)

Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific War)

Strategic Bombing Survey

Strategic Command: European Theater

Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II

Strawberry Fields (film)

StrayDog: Kerberos Panzer Cops

Street Names of Paris, 1er arrondissement

Strength Through Joy

Stridsvagn m/41

Strikers 1945 Plus

Strom Thurmond

Structure of the Imperial Japanese forces in the South Pacific Mandate

Structure of the Japanese Army in Mengjiang

Struma disaster

Stuart Greeves

Stuart Price

Stuart Russell (politician)

Stuart S. Stryker

Stuart Symington

Stuart tank

Studebaker US6

Studio Tram Tour: Behind the Magic

Sturer Emil




Sturmgeschütz III

Sturmgeschütz IV







Sturzkampfgeschwader 2

Stuttgart Municipal Airport

Stutthof concentration camp

Stutthof Trial

Stéphane Allagnon

Stéphane Dalmat

Stéphane Gillet

Stéphane Glas

Stéphane Grappelli

Stéphane Mahé

Stéphane Mallarmé

Stéphane Pichot

Stéphane Pédron

Stéphane Sednaoui

Stéphane Ziani

Stéphanie Cohen-Aloro

Stéphen Drouin


SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun

SU-101 and SU-102 self-propelled guns






Su Bingwen

Su Yu

Sub-district II of Żoliborz (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district III of Wola (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district IV of Ochota (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district VI of Praga (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district VII of Warsaw suburbs (of Armia Krajowa)

Subhas Brigade

Subhas Chandra Bose

Subject of the state

Submarine aircraft carrier

Submarine chaser

Submarine Command

Submarine pen

Submarines of the People's Liberation Army Navy

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subsequent Nuremberg Trials

Sudden Strike

Sudetendeutsches Freikorps

Sudetenland Medal


Sue Ryder

Sue S. Dauser

Suffren-class cruiser

Sugamo Prison

Sugar Ray Robinson

Suggestion Box

Suicide (Suvorov)

Suite française (Irène Némirovsky)

Suiyuan Campaign (1936)

Sukhoi Su-6

Sullivan brothers

Sully - Morland (Paris Métro)

Sully Prudhomme

Sulo Kolkka

Suma-class cruiser

Sumiteru Taniguchi


Summer Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China

Summi Pontificatus

Sumner Redstone

Sumter-class attack transport

Sun Chu

Sun Chuanfang

Sun Dianying

Sun Du

Sun Li-jen

Sun Lianzhong

Sun Tongxuan

Sun Weiru

Sun Yuanliang

Sun Zhen

Sundown town

Sune Bergström

Sunset at Chaophraya (1996 film)

Sunset at Chaophraya (2013 film)


Sunshine (1999 film)

Suomi M/31


Super Type A Cruiser

Super Yamato-class battleship

Superman (Earth-Two)

Supermarine Attacker

Supermarine Seafang

Supermarine Seafire

Supermarine Spiteful

Supermarine Swift



Supervising Women Workers

Supreme Allied Commander

Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force

Supreme Order of Caucasians

Surcouf (N N 3)

Surrender of Japan

Survivors' Talmud

Susan Solomon

Susan Travers

Suwa Shrine (Nagasaki)

Suzanne Cory

Suzanne Malherbe

Suzanne Schiffman

Suzanne Spaak

Suzy Chaffee

Sven Friberg

Sven Lindqvist (footballer)

Sven Rydell

Sverre Bergh

Sverre Bratland

Sverre Granlund

Sverre Hansen

Sverre Helgesen

Sverre Petterssen

Sverre Riisnæs

Sverre Sørsdal

Svetomir Đukić

Svetozar Vujković

Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo



Svyaschennaya Voyna

Swamp Ghost

Swarm (comics)

Swastika Laundry

Swastika Night

Swastika origin theories

Swastika, Ontario


Swatow Operation

Sweden and the Winter War

Sweden during World War II

Swedish Coastal Artillery

Swedish extradition of Baltic soldiers

Swedish iron ore (WWII)

Swedish iron ore during World War II

Swedish neutrality

Swedish Resistance Movement

Swedish Volunteer Corps (Winter War)

Swift training rifle

Swing Kids (film)

Swing Kids

Switzerland during the World Wars

Swooner Crooner

The Swoose

Sword Beach

Sword in the Desert

Sy Bartlett

Sybil Bauer

Sybil Sassoon

Syd Anderson

Syd Lucas

Syd Shores

Sydir Kovpak

Sydney Atkinson

Sydney Brenner

Sydney David Pierce

Sydney Knowles

Sydney S. Shulemson

Sydney S. Woods

Sydspissen concentration camp

Sylvain Armand

Sylvain Distin

Sylvain Garel

Sylvain Lévi

Sylvain Marconnet

Sylvain Maréchal

Sylvain N'Diaye

Sylvan Shemitz

Sylvester Stadler

Sylvestre François Lacroix

Sylvia Rexach

Sylvie Valayre

Sylvin Rubinstein

Sylwester Braun

Syria-Lebanon Campaign

Szare Szeregi

Szilárd petition


Szmul Zygielbojm

Szpęgawski Forest

Sébastien Denis

Sébastien Izambard

Ségur (Paris Métro)

Sèvres - Babylone (Paris Métro)

Sèvres - Lecourbe (Paris Métro)

Javorník (Jeseník District)

Javorník (Czech pronunciation: [ˈjavorɲiːk]) or Javorník u Jeseníku or Javorník ve Slezsku, (German: Jauernig), is a town in the Jeseník District of the Olomouc Region, Javorník Hook, Czech Republic. From 1938 to 1945 it was one of the municipalities in Sudetenland. It has about 2,900 inhabitants.

List of Free Corps

This is a list of "Free Corps" (German: Freikorps), various military and/or paramilitary units raised from the civilian population.

Mannlicher M1895

The Mannlicher M1895 (German: Infanterie Repetier-Gewehr M.95, Hungarian: Gyalogsági Ismétlő Puska M95; "Infantry Repeating-Rifle M95") is a straight pull bolt-action rifle, designed by Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher that used a refined version of his revolutionary straight-pull action bolt, much like the Mannlicher M1890 carbine. It was nicknamed the Ruck-Zu(rü)ck (German slang for "back and forth") by Austrian troops and "Ta-Pum" by Italian troops who even wrote a song about it during World War I.

Originally they were chambered for the round-nosed 8×50mmR cartridge, but almost all were rechambered to accept the more powerful spitzer 8×56mmR cartridge in the 1930s.

Max Ilgner

Max Ilgner (born 28 June 1899 in Biebesheim am Rhein – died 28 March 1966 in Schwetzingen) was a German industrialist. He was a member of the board of IG Farben and held the title Wehrwirtschaftsführer or war economy leader under the Nazi regime. After the war, he was convicted by the Allies of "spoilation and plunder", but released almost immediately, and continued his career as a political lobbyist and business executive, becoming chairman of a Swiss chemical company.

Munich Agreement

The Munich Agreement (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; German: Münchner Abkommen) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Slovak: Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded at Munich on 29 September 1938, by Germany, Great Britain, France and Italy. It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territory" of Czechoslovakia. Most of Europe celebrated because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland, a region of western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mainly German speakers. Hitler announced it was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement.

An emergency meeting of the main European powers – not including Czechoslovakia or the Soviet Union, an ally to both France and Czechoslovakia – took place in Munich, Germany, on 29–30 September 1938. An agreement was quickly reached on Hitler's terms. It was signed by the top leaders of Germany, France, Britain, and Italy. Militarily, the Sudetenland was of strategic importance to Czechoslovakia as most of its border defenses were situated there to protect against a German attack. The agreement between the four powers was signed on the backdrop of a low-intensity undeclared German-Czechoslovak war that had started on 17 September 1938. Meanwhile Poland, which was relying on German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact, also moved its army units towards its common border with Czechoslovakia after 23 September 1938. Facing the combined force of Germany and Poland alongside most of its border (with the major part of the remaining border being with Hungary), Czechoslovakia yielded to French and British diplomatic pressure and ceded the Sudetenland to Germany in line with the terms of the agreement.

The Munich Agreement was soon followed by the First Vienna Award on 2 November 1938, separating largely Hungarian inhabited territories in southern Slovakia and southern Subcarpathian Rus' from Czechoslovakia, while Poland also annexed territories from Czechoslovakia in the North. In March 1939, the First Slovak Republic was proclaimed, and shortly by the creation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Germany took full control of the remaining Czech parts. As a result, Czechoslovakia had disappeared.

Today, the Munich Agreement is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement, and the term has become "a byword for the futility of appeasing expansionist totalitarian states".

Province of German Bohemia

The Province of German Bohemia (German: Provinz Deutschböhmen ; Czech: Německé Čechy) was a province in Bohemia, now the Czech Republic, established for a short period of time after the First World War, as part of the Republic of German-Austria.

It included parts of northern and western Bohemia, at that time primarily populated by ethnic Germans. Important population centers were Reichenberg (now Liberec), Aussig (Ústí nad Labem), Teplitz-Schönau (Teplice), Dux (Duchcov), Eger (Cheb), Marienbad (Mariánské Lázně), Karlsbad (Karlovy Vary), Gablonz an der Neiße (Jablonec nad Nisou), Leitmeritz (Litoměřice), Brüx (Most) and Saaz (Žatec). The land that comprised the province would later form an integral part of the territory later known as the "Sudetenland".

State Defense Guard (Czechoslovakia)

State Defense Guard (in Czech Stráž obrany státu, SOS) was a military service established in 1936 to protect borders of Czechoslovakia.

From 1918 to 1936 border of Czechoslovakia was protected by "finance guard" (finanční stráž), an armed branch of the Ministry of Finance. Their main task was to carry on customs duty, border protection was secondary. For over decade army and police leadership had suggested to set up an organisation of higher military value. Amid international tensions the new service was established in 1936.

The roles of the defense guard were:

border security

law enforcement

customs enforcementMembers of the guard were local policemen (četníci), existing finance guards and members of state police. Later citizens loyal to Czechoslovakia were incorporated (for example, many members of the sports organisation Sokol or active anti-fascist Germans). Plans were created to support the guard with regular army units to handle local conflicts.

Planned size of the service were 38 battalions, but only 31 had been mustered (one of these inland, in Prague). Their equipment were pistols, rifles, light machine guns and grenades. There was not enough of time to equip the units with heavy machine guns. In case of attack, the guard was to delay the enemy until the army could respond.

Manpower of the guard in September 1938 was 29,611 men (4,917 local policemen, 1,674 members of state police, 6,438 finance guards, 14,755 army reservists, 1,827 army members).

As the tensions between Czechoslovakia, local Germans and Nazi Germany grew, the guard was deployed on the border during May 1938 and stayed there until end of September, when Sudetenland was ceded to Germany. During September the guard fought low-level warfare against local German partisans (Sudetendeutsches Freikorps) and commandos from Germany. After the loss of borderland, SOS moved inland to new positions. The clashes had still occurred but on smaller level.

As a result of First Vienna Award Czechoslovakia was forced to give up territory to Poland and Hungary (southern Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia). While conflicts with Polish forces were minor, clash with Hungarian forces and partisans (Szabadczapatok) was more intense (starting in November 1938). From January to March 1939 (until Czechoslovakia was dissolved) heavy clashes occurred between Hungarian forces and guard and the army in Ruthenia. Czechoslovakian units were forced to withdraw in three directions - to Slovakia, Poland and Romania. During March the units also faced local insurgents (Sičovci) attempting to establish an independent Ruthenian state.

Estimated warfare losses (both guard and the army) from May 1938 to April 1939 are 171 dead, 404 injured, over thousand of soldiers taken prisoner and abducted to Germany proper. Losses in Ruthenia are estimated to 40 dead, 120 injured, 17 missing.

On December 21, 1939, the government of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia disbanded remaining parts of the guard. In Slovak State the guard was disbanded a little later. After the war the organisation was not restored. After communist takeover of power in 1948 special branch of the army called Border Guard (Pohraniční služba) was tasked with border protection.

Sudeten German Party

The Sudeten German Party (German: Sudetendeutsche Partei, SdP, Czech: Sudetoněmecká strana) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of the Sudeten German Homeland") on 1 October 1933, some months after the First Czechoslovak Republic had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP). In April 1935, the party was renamed Sudetendeutsche Partei following a mandatory demand of the Czechoslovak government. The name was officially changed to Sudeten German and Carpathian German Party (Sudetendeutsche und Karpatendeutsche Partei) in November 1935.

With the rising power of Nazi Party in Germany, the Sudeten German Party became a major pro-Nazi force in Czechoslovakia with explicit official aim of breaking the country up and joining it to the Third Reich. By June 1938, the party had over 1.3 million members, i.e. 40.6% of ethnic-German citizens of Czechoslovakia. During last free democratic elections before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the May 1938 communal elections, the party gained 88% of ethnic-German votes, taking over control of most municipal authorities in the Czech borderland. The country's mass membership made it one of the largest fascist parties in Europe at the time.

Sudeten German uprising

Sudeten German uprising (Czech: sudetoněmecké povstání) in September 1938 was a spontaneous rebellion of Sudeten Germans against Czechoslovak authorities in Sudetenland, but at the same time, an organized action orchestrated by Sudeten German Party (SdP) chaired by Konrad Henlein. Therefore, the uprising is also referred to as the Henlein's coup (or coup attempt; Czech: henleinovský puč).On 10 September 1938, all district organizations of the SdP received an order from Nuremberg to start protests and provocations. On 11 September, Henlein's supporters clashed with policemen and gendarmes in Cheb, Liberec, Teplice, and other places. On the evening of 12 September, Sudeten Germans listened en masse to the Hitler's radio speech accusing Czechoslovakia of torturing and oppressing the German minority. This speech sparked a wave of violence against Czechs, Jews and Sudeten German anti-fascists in the borderlands. On the morning of 13 September, the pre-planned armed uprising began with the first casualties being reported, amounting to 37 dead as of 15 September. By 14 September, the uprising was partially suppressed due to declaration of martial law, deployment of the military and reinforcement of the State Defence Guard. Nevertheless, unrest in the border regions continued.Following the failed coup, the second phase of uprising began on 17 September with activities of Sudetendeutsches Freikorps, a paramilitary organization of Sudeten Germans formed in Germany. Its task was to continue fighting and conducting terrorist acts. According to the 1944 declaration of Czechoslovak government-in-exile, Czechoslovakia was in a state of war with the Third Reich from 17 September 1938. After numerous shootouts on 20 and 21 September, the rebellion broke again on 22 September when riots flared in other areas of Moravia and Silesia. In some cases, regular German units of Abwehr, SA and SS participated in combat, terrorist and sabotage actions.Czechoslovak authorities responded by securing the border with Germany. Mobile army units reinforced by light tanks and armoured cars restored order in regions such as Cheb, Frýdlant, Šluknov, or Varnsdorf, resulting in a decline of insurgency activities. Realising what the Freikorps had done, many Sudeten Germans escaped across the border into Germany. Following the stepping up of Hitler's demands, mobilization of the Czechoslovak army was carried out on 23 September. Several counter-insurgency actions had to be revoked because the military units assumed defensive positions further inland.With the signing of Munich Agreement the uprising was practically over, yet the violent incidents occurred occasionally even in October, the last one in Moravská Chrastová on 31 October. On 30 September, combat actions of the Freikorps were formally ended by an order No. 30. Nevertheless, Henlein's supporters continued in their attacks on retreating Czechoslovaks. On 1 October, Freikorps issued an order to “eliminate fleeing leftists and Czechs.” More than 200,000 people, mostly Czechs but also Jews and Sudeten German anti-fascists, fled from Sudetenland in fear of the Nazis.


The Sudetenland ( (listen); German: [zuˈdeːtn̩ˌlant]; Czech and Slovak: Sudety; Polish: Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans. These German speakers had predominated in the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia from the time of the Austrian Empire.

The word "Sudetenland" did not come into being until the early part of the 20th century and did not come to prominence until almost two decades into the century, after the First World War, when the German-dominated Austria-Hungary was dismembered and the Sudeten Germans found themselves living in the new country of Czechoslovakia. The Sudeten crisis of 1938 was provoked by the Pan-Germanist demands of Germany that the Sudetenland be annexed to Germany, which happened after the later Munich Agreement. Part of the borderland was invaded and annexed by Poland. When Czechoslovakia was reconstituted after the Second World War, the Sudeten Germans were expelled and the region today is inhabited almost exclusively by Czech speakers.

The word Sudetenland is a German compound of Land, meaning "country", and Sudeten, the name of the Sudeten Mountains, which run along the northern Czech border and Lower Silesia (now in Poland). The Sudetenland encompassed areas well beyond those mountains, however.

Parts of the now Czech regions of Karlovy Vary, Liberec, Olomouc, Moravia-Silesia, and Ústí nad Labem are within the area called Sudetenland.


In Nazi German terminology, Volksdeutsche (German pronunciation: [ˈfɔlksˌdɔʏtʃə]) were "Germans in regard to people or race" (Ethnic Germans), regardless of citizenship. The term is the nominalised plural of volksdeutsch, with Volksdeutsche denoting a singular female, and Volksdeutsche(r), a singular male. The words Volk and völkisch conveyed the meanings of "folk". These terms were used by the Nazis to define Germans on the basis of their "race" rather than citizenship and thus included Germans living beyond the borders of the Reich, as long as they were not of Jewish origin.This is in contrast to Imperial Germans (Reichsdeutsche), German citizens living within Germany. The term Volksdeutsche also contrasted from 1936 with the term Auslandsdeutsche (Germans abroad, German expatriates), which generally denoted German citizens residing in other countries. The difference between "Imperial German" and "Ethnic German" (Volksdeutsche) was that those designated Ethnic-German did not have paperwork proving their legal citizenship to work or vote within Germany, though some were either from Germany or from territories that had been lost by Germany during or after World War I.

Volksdeutsche were further divided into "racial" groups—minorities within a state minority—based on special cultural, social, and historic criteria elaborated by the Nazis.

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